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Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant and aphrodisiac properties which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), reportedly with four times the potency of methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta). MDPV has no history of FDA approved medical use but has been sold since around 2007 as a designer drug.

Appearance

The substance appears as a pure white to light-brown, significantly hydrophilic crumbly powder with a slight odour. It appears to darken slightly in colour and take on a potato-tuber-like odor if exposed to air for any significant length of time. In some of the first batches that appeared on the research chemical market, an impurity was identified and said to consist of pyrrolidine, which could account for its earthy odour when left uncapped. It has also been observed to rapidly degrade and lose potency when in solution.

Effects

The main physical effect is stimulation with typical signs such as rapid heartbeat, vasoconstriction and sweating. Mental effects may include euphoria, hypersexuality, agitation and anxiety, some degree of paranoia, and insomnia. The effects have a duration of roughly three to four hours, with after effects such as tachycardia, hypertension, and mild stimulation lasting from six to eight hours. High doses have been observed to cause intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users, and there are anecdotal reports of psychosis from sleep withdrawal and addiction at higher doses or more frequent dosing intervals. MDPV has been remarked about more than once for its powers as an aphrodisiac, which have been said to rival those of methamphetamine when dosed correctly. Users often report to feel compelled to continue redosing but they lose interest in taking it very fast because of the unpleasant higher dosages and side effects.

MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analogue of the anorectic or appetite suppressant pyrovalerone. However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine , instead producing purely stimulant effects with no entactogenic qualities. Extended binges on MDPV have also been reported to produce severe comedown syndrome similar to that of methamphetamine, characterized by depression, lethargy, headache, anxiety, postural hypotension (lightheadedness and weakness of the muscles), and in some cases severely bloodshot eyes. Time is the solution for these symptoms, which usually subside within four to eight hours. Abdominal pain consistent with kidney pain has also been reported when MDPV is used for extended periods of time. MDPV may also cause temporary trismus and/or bruxism.

Legality

MDPV is not specifically listed as a controlled substance in any country besides Denmarkmarker. Furthermore, MDPV is not illegal under the United Statesmarker (U.S.) Federal Analog Act, as the legislation only applies to Schedule I and II compound, and pyrovalerone is Schedule V under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act.

Other drugs with a similar chemical structure include α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), which has a shorter alkyl chain and no ring substitution, pyrovalerone, which has a 4'-methyl group instead of a methylenedioxy ring, as well as analogue with between 3 and 6 carbons on the alkyl chain.

These compounds have been reported as stimulants of abuse mainly in Germanymarker and other European countries since the early 2000s, but they have remained generally vaguely known and rarely used illicitly or encountered by law enforcement.

No deaths or injuries caused by this substance have been reported.

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