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The Manila Metropolitan Area (Filipino: Kalakhang Maynila, Kamaynilaan) or the National Capital Region (NCR) (Filipino: Pambansang Punong Rehiyon) is the administrative region encompassing the city of Manilamarker, the national capital of the Philippinesmarker. As of the 2007 Census, the population is 11,553,427. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Lagunamarker, Cavitemarker, Rizalmarker, Bulacanmarker) of Greater Manila, the population is around 20 million. Metro Manila is one of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines.

As of 2008, it is ranked as the 40th richest urban agglomeration in the world with a GDP of $149 billion according to PriceWaterhouseCoopersmarker. Metro Manila is expected to climb to the 33rd spot by 2025 with a GDP of $325 billion and an annual growth rate of 4.7%.

As proclaimed by Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila as a whole is the Philippines' seat of government although only the City of Manilamarker is the capital.

Geography

The Metro Manila is situated on an isthmus bounded by Manila Baymarker to the west and Laguna de Baymarker to the south-east and divided by Pasig River that links the two bodies of water. The city lies on a wide flood plain that is one of the biggest in the country. The area is bounded by Bulacanmarker to the north, Rizalmarker to the east, Lagunamarker to the south and Cavitemarker to the southwest.

Metro Manila is the general term for the metropolitan area that contains the city of Manilamarker, as well as sixteen surrounding cities and municipalities. The name "Metro Manila" came about and was generally adapted in the 1980s as previously, cities which are now part of the MM area were part of the neighbouring provinces. Metro Manila is the political, economic, social, and cultural center of the Philippines, and is one of the more modern metropolises in Southeast Asia. It is much more economically developed compared to the other major cities in the country. Among locals, particularly those from central Manila and those in the surrounding provinces, Metro Manila is often simply referred to as Manila; however locals from other parts of the metropolis may see this as offensive, owing to city pride and also the fact that some cities are actually geographically closer to the neighboring provinces than to Manila itself. Metro Manila is often abbreviated as M.M.. The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) is a governing body which is made up of the cities and municipalities in the area, with its main headquarters in Makati Citymarker.

Metro Manila is the smallest of the country's administrative regions, but the most populous and the most densely populated, having a population of 11,553,427 (2007 census) in an area of only 636 square kilometers. It is also the only region without any provinces, instead being subdivided into 17 local government units, with 16 cities and one municipality.The term Metro Manila should not be confused with the metro rail system of the region, and the word metro itself always describes the metropolitan area (as in the metro).

On paper, Manilamarker is the designated capital and seat of the Philippine government, but in practice, the seats of government are all around Metro Manila. The executive and administrative seat of government is in Manila, so is the judiciary. The upper house of the legislature (Senate of the Philippines) is in Pasay Citymarker, and the lower house (House of Representatives of the Philippines) in Quezon Citymarker.

History

Cities of Metro Manila showing the years that they were made cities.
Pateros is the only remaining non-city; it's a municipality.
Spanish Manila was founded in June 24, 1571 by three conquistadors: Martín de Goiti, Juan de Salcedo and Miguel López de Legazpi. In 1867, the Spanish Government of the Philippines founded the municipalities and territories south of the District of Morong in Nueva Ecija, north of the Province of Tondo and Imperial Manila, and isolated these from their mother province of Nueva Ecijamarker. The Government created the Province of Manila composed of the Province of Tondo to the south and the isolated territories of Nueva Ecija to the north. The parts of Tondo were Navotas, Malabon, and Caloocan; and the parts of Nueva Ecija were Mariquina, Balintawak, Caloocan, Pasig, San Felipe Neri (presently called Mandaluyong), Las Piñas, what had been known as Parañaque, and Muntinlupa were combined to form the Province of Manila. The capital of the Province was Intramurosmarker, then itself called and considered to be Manila, a walled city located along the banks of Pasig River and Manila Bay in the present Manila.

In 1897, while the Imperial City of Manila is being prepared for industrialization, most houses in Tondo were demolished to give way to railroad construction. One of those whose house was demolished was Andres Bonifacio, the founder of the Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation) or the Katipunan, a secret organization which aimed towards independence and self-governance away from the Spanish government. In 1896, the Cry of Balintawak was initiated, an event which denounces the Spanish authority by tearing their cedulas or residence tax slips. On December 30, 1896, Jose Rizal, the Philippine National Hero, was executed by the Spanish government in Bagumbayan, an execution site near Intramuros. This event led to the Filipino uprising against Spain. Likewise, The Province of Manila was the 8th and last Province to revolt against Spain paving the establishment of the Federated Philippine Republics (composed of Nueva Ecijamarker, Pampangamarker, Bulacanmarker, Tarlacmarker, Lagunamarker, Batangasmarker, Cavitemarker and Manila). The Province remained in existence until 1901, when its territory was subdivided by the Americans.

In 1901, the Philippine Assembly created the City of Manila composed of the Municipalities of Ermita, Intramurosmarker or Imperial City of Manila, Tondomarker, Santa Cruz, Sta.marker Anamarker, San Nicolas, San Miguelmarker, Pacomarker, Port Area, Pandacanmarker, Sampaloc, Quiapomarker, Binondomarker, Malate, Sta.marker Mesamarker and Singalong. The municipalities of Caloocan, Marikina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan, Makati, Mandaluyong (San Felipe Neri), Las Piñas, Muntinglupa and Taguig-Pateros were incorporated into a new province named Rizalmarker. The capital of the province was Pasig.

In 1941 as an emergency measure, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila, merging the city and municipal governments of Manila, Quezon City, San Juan del Monte, Caloocan, etc. and appointing Jorge Vargas as Mayor. Existing mayors of the included cities and municipalities served as vice-mayors for their areas. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority that would be recognized under international military law. There were doubts if the Japanese Imperial Army poised to occupy Manila would recognize the authorities of members of the Quezon cabinet. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. As an administrative concept, however, the City of Greater Manila served as a model for Metro Manila and the position of Metro Manila governor established during the Marcos administration.

In 1975, owing a great respect to the history of Manila, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Decree 824, creating the Metropolitan Manila Area. The site of the old province of Manila can no longer be used for agricultural purposes and therefore the term 'province' is not applicable. The decree seceded the 12 municipalities and 3 cities of Rizal, the municipality of Valenzuela in Bulacan and Manila. The Metropolitan Manila Commission is created to administer the emerging metropolis. Marcos appointed his wife Imelda Marcos as governor of Metro Manila.

In 1986, after a major government reorganization, President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order No. 392 and changed the structure of the Metropolitan Manila Commission and renamed it to Metropolitan Manila Authority. Metro Manila Mayors chose from themselves as chair of the agency.

In 1995, through Republic Act 7924, Metro Manila Authority was reorganized and became the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. The chair of the agency is appointed by the President and should not have a concurrent elected position such as mayor.

Geography and Climate

Metro Manila is located at 14°40' N 121°3 E. The metropolitan area lies entirely on a swampy isthmus with an average elevation of 10 metres. Manila Baymarker lies to the west and Laguna de Baymarker to the south-east. It is bordered by the provinces of Bulacanmarker to the north, Rizalmarker to the east, Cavitemarker to the south-west and Lagunamarker to the south.

Metro Manila's primary waterway is the Pasig River, which bisects the isthmus. It originates in Laguna de Bay, marking the borders between Makati Citymarker and Mandaluyong Citymarker, as well as between Pasig Citymarker and Taguigmarker, then passing through Manilamarker before draining into Manila Bay. The river is severely polluted from municipal waste.

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Metro Manila is split between a tropical wet and dry climate and a tropical monsoon climate. Manilamarker, which features less rainfall than Quezon Citymarker, has a tropical wet and dry climate while Quezon City features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippinesmarker, Metro Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20°C and going higher than 38°C. However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season from January through April, and a relatively lengthy wet season from May through December.







Government

Metro Manila does not have collective political power. The highest political division are the sixteen cities and the Municipality of Pateros which have political power independent from each other. Each is governed by a mayor who belongs to the Metro Manila Mayor's League, which is part of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA).

Political map of Metro Manila showing its local government units.


Local government unit Population
(2007 census)
Area
(km²)
Pop. density
(per km²)
Annual pop.
growth rate
Per capita
GDP
Cityhood
Caloocanmarker 1,378,856 53.33 25,855 2.20 $9,426 1962
Las Piñasmarker 532,330 41.54 12,815 1.65 $8,678 1997
Makatimarker 510,383 27.36 18,654 1.91 $29,259 1995
Malabonmarker 363,681 15.76 23,076 0.98 $4,334 2001
Mandaluyongmarker 305,576 11.26 27,138 1.29 $20,258 1994
Manilamarker 1,660,714 38.55 43,079 0.68 $13,731 1574
Marikinamarker 424,610 33.97 12,500 1.14 $10,346 1996
Muntinlupamarker 452,943 46.70 9,699 2.48 $13,789 1995
Navotasmarker 245,344 10.77 22,780 0.87 $5,296 2007
Parañaquemarker 552,660 47.69 11,589 2.88 $10,146 1998
Pasaymarker 403,064 19.00 21,214 1.77 $6,876 1947
Pasigmarker 617,301 31.00 19,913 2.80 $12,032 1995
Pateros 61,940 2.10 29,495 1.05 $3,324
Quezon Citymarker 2,679,450 161.12 16,630 2.92 $11,213 1939
San Juanmarker 124,187 5.94 20,907 0.87 $16,893 2007
Taguigmarker 613,343 47.88 12,810 3.82 $12,342 2004
Valenzuelamarker 568,928 44.58 12,762 2.21 $7,531 1998
Total 11,553,4271 638.55 18,093 2.11 $10,223
1 Includes barangays disputed between Makati and Taguig cities.

[[Image:Metromaniladistricts.PNG|thumb|125px|Administrative districts of Metro Manila:

]]




Unlike other regions which are divided into provinces, Metro Manila or the National Capital Region (NCR) is divided into four nonfunctioning districts, which are grouped according to geographical basis in reference to the Pasig River. These districts were created in 1976 but have no local government and no congressional representation, in contrast to that of the provinces. These districts are used mostly for fiscal and statistical purposes.

The cities and municipalities within the NCR are grouped into the four districts as follows:
# Alternate Name City/Cities
1 The Capital District Manilamarker
2 Eastern Manila District Mandaluyong Citymarker, Marikina Citymarker, Pasig Citymarker, Quezon Citymarker, and San Juan Citymarker
3 Northern Manila District Caloocan Citymarker, Malabon Citymarker, Navotas Citymarker, and Valenzuela Citymarker
4 Southern Manila District Las Piñas Citymarker, Makati Citymarker, Muntinlupa Citymarker, Parañaque Citymarker, Pasay Citymarker, Pateros, and Taguig Citymarker


The cities and Pateros are independent from each other politically but several services such as traffic and flood control are handled collectively by the MMDA under the Office of the President.

Representation to the two houses of the Congress of the Philippines is as follows:
  • For the Senate, polling is done at-large, nationwide.
  • For the House of Representatives, each city except for Malabon and Navotas has at least one representative; Malabon and Navotas has one representative (until 2010, when they will have separate seats), while Pateros' representation is included with the first Sangguniang Panlungsod district of Taguigmarker.


Metro Manila is also a judicial region; as such, all regional trial court judges can be stationed anywhere within the region.

Economy

Metro Manila (statistically designated as the National Capital Region or NCR) is the financial, commercial and industrial center of the Philippines and one of the economic command centers of ASEAN. It accounts for 32% of the Philippines' GDP; around US$124 billion (PPP) in 2007. It has a third of the country's bank offices but over two thirds of its deposits.
Skyline of the City of Manila

Business districts



Makati Citymarker is the largest financial and economic hub of the metropolitan area. It is one of the major economic centres in Southeast Asia. Now regarded as the city's central business district, several of the Philippines' largest corporations including Ayala, as well as the nation's major banks such as Metrobank, are based here. The Makati area is built around the former Nielsen Air Base, an American installation during World War II, and its runways now form the district's main roads, which cross each other at the Makati Triangle, home of the nation's stock exchange. Different well-known skycrapers in Metro Manila are here like PBCom Towermarker and G.T.marker International Towermarker. Foreign corporations also have their main Philippine hubs here. The traditional business center of the Chinese-Filipino businessmen and the country's CBD prior to the development of the Makati CBD was the Binondo District in the City of Manila.

Ortigas Center is the second most important central business district in Metro Manila. Situated between Mandaluyong and Pasig, it is home to the headquarters of several major Philippine companies such as San Miguel Corporation and Meralco, surrounded by shopping malls and hotels. The international financial institution, Asian Development Bank, also has its headquarters in Ortigas. Ortigas also contains some of Metro Manila's more famous buildings, such as the One San Miguel, BSA Twin Towermarker, and the Astoria Plaza.

Also posing as a competitor for a vibrant business center are Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Eastwood City in Quezon City, Manila Bay City Reclamation Area in the cities of Pasay, Parañaque and Las Piñas, and Alabang Estates, Madrigal Business Park & Filinvest in Muntinlupa City. Triangle Park in Quezon City is the latest addition to the commercial business districts in the metropolis. The Ninoy Aquino International Airportmarker or NAIA is scheduled to be closed down by the year 2012 and will instead be converted into another business and commercial district. A new international gateway of the country is currently being built in the existing Diosdado Macapagal International Airportmarker which is said to become one of the world's biggest in terms of terminal size and land area. A fast train will be built to connect the airport to Metro Manila.

Shopping centers

Metro Manila currently has a large number of malls in the Philippinesmarker, There are 3 large signature shopping malls which are part of the Top 10 World's Largest Malls in the Metro Manila area. Three of which are owned by Henry Sy, a Chinese-Filipino Businessman and his company, SM Prime Holdings. The current largest is the new SM City North EDSA ( replaced by SM Mall of Asia as the 3rd largest mall in the world ), and the recent largest mall as of 1991 up to 2006, SM Megamallmarker.

Aside from SM Megamall, other shopping centers in Ortigas Center include Robinsons Galleria, Shangri-La Plaza, and The Podium.

Recently opened in Pasig is a new development called Frontera Verde, which currently hosts Tiendesitas, a tiangge-style shopping center; SM Supercenter Pasig, the smallest SM mall to date; and SilverCity AutoMall, the first mall in the Philippines that is dedicated to the automotive market.

In the Central Business District of Makati, the Ayala Center hosts other malls, including Glorietta and the upscale Greenbelt shopping districts. Also in Makati is the Rockwell Center. These places are frequented by members of Metro Manila's upper classes.

In the City of Manila, the largest malls include SM City Manila and Robinsons Place Manila.

Cubao is Quezon Citymarker's Central Commercial Area that hosts 5 malls that includes the ultra-modern Gateway Mall. Other malls include various SM chains in the metropolis. Aside from Cubao, there is also Eastwood City, located along Libis; SM City Fairview, in the Novaliches District; and TriNoma, Ayala Land's newest mall, in front of SM City North EDSA.

Metro Manila is also full of palengke, the Filipino-style open-air wet markets. One of these is the Central Market, in Sta. Cruz district of Manila, and Divisoria Market, in Manila. Cloverleaf Market in Balintawak, Quezon City supplies most of Metro Manila's fruit and vegetable products. Navotas Port Market supplies most of Metro Manila's fish products. Other smaller markets include the markets of Cubao Farmers, Nepa-Q Mart, Muñoz, Balingasa, Galas, Santa Mesa, Novaliches Talipapa, Baclaran, Pasay Libertad, and Pasay Cartimar, the latter also being one of the finest pet markets in the Philippines.

Midway between a mall and a market are the Philippine-only tiangges, or airconditioned markets selling goods such as clothes, shoes, accessories, computer parts, mobile phones, CDs, VCDs, MP3s, iPods, and DVDs. Among these can be found in Greenhills Shopping Center in the municipality of San Juan and St. Francis Square in Mandaluyong City.

Muntinlupa City hosts malls like Festival Supermall, Alabang Town Center and Metropolis Star Mall, all in Alabang. And an SM SuperCenter Muntinlupa in Barangay Tunasan.

Las Piñas has the SM City Southmall, the largest based SM Mall south of Metro Manila.

Parañaque City has the SM City Sucat and alongside Pasay City, Duty Free Fiesta Mall, known as the mall of the "Balikbayans" or "back-to-home citizens" here in Metro Manila where most arriving Filipinos pay a visit. It is also the only known Duty Free Mall of the Philippines

Wealth Extremes

Aerial view of Makati City.


Metro Manila is a place of economic extremes. It is stated that 97% of the total GDP in the Philippines is controlled by 15% of the population, the majority of which is in the Metro Manila area. Most of the wealthy and upper-middle class in the country reside within gated communities in places such as Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Villagemarker in Makati, Loyola Heights in Quezon Citymarker, Greenhills in San Juan, BF Homes Subdivision in Parañaque Citymarker and Ayala Alabang Village, founded by the influential Zobel de Ayala family, in Muntinlupa Citymarker. Other wealthy families opt to live urban and up-scale lifestyles and instead own large apartments and condominium units such as those in the Rockwell Center in Makati and Fort Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, while some choose to live in bayfront condos/apartments/townhouses along the stretch of Roxas Boulevard. The area is populated by many of the wealthiest people in the country has also driven up the real estate value of the properties in these areas such that they are unmatched anywhere else.

Most of the wealthy, upper-class Filipinos visit upscale recreation places such as Bonifacio High Street and Serendra in Bonifacio Global City, The Greenbelt complex and Rockwell mall in Makati City. Other upscale malls are SM Mall of Asiamarker in Pasay Citymarker, Trinoma Complex in Quezon Citymarker and the Alabang Town Center in Alabang found in Muntinlupamarker City.

Recreation

Rizal Park


Located west of Metro Manila, Rizal Parkmarker is the reference point for all kilometer points in the island of Luzonmarker and the Philippines. Rizal Park features the statue of the Philippine National Hero Jose Rizal, as well as several Philippine flags, a gigantic relief map of the Philippines, scenic Chinese gardens, and the several government offices, such as the Department of Tourism. On the seaside front of Rizal Park are numerous seafood restaurants specializing in Filipino and Asian cuisine. The National Museum of the Filipino People can be also found here. It is a complex of two Greco-Roman buildings which house ancient relics, native mummies, natural treasures and factual galleries about the Philippines and other countries. The museum also boasts a vast collection of artworks and masterpieces crafted by Filipinos which were commended by the Louvremarker Museum per se. Similarly, part of the museum complex is the first planetarium in Southeast Asia. Also located here is the Quirino Grandstandmarker, which apart from the regular miting de avance (Spanish: political gatherings), is also a popular rendezvous of various religious groups, such as the charmismatic Catholic El Shaddai and popular American-based Protestant movements, such as Benny Hinn International Ministries and Billy Graham Evangelistic Association.

Near the Rizal Park is a 400-year-old Imperial City known as Intramurosmarker, Manila. Intramuros, a walled domain which was once the seat of government during the Spanish Colonial Era and Mid-American Periods. Among the attractions are the Fort Santiagomarker, a timeworn Spanish military fortress which was also the cell for the national hero, Jose Rizal in 1896; Casa Manila, a Spanish colonial villa which is converted into a house gallery; Manila Cathedral, the official seat of the Archbishop of Manila; San Agustin Church, Manila|San Agustin Church the oldest existing church/building in the Philippines that survived the wars and earthquakes of Manila since 1587; Intramuros Golf Club, a prime golf course outside the walls; and the Clam Shell Tent, an exhibition center of the Department of Tourism [11118]. Horse-carriages and tourist buses are also some of the attractions. The rest also includes a walk above the walls surrounding Intramuros, government offices, universities and colonial houses.

Fort Bonifacio is the location of military detachments, cemeteries, international schools, corporate headquarters and world-class dining and shopping facilities. Other local recreation areas include the Nayong Pilipino (Philippine Village) in Parañaque City, Quezon Memorial Circle and Ninoy Aquino Wildlife Center, both in Diliman district of Quezon City, the posh Greenbelt Center, in Makati City, the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex and Bay City, both in Pasay City. Meanwhile, the Paco Park, Arroceros Botanical Garden, Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden|Manila Zoo, Plaza Rajah Sulayman, Plaza Miranda, new Rizal Avenue Bargain Walkway, the all-steel Gothic San Sebastian Church, the bars and night clubs of Ermita and Malate districts and the famous Roxas Boulevard Bay Walk which offers a fine view of the legendary Manila Baymarker sunset and hip-dining of Asian, Western and Filipino cuisine, are all in Manila.

Transportation

Roadways

EDSA
MRT passing by the major road EDSA.


The metropolis has an extensive system of highways connecting the various cities and municipalities. The major roads include ten radial roads, which branch out from central Manilamarker and five circumferential roads which form a series of concentric semi-circular arcs around downtown Manila. Most of these roads are very important transportation arteries. One is the C-4 (Circumferential Road 4), also called Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more popularly as EDSA. It is the major thoroughfare in Metro Manila connecting five cities in Metro Manila, namely Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, and Caloocan. The MRT-3 line of Manila's metro network also divides the two sides of the road. Some other important roads are R-1 (Radial Road 1) (Roxas Boulevardmarker and Manila-Cavite Expressway) connecting to Cavitemarker province in the southwest; R-3 or the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) connecting to Laguna provincemarker in the southeast; R-6 (Aurora Boulevard and Marcos Highway) connecting to Rizalmarker province in the east; and R-8 or the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) connecting to Bulacanmarker province in the north. One of its newest roads, the Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard, running on the reclamation area parallel to R-1, is one of the destinations of Manila's elite.

Metro Manila is notorious for its traffic jams. A trip that should take 20 minutes will last an hour or more especially during rush hour. Consequently, the Metro Manila Development Authority (see section below) has constructed many projects to decongest traffic.

Such projects of the MMDA for motorists are the construction of flyovers (elevated roads), interchanges, loading bays for Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs), emergency bays, and U-Turn slots over various intersections and thoroughfares, and the completion of the comprehensive railway system (see below). It has also been engaged in road widening with the support of the Department of Public Works and Highways. MMDA has also utilized projects for the pedestrians such as the installation of footbridges, waiting sheds, and men's urinals to various roads in the metropolis. The agency has also implemented various schemes for motorists such as the Uniform Vehicular Volume Reduction Scheme (UVVRS), more popularly known as "color coding", where vehicles whose plate numbers end in different digits are banned from traveling on different days, the Yellow Lane scheme, where yellow-plated PUBs (Public Utility Buses) will only use the two outermost lanes in EDSA, and the Organized Bus Route (OBR) for Metro Manila.

The Major Alternate Route in the East of EDSA is C-5 Road.

Railways

, there are two different rapid transit systems in Metro Manila: the Manila Light Rail Transit System, or the LRT, and the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or the MRT. The Yellow Line (LRT-1) and the Purple Line (LRT-2) form the LRT network, while the Blue Line (MRT-3) forms the MRT network, with 29 stations on the LRT and 13 stations on the MRT . Four more lines are proposed and would connect Metro Manila to the provinces of Bulacanmarker, Cavitemarker, Lagunamarker and Rizalmarker upon their completion.


Philippine National Railways also operates two main-line railway lines within Metro Manila, all part of the once-flourishing Luzon railway system. The northern line, known as Northrail and connecting Manilamarker to Caloocan Citymarker, is currently closed. Line extensions are proposed to Valenzuela Citymarker and further on to Bulacan and Pampangamarker. The trans-Metro Manila portion of the still-open southern line, known as Southrail, commences at Tutuban station in Tondo, Manilamarker, passes through the cities of Manila, Makatimarker, Taguigmarker, Parañaquemarker and Las Piñasmarker, and ends in Barangay Buli, Muntinlupa Citymarker, before entering the province of Laguna.

Airports

Ninoy Aquino International Airportmarker (NAIA), which straddles the boundary between Parañaque Citymarker and Pasay Citymarker, is the country's busiest airport. It consists of a domestic terminal and two international terminals, with a third that recently opened. There are two main runways and the hangar of Philippine Airlines is located near the Villamor Air Basemarker. NAIA will be closed in favor of the Diosdado Macapagal International Airportmarker in Pampanga, as the major gateway of the Philippines by the year 2012.

Water Transportation

Manila Seaport Terminal is the shipping gateway to the Philippinesmarker. The Manila Seaport Terminal is in Port Area, Manila (near Luneta and beside Manila Baymarker). And the Pasig River Ferry Service the water-transport cruises the Pasig River from Intramuros, Manilamarker to Barangay Kalawaan Sur in Pasig Citymarker.

Demographics

Metro Manila has a registered population of 11,553,427 people. However, the greater urban area of Manila which includes Metro Manila and the suburbs in the surrounding provinces puts the population at around 20,075,000 people (2009 estimate).
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,932,560 people and 2,132,989 households residing in Metro Manila. With a population density of 15,617/km², it is by far the most densely populated region of the Philippines. For the period 1995 to 2000, the annual population growth rate was 1.06 percent, lower than that of the 1990 to 1995 period (3.30 percent).

The indigenous people of the area now known as Metro Manila were the Tagalog. Other native ethnic groups of the Philippines also inhabit the metropolis as a result of migration. The include the Visayans, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Moro groups (mostly Maranao and Maguindanaomarker). Tribal groups such as the Igorot and the Bajau have also settled. There are also numerous peoples of Chinese and Japanese, Indian descent. Resident Spaniards, Americans, and Koreans are also present in large numbers. Metro Manila is classified as a social urban conglomerate, meaning, it is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world.

The most common language spoken in households is Tagalog (94.34%). English is widely used and understood, and is the main language of the upper classes and in business. Chinese is taught in certain Chinese schools. Other languages of the Philippines are also spoken, mostly between family members, relatives, or neighbors belonging to the same ethnic group. Among these languages, the most spoken include Visayan languages, Ilokano, Bikol languages, and Kapampangan.

The large majority of the population of Metro Manila is Roman Catholic (89%). Other religions include Protestant (3%), Islam (5%), and Hinduism and Buddhism (3%).

Education

PSHS Main Campus
Metro Manila is home to several noteworthy Philippine higher educational institutions. It is the educational seat of the country and many students from the provinces head onto Metro Manila to study. As such, several dormitories, apartments and boarding houses abound. Areas of high number of educational institutions include the so-called "University Belt" and Taft Avenue in Manilamarker, Katipunan Avenue and Fairview in Quezon Citymarker and Sta. Mesa straddling the Manila, Quezon City and Mandaluyong City borders. Metro Manila is also home to many private schools usually run by religious orders like the Jesuits, Dominicans, Augustinians and Lasallian Brothers. There are also many international schools located around the Metro, most are located in Taguigmarker like the British School Manilamarker, Manila Japanese School, Chinese International School, Korean International School and the International School Manila.

Police and security

Police structure in the Philippines is centralized and its command center is in Camp Rafael Crame in Santolan, Quezon Citymarker. Metro Manila is divided into 5 police districts under National Capital Region Police Office namely Central (Quezon Citymarker), Western (City of Manilamarker), Eastern (Mandaluyongmarker, Pasigmarker, Marikinamarker, San Juanmarker), Northern (Caloocanmarker, Malabonmarker, Navotasmarker, Valenzuelamarker) and Southern (Makatimarker, Muntinlupamarker, Las Piñas, Parañaque, Taguigmarker and Pateros). The NCRPO Headquarters is located in Camp Bagong Diwa in Taguig Citymarker.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines' command headquarters is in Camp Emilio Aguinaldo in Murphy, Quezon City. The National Capital Region Command is in Metro Manila and was created by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to defend the metropolis from insurgents and terrorist groups. Philippine Army headquarters is in Fort Andres Bonifacio in Taguig City. Philippine Air Force headquarters is in Jesus Villamor Air Basemarker in Pasay City. Philippine Navy headquarters is in Roxas Boulevard in Manila.

Public utilities

Electricity

Metro Manila's electricity is generated by the state-owned National Power Corporation (Napocor) and other independent power producers across the island of Luzonmarker. It is transmitted by the state-owned National Transmission Corporation (TransCo) through high tension wires. It is distributed by the Manila Electric Company (Meralco), the only company allowed to distribute electricity to the metropolis.

Water

Metro Manila's tap water is sourced from the Angat Dam in Norzagaraymarker, Bulacanmarker. It is stored in the Novaliches Reservoir and filtered in the La Mesa Dam, both in northeast Quezon City. Metro Manila's water distribution and sewerage system used to be managed by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage System (MWSS), a state-owned company. In 1997, MWSS awarded concessionaire licenses to two private corporations.Metro Manila was sliced into two distribution areas.
  • Maynilad Water Services Inc. (MWSI). It is currently majority-owned by the MWSS, which took it over from Benpres Holdings Company, which also controls MERALCO. It operates in western Quezon City, southern Caloocan City, Manila (excludes Downtown), Valenzuela City, Malabon City, Navotas, Pasay City, Parañaque City, Las Piñas City, and western Muntinlupa City. MWSS is currently bidding out its shares in MWSI and expects to conclude the bidding before the end of the year.
  • Manila Water Company, Inc. . It is majority-owned by the Ayala Corporation, which also controls Globe Telecom. MWC operates the East Concession Zone, which comprises Makati City, Mandaluyong City, Marikina City, Pasig City, Pateros, San Juan City, Taguig City, eastern Quezon City, and the southeast portions of Manila.


Communications

Since 1925, the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) was the Philippines' only phone carrier. With the passage of the National Telecommunications Act of 1995, the Philippine National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) granted licenses to new and independent companies to install new phones across the Philippines. The NTC granted 3 new licenses for Metro Manila.
  • Bayantel/ Benpres - Northern Metro Manila (Quezon City, northern Caloocan City, Malabon City, Navotas, Valenzuela City, Marikina City, northeastern Manila, and the Ortigas Center in Pasig City)
  • Globelines/ Innove - Southern Metro Manila (Makati City, Mandaluyong City, Muntinlupa City, Pasay City, Las Piñas City, Parañaque City, Taguig City, Pateros, San Juan, and Pasig City excluding the Ortigas Center)
  • Eastern Telecoms - Western Metro Manila (Southern Caloocan City and Manila, excluding the northeast part)


Garbage

Metro Manila alone produces 4,000 tons of garbage each day and paper wastes account for nearly 14% of the daily total. But efforts to also reduce pollution is one of the major concerns due to garbage, closure of some garbage dump sites in Greater Manila.

See also



References


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