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Historical Region of North India
Mewar (मेवाड़)
Location southern Rajastanmarker
Flag of 19th c.
State established: 734
Language Mewari
Dynasties Guhilots(734-1303)
Sisodias (1326-1949)
Historical capitals Chittorgarhmarker, Udaipurmarker


Mewar (मेवाड़ may wahr (long "a" like "wand"), also called Udaipur Kingdom) is a region of south-central Rajasthanmarker state in western Indiamarker. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur. The region was for centuries a Rajput kingdom that later became a princely state under the British. It was ruled by the Chattari rajputs of Guhilot and Sisodia dynasties for over 1200 years.

The Marwar region lies across the Aravalli Rangemarker to the northwest, Ajmer lies to the north, Gujaratmarker and the Vagad region of Rajasthanmarker lie to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradeshmarker state lies to the southeast, and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan lies to the east.

Geography

Mewar Region
The northern part of Mewar is a gently sloping plain, drained by the Bedach & Banas River and its tributaries, which empty northwest into the Chambal Rivermarker, a tributary of the Yamuna Rivermarker. The southern part of the region is hilly, and marks the divide between the Banas and its tributaries and the headwaters of the Sabarmatimarker and Mahimarker rivers and their tributaries, which drain south into the Gulf of Cambaymarker through Gujaratmarker state. The Aravalli Rangemarker forms the northwestern boundary of the region, composed mostly of sedimentary rocks, like marble and Kota Stone, which has traditionally been an important construction material.

The region is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests' ecoregion. Protected areas include the Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuarymarker, the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, the Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sitamata Game Sanctuary.

Mewar has a tropical climate. Rainfall averages 660 mm/year, and is generally higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast of the region. Over 90% of the rain typically falls in the period June to September every year, during the southwest monsoon.

History

The history of Mewar over the past 1200 years is essentially the history of the dynasty and the state founded by Bappa Rawal.

The Guhilots

Bappa Rawal, a legendary figure in Rajput history, spent his childhood as the servant of a Brahmin family. His warlike temperament commended him to the attention of Maan Mori, a local chieftain who belonged to the Parmara clan of Rajputs; Maan Mori is in some accounts said to have been Bappa Rawal's own maternal uncle. Bappa Rawal led the combined Hindu forces against invaders from west, mostly early muslim invasions on India and successfully defeated them as the chief of Maan Mori's army. Be that what it may, Bappa Rawal soon usurped the territory of his patron / uncle and established himself as ruler of Mewar, an event usually dated to 734AD.

All subsequent rulers of Mewar trace their lineage to Bappa Rawal. The senior lineage of rulers descended from him were known as Guhilots (also Guhelots or Guhilas), a patronymic derived from the name of their purported distant forbear, the aforementioned Guha.

Prince Khoman led another expedition a few years later in 812 A.D. uniting Rajputs and throwing the armies of Harun-al-Rashid from India and Sind. He was involved in series of battles and led armies to victory after victory culminating in 812AD when the invaders were finally thrown out. This led to a time of peace till 100 years later Md Gazni came into picture. Prince Khoman was the bravest son of Mewar and revered even today. 'Khoman-Gani' or Khamaghani, a common term used in rajasthan, when rajputs greet each other.

Jauhar of 1303: Ala-ud-din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, sent a marauding army across Indiamarker at the turn of the 13th century; this army, commanded by Malik Kafur, soundly defeated the Guhilot rulers of Mewar in 1303. The impending fall of Chittorgarhmarker, the main bastion of the Guhilots, occasioned the famous Jauhar of 1303, when the womenfolk then resident within that fort collectively committed suicide rather than risk personal dishonour at the hands of the victorious invading army. The brave men wore saffron turban as a mark of performing saka, of running into battle with no hope of coming back. The injured and surviving Guhilot menfolk and their retainers are said to have subsequently took refuge in the nearby hills.

The Sísodias

Rana Hamir: The victorious Khilji sultans assigned the newly conquered territory of Mewar to the administration of Maldeo, ruler of the nearby state of Jaloremarker, who had allied with them during the recent war. In a bid to reconcile and co-opt the natives of the land to his rule, Maldeo arranged for the marriage of his widowed daughter Songari with Hamir, the scion of an impoverished cadet branch of the erstwhile ruling dynasty. Rana Hamir Singh re-established the state of Mewar in 1326 by engineering a coup d'état against his father-in-law. The dynasty thus founded by Hamir, who was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal, came to be known as Sisodia after Sisoda, the mountain village whence Hamir hailed.

Rana Kumbha (1433-1468) was not only an expert in fortification but also an accomplished playwright and patron of music. Many of the historic monuments that dot Mewar were erected by him, including the Kumbhalgarhmarker fort and the Vijay Stambha ( Tower of Victory ) in Chittorgarhmarker.

Rana Raimal (1473-1509) is often overlooked due to his reign being interposed between two notable rulers. Maharana Raimal came to power by defeating his patricide predecessor, Udaysingh I in battles at Jawar, Darimpur and Pangarh. Early in Raimal's reign, Ghiyas Shah of Malwa attacked Chittormarker unsuccessfully. Soon after, Ghiyas Shah's general, Zafar Khan attacked Mewar and was defeated at Mandalgarh and Khairabad. By marrying Sringardevi (daughter of Rav Jodha), Raimal ended the conflict with the Rathores. During Raimals' reign, Raisingh Toda and Ajmer were recaptured. Raimal also strengthened the state of Mewar and repaired the temple of Eklingji in Chittor. The last years of Raimal's rule were marked by conflict between his sons with Prince Sanga (Maharana Sangram Singh) having to flee Chittor. The oldest sons, Prithiviraj and Jagmal were both killed. At this difficult juncture, the Rana was informed that Sanga was still alive and in hiding. Raimal summoned Sanga back to Chittor and died soon afterwards.

Rana Sanga (1509-1527) was among the most prominent Rajput chieftains of his day. He initially allied with an invading Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi, in 1526. After this was accomplished, Rana Sanga led a combined Rajput army to defeat Babur and capture Delhi, but was himself defeated by Babur at the Battle of Khanua on March 16, 1527.Rana Sanga is famous for 80 scars on his body, he embodies the spirit of rajput to fight unto immortality. Legend says after being seriously injured still wanted the battle to continue and was poisoned by some of his nobles.

Maharana Pratap

Main article: Rana Pratap

The greatest Rajput hero of all time, Rana Pratap (1540-1597) was Mewar's most illustrious ruler, true grandson of Rana Sanga in bravery, son of Rana Udai and his Songarri Chauhan Rani. Rana Pratap led the Rajputs against the Mughal army to preserve the independence of Mewar. He had to face not only Akbar's army but also had to fight against other Rajput kings like Raja Todar Mal Shekhawat and Raja Man Singh of Amber who aligned with the Mughals. In the Battle of Haldighati (1576), Maharana Pratap was badly hurt and was saved by his famous horse Chetak, who took him in an unconscious state away from the battle scene.where as Jhala Maan take all mewar symbole & conutine the fight against mugle in that bettal

Mughal and British Suzerainty

Princely flag of Mewar
Udaipur: As the armies of the Mughal emperor Akbar moved to occupy Mewar in 1568, the then ruler, Maharana Udai Singh, father of Rana Pratap, retired to safety at Udaipurmarker, in the foothills of the Aravalli Range. It was at Udaipur that Pratap supplanted his father as head of the Sesodia clan. Rana Pratap's son Amar Singh was resident at the time of his father's death in exile. Udaipur remained the capital of the state until it acceded unto the Union of India in 1947.

Immediately after Rana Pratap's death, the Sisodias became vassals of the Mughals, and served them faithfully for nearly two centuries. When the Mughal empire went into terminal decline in the 18th century, the Sisodias ventured a measure of autonomy, but were subdued by the Marathas, who exacted crippling tributes from them annually. To add to the woes of the land, the Sisodia rulers of this period dissipated much energy and resources in petty quarrels with their neighbours. The relentless turmoil drained both the country and its ruling family; in the early decades of the 19th century, the Sisodia rulers repeatedly petitioned the British Raj for protection from their neighbours and from the Marathas. Finally, in 1818, Mewar entering into subsidiary alliance with the British and became a princely state in the Rajputana Agency. This arrangement continued until the independence of India in 1947, when Mewar acceded unto the Union of India; it was later integrated into the Indianmarker state of Rajasthanmarker.

Economy

Economy of Mewar region majorly depends upon following :1. Tourism2. Marble & other stone industry3. Mining industry4. Handicraft5. Zinc Smelters,Cement, Tyre, etc.6. Agriculture & Fishery : Major Crops grown Kharif :Maize, Groundnut, soyabean; Rabi:Wheat, Mustard etc. Cash crop Opium is grown in the region adjoining Malwa in Southeast (pratapgarh,nimbahere,etc). Medium scale of fishery industry also thrives in the region, which is well supported by the government fishery department and is done in various lakes of the region.

Tourism

Lake Palace, Udaipur


  • The massive Chittorgarhmarker hilltop fort is one of the main tourist attractions of Mewar. The fort is a depiction of Rajput culture and values. It stands on a 2.4 square kilometre site on an 180 m high hill that rises rapidly from the plains below. The fort was sacked thrice by a stronger enemy. The first sacking occurred in 1303 by Alauddin Khilji. In 1535 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort causing the women to commit Jauhar. In 1568 Mughal emperor Akbar razed the fort to the rubble and once again the history repeated itself. In 1616 Mughal emperor Jehangir restored the fort to the Rajput but it was not resettled.
  • Udaipurmarker, also known as the city of lakes, is also a popular tourist destination with its grand palaces, lakes, temples, gardens and narrow lanes.
  • The Lake Palacemarker is a palace inaugurated in 1746 that is completely made of marble and situated in the middle of lake Pichhola.
  • Jaisamand Lake
  • Udaisagar lake
  • Fatehsagar lake
  • Shilpgram, a crafts village located north west of Udaipur, hosts a crafts fair every year which is one of the biggest in India.
  • Eklingji, a temple dedicated to lord Shiva the Ruling deity of Mewar.
  • Keshariajimarker, a temple of Rishabhdev
  • Nathdwaramarker, a temple of Lord Shrinathji is one of the most important pilgrimage site of India.
  • Haldighati, a mountain pass in Rajsamandmarker district that hosted the battle between Rana Pratap Singh and the Mughal emperor Akbar.
  • Kumbhalgarhmarker, a 15th century fortress, built by Rana Kumbha, with 36 kilometres of walls. Over 360 temples are within the fort. It also has a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Charbhujamarker Temple, dedicated to Indian Goddess of the same name.
  • Rajsamand, a huge lake near the city which derives its name from.
  • The Ranakpurmarker village is home to one of the most important Jain temples, that escaped the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's efforts to destroy Hindu and Jain temples because it is hidden in a geographically difficult terrain.


See also



Mewar ( मेवाड़ )- classification of Jagirdars

Jagirdars of the State, 1st Class

(The 1st 16 Umraos (no order of precedence), seated on the either side of the Maharana. Ideally, those to right were seated at right angles to the Gaadi and were called Badi Ole and those to the left, not to feel any inferior, were seated parallel to the Gaadi and were called Munda-barobur (parallel to the face of the Maharana)! The visiting dignitaries/guests and some of the relatives of Maharana and main Purohits were seated in front of Maharana’s Gaadi, Saamey-ki-baithak.
No Thikana / Place Caste
1. Badi Sadri Jhala
2. Bedla Chauhan - Bhadoria
3. Kothariamarker Chauhan - Sanchora
4. Salumbar Choondawat
5. Ghanerao Mertia Rathore
6. Bijolia Panwaar
7a. Deogarh Choondawat
7b. Begun Choondawat
8. Delwara Jhala
9a. Amet Choondawat
9b. Meja Choondawat
10. Gogundamarker Jhala
11. Kanore Sarangdevot
12. Bhindar Shaktawat
13. Badnore Mertia Rathore
14a. Bansimarker Shaktawat
14b. Bhainsrodgadh Choondawat(Krishnawat)
15a. Parsoli Chauhan
15b. Kurabad Choondawat
16. Sardargarh Dodia


  • a, b = Aik Baithak (same seat/status), any ONE was invited for the Durbar usually
as per Osra (alternately / roster)

  • 5th Ranked Thikana Ghanerao was transferred to Marwad with Godwar, the seat was kept vacant for a while, the thikana also had a seat amongst the first class nobles - Sirayat - in the Marwad Court/Durbar .


  • 17. Mahuwada- Descendants of Abdur Rahim Baig of Sindh who bravely assisted Maharana Ari Singh II against the Maratha invasion in AD 1769 and therefore made the 17th Umarao


Nearest Relatives of the Maharana

  • Bagore (descendents of Naath Singh, the second son of Maharana Sangram Singh II, Reign AD 1710-1734, line terminated following khalse, merger in state, by Maharana Fateh Singh, reign AD 1884-1930),
  • Karjali (descendents of Baagh Singh, the third son of Maharana Sangram Singh II),
  • Shivrati (descendents of Arjun Singh, the fourth son of Maharana Sangram Singh II).


  • Bagore and Shivrati are in district of Bhilwara; Karjali is in district Chittorgarh. All three destinations are about 100 km from Udaipur. "RANAWAT" is the surname used by some descendents of the Maharana. This surname has also been adopted by Bagore,Karjali and Shivrati family members. However the ladies married in the family are addressed by their father's surname (also called in hindi as "Khaanp"). For eg. "Jhaliji": a jhala daughter married in a ranawat family is called jhaliji.


Distant relatives of the Maharana

  • Bavlas (Ranawat, descendents of the second son of Maharana Amar Singh II, reign AD 1698-1710),
  • Karoi (Ranawat, descendents of the third son of Maharana Amar Singh-II).
  • Banera (Sisodia, descendents of the second son of Maharana Raaj Singh, reign AD 1680-1698),
  • Bhunaas (Sisodia, descendents of the third son of Maharana Raaj Singh).
  • Shahpura (Sisodia, descendents of the second son of Maharana Amar Singh-I, reign AD 1597-1620, an independent state at the time of India’s independence in 1947).


Jagirdars of the State, 2nd Class Sardars - Bateesa

(32 Jagirdars,after AD 1939.* Prior to AD 1935 just four only,later called Bada Bateesaa)

1. Karoi (Ranawat)

2. Bawalwaas (Ranawat)

3. *Hamirgadh (Hameergadh) (Choondawat)

4. *Bohida (Boheda) (Shaktawat)

5. *Pipalya (Shaktawat)

6. Bhopalnagar ( Chauhan)

7. Bemali (Choondawat)

8. *Tana (Jhala)

9. Chavand (Choondawat)

10. Bhadesar (Choondawat)

11. Bhunas ( Bhunawaas, Baba Ranawat)

12. Thana (Choondawat)

14. Rampura (Mertia Rathore)

15. Khairabad (Kherabad) (Baba)

16. Mahua (Mahuva) (Ranawat)

17. Loonda (Choondawat)

18. Jarkhana (Dhanerya,Ranawat)Descendants of Second son of the first Shivrati Maharaj Arjun Singh, who was the fourth son of Maharana Sangram Singh II, AD 1710-1734

19. Kelwa (Jaitmal Rathore)

20. Banol[151079] (Jaitmal Rathore)

21. Badi Rupaheli (Badi Roopaheli) (Mertia Rathore)

22. Bhagwanpura (Choondawat)

23. Netawal (Ranawat)

24. Peeladhar (Sisodia)25. Nimbaheda (Mertia Rathore)

26. Batherda (Sarangdevot)

27. Bambori (Paramaras)

28. Sanwar (Ranawat)

29. Kareda (Choondawat)

30. Amargadh (Kanawat)

31. Lasani (Choondawat)

32. Dharyavad (Dhariawad) (Ranawat)

33. Falichda (Falichra) (Chauhan)

34. Sangramgadh (Choondawat)

35. Vijaipur (Shaktawat)

Category 3 of Mewad Sardars (Gol)

1. Bambora; (Choondawat)

2. Roopnagar (Rupnagar) (Solanki);

3. Barliawas (Barlyawas) (Ranawat);

4. Kerya (Poorawat);

5. Amlda; (Kanawat)

6. Mangrop (Poorawat);

7. Kankarawa (Baba- Viramdevot-Ranawat);8. Moie (Bhati);

9. Gurlan (Poorawat);

10. Dabla (Mertia);

11. Jhadol (Jharol) (Jhala);

12. Pahuna (Ranawat)

13. Jeewana (Ranawat)

14. Jamoli (Baba);

15. Gadar Mala (Gadarmala);

16. Muroli (Bhati);

17. Daulatgadh(Choondawat);

18. Satola (Choondawat);

19. Bassi (Choondawat);

20. Jeelola;

21. Gudla (Gudlan) (Chauhan);

22. Taal (Choondawat);

23. Parsad (Prasad) (Sisodia);

24. Singoli (Poorawat);

25. Bansra (Ranawat);

26. Kantora (Rathore);

27. Marchya Khedi(Solanki);

28. Gyangadh(Choondawat);

29. Neemri (Mahecha Rathore);

30. Hinta (Shaktawat);

31. Semari (Shaktawat);

32. Taloli (Choondawat);

33. Rood (Shaktawat);

34. Sihar (Shaktawat);

35. Pansal (Shaktawat);

36. Bhadu (Choondawat);

37. Kunthawas (Kunthavas) (Shaktawat);

38. Pithawas (Peethwas) (Choondawat);

39. Jagpura (Mertia Rathore);

40. Athun (Athoon) (Poorawat);

41. Aarjya (Ajarya) (Chavda);

42. Kaladwas(Chavda).43. Bhanpura (Dulhawat)44. Samal (Dulhawat)45. Umrod (Dulhawat)46. Singhada (Dulhawat)47. Bokhada (Dulhawat)

Bhomiya Sardars of Mewad

1. Jawaas (Chauhan)

2. Jooda ( Chauhan)

3. Pahada (Chauhan)

4. Panerwa ( Solanki)

5. Ogna ( Solanki)

6. Madri (Sarangdewot)

7. OOmeriya (Solamki)

8. Chaani (Chauhan)

9. Thana ( Chauhan)

10. Nainwada

11. Sarwan

12. Paatiya (Panwaar)



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