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The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indianamarker, southwest Michiganmarker and Ohiomarker. They now are organized as two tribes, with the federally recognized one based in Oklahomamarker. The tribe in Ohio has been recognized by the state government.

Name

The name 'Miami' derives from the tribe's autonym (name for themselves) in their Algonquian language, Myaamia (plural Myaamiaki); it appears to have come from an older term meaning 'downstream people’. Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee (also spelled Twatwa), an onomatopoeic reference to their sacred bird, the Sandhill crane. However, Twightwee is the Delaware language exonym name for the Miamis. Some Miamis have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miamis, and not the autonym which the Miamis used for themselves. Another common term was Mihtohseeniaki, "the people." The Miami continue to employ this autonym today.

Name Source Name Source
Maiama Maumee later French
Meames Memilounique French
Metouseceprinioueks Myamicks
Naked Indians Nation de la Grue French
Omameeg Omaumeg Chippewa
Oumami Oumamik 1st French
Piankashaw Quikties
Tawatawas Titwa
Tuihtuihronoons Twechtweys
Twightwees Iroquois/English Wea band


History

Prehistory

Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture. Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive regional trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns, and other factors. The historical Miami engaged in hunting, as did other Mississippian peoples.

During historic times, the Miami were known to have migrated south from Wisconsinmarker from the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century, by which time they had settled on the Wabash River. The migration was likely a result of their being invaded by the more powerful Iroquois, who traveled far from their territory of New Yorkmarker for better hunting during the beaver fur trade.

Historic Locations
Year Location
1658 Northeast of Lake Winnebago, WI (Fr)
1667 Mississippi Valley of Wisconsin
1670 Head of the Fox River, WI; Chicago village
1673 St. Joseph River Village, MI (River of the Miamis) (Fr),
Kalamazo River village, MI
1703 Detroit village, MI
1720-63 Miami River locations, OH;
Scioto River village (nr Columbus), OH
1764 Wabash River villages


European contact

When Frenchmarker missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the indigenous people were living around the western shores of Lake Michiganmarker. The Miami had reportedly moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a loose confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples.

At this time, the major divisions of the Miami were:
  • Atchakangouen (also Atchatchakangouen or Greater Miami)
  • Kilatika
  • Mengkonkia (Mengakonia)
  • Pepikokia (Kithtippecanuck)
  • Piankeshaw (Newcalenous)
  • Wea (Ouiatenon)


In 1696, the Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the French outposts in northeast Indianamarker and southwest Michigan. He befriended the Miami people, settling first at the St. Joseph River, and, in 1704, establishing a trading post and fort at Kekiongamarker, present-day Fort Wayne, Indianamarker."Vincennes, Sieur de (Jean Baptiste Bissot)," The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1990), 28:130.

By the 18th century, the Miami had for the most part returned to their homeland in present-day Indiana and Ohio. The eventual victory of the Britishmarker in the French and Indian War led to an increased British presence in traditional Miami areas. Shifting alliances and the gradual encroachment of European-American settlement led to some Miami bands merging. Native Americans created larger tribal confederacies led by Chief Little Turtle; their alliances were for waging war against Europeans and to fight advancing white settlement. By the end of the century, the tribal divisions were three: the Miami, Piankeshaw, and Wea.

The latter two groups were closely aligned with some of the Illini tribes. The US government later included them with the Illini for administrative purposes. The Eel River band maintained a somewhat separate status, which proved beneficial in the removals of the 19th century. The nation's traditional capital was Kekionga.

Locations

French Years
  • 1718-94 Kekionga, Portage of the Maumee and Wabash Rivers, Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • 1720-49 Portage of the Miami River, St. Joseph and Kankakee Rivers
  • unknown - 1733 Tepicon of the Wabash, Fort Ouiatenon, Lafayette, Indiana
  • 1733-51 Tepicon of the Tippecanoe, headwaters of the Tippecanoe River near Warsaw
  • 1748-52 Pickawillany, Piqua on the Great Miami River in Ohio
  • 1752 Headwaters of the Eel River, southwest of Columbia City, Indiana
  • 1752 Le Gris, Maumee River (Miami River), east of Fort Wayne○


British Years
  • 1763 Captured British at Fort Miami (1760-63) as a part of the Pontiac’s Rebellion
  • 1774 Warriors participated in Lord Dunmore's Warmarker in Ohio
  • 1778 Kenapacomaqua, Wabash at the mouth of the Eel River, Logansport, Indiana
  • 1780 October - Agustin Mottin de La Balme (Spanish, from St. Louis) headed a raid of Detroit. Stopped and destroyed Kekionga. La Balme withdrew to the west, where Little Turtle destroyed the raiders, killing one third of them, on the 5th of November.


United States

Miami treaties in Indiana.
The Miami had mixed relations with the United States. Some villages of the Piankeshaw openly supported the American rebel colonists during the American Revolution, while the villages around Ouiatenonmarker were openly hostile. The Miami of Kekionga remained allies of the British, but were not openly hostile to the United States (US) (except when attacked by Augustin de La Balme in 1780).

The U.S. government did not trust their neutrality, however, and attacked Kekionga multiple times during the Northwest Indian War shortly after the American Revolution. Each attack was repulsed, including the battle known as St. Clair's Defeatmarker, the worst defeat of an American army by Native Americans in U.S. history. The Northwest Indian War ended with the Battle of Fallen Timbers and Treaty of Greenvillemarker. Those Miami who still resented the United States gathered around Ouiatenon and Prophetstownmarker, where Shawnee Chief Tecumseh led a coalition of Native American nations. Territorial governor William Henry Harrison and his forces destroyed Prophetstown in 1811, having used the War of 1812 as pretext for attacks on Miami villages throughout the Indiana Territory.

The Treaty of Mississinwas, signed in 1826, forced the Miami to cede most of their land to the US government. It also allowed Miami lands to be held as private property by individuals, where the tribe had formerly held the land in common. When the Miami were officially removed in 1846, those with private property were allowed to stay in Indianamarker. The remainder of the tribe was moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River, first to Kansasmarker, then to Oklahomamarker.

The divide in the tribe exists to this day. The U.S. government has recognized the Western Miami as the official tribal government since the forced divide in 1846. Migration between the tribes has made it difficult to track affiliations and power for bureaucrats and historians alike. Today the western tribe is federally recognized as the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, with 3553 enrolled members.

The Eastern Miami (or Indiana Miami) has its own tribal government, but lacks federal recognition. Although they were recognized in an 1854 treaty, that recognition was stripped in 1897. In 1980, the Indiana legislature recognized the Eastern Miami and voted to support federal recognition. In the late 20th century, US Senator Richard Lugar introduced a bill to recognize the Eastern Miami but withdrew support due to constituent concerns over gambling rights, as numerous recognized tribes in other states have established gambling casinos and related facilities on their lands.. On 26 July 1993, a federal judge ruled that the Eastern Miami were recognized in the 1854 treaty, and that the federal government had no right to strip them of their status in 1897. However, he also ruled that the statute of limitations on appealing their status had expired, and the Miami no longer had any right to sue.

Locations

United States Years
  • 1785 Delaware Villages located near Kekionga (refugees from American Settlements)
  • 1790 Pickawillany Miami join Kekionga (refugees from American Settlements)
  • 1790 Gen. Harmar marches on Kekionga to punish the Miami, Delaware, and Shawnee villages. On the 17th of October, Harmar found the seven villages deserted. The rear guard, left to destroy the returning villagers, was defeated by Little Turtle’s warriors.
  • 1790 Mississinewa (Missississinewa River below the Wabash, southeast of Peru, Indiana)
  • 1791 Gen. Arthur St. Clair moves on Kekionga. Little Turtle destroys the US Army (1400) near the future Fort Recovery.
  • Kentucky Militia destroy Eel River villages.
  • 1793 December - General Anthony Wayne moves to Fort Recovery to prepare to destroy Kekionga.
  • 1794 August - Fort Defiance (Defiance, Ohio) built on the Maumee River site of deserted Shawnee Village of Blue Jacket. 20 August battle of Fallen Timbers, Blue Jacket loses to Wayne.
  • 1794 Kekionga site abandoned
  • Mississinewa towns become the center of the nation.
  • 1809 Gov. William Henry Harrison orders destruction of all villages within two-day's march of Fort Wayne. Villages near Columbia City and Huntington destroyed.
  • 17 December, Lt. Col. John B. Campbell ordered to destroy the Mississinewa villages. Campbell destroys villages and kills women and children.
  • 18 December, At 2nd village, Americans repulsed and return to Greenville.
  • 1810 July, US Army returns and burns deserted town and crops.
  • 1817 Maumee Treaty - loose Ft. Wayne area (1400 Miami counted)
  • 1818 Treaty of St. Mary’s (New Purchase Treaty) - lose south of the Wabash - Big Miami Reservation created. Grants on the Mississinewa & Wabash given to Josetta Beaubien, Anotoine Bondie, Peter Labadie, Francois Lafontaine, Peter Langlois, Joseph Richardville, and Antoine Rivarre. Miami National Reserve (875,000) created.
  • 1818 Eel River Miami settle at Thorntown, northeast of Lebanon).
  • 1825 1073 Miami, including the Eel River Miami
  • 1826 Mississinewa Treaty - loose between the Eel and the Wabash to create a right of way for the canal. Eel River Miami leave Thorntown, northeast of Lebanon, for Logansport Area.
  • 1834 Western part of the Big Reservation sold (208,000 acres)
  • 1838 Potawatomi removed from Indiana. No other Indian tribes in the state. Treaty of 1838 made 43 grants and sold the western portion of the Big Reserve. Richardville exempted from any future removal treaties. Richardsville, Godfroy, Metocina received grants, plus family reserves for Ozahshiquah, Maconzeqyuah (Wife of Benjamin), Osandian, Tahconong, and Wapapincha.
  • 1840 Remainder of the Big Reservation (500,000 acres) sold for lands in Kansas. Godfroy descendants and Meshingomesia (s/o Metocina), sister, brothers and their families exempted from the removal. 800 Miami
  • 1846 1 October, removal was supposed to begin. Began October 6 by canal boat. By ship to Kansas Landing Kansas City and overland to the reservation . Reached by 9 November.
  • 1847 Godfroy Reserve, between the Wabash and Mississinewa
  • Wife of Benjamin Reserve, east edge of Godfroy
  • Osandian Reserve, on the Mississinewa, southeast boundary of Godfroy
  • Wapapincha Reserve, south of Mississinewa at Godfroy/Osandian juncture
  • Tahkonong Reserve, southeast of Wapapincha south of Mississinewa
  • Ozahshinquah Reserve, on the Mississinewa River, southeast of Peoria
  • Meshingomesa Reserve, north side of Mississinewa from Somerset to Jalapa (northwest Grant County)
  • 1872 Most reserves were partially sold to non-Indians.
  • 1922 All reserves were sold for debt or taxes for the Miamis.


Places named for the Miami

A number of places have been named for the Miami nation:





It should be noted that Miami, Floridamarker, is not named for the Miami nation, but rather the Mayaimi tribe of Florida.

The state soil of Indiana is called Miami, giving unexpected depth to the phrase Land of the Indians.

Notable Miami





Notes

  1. Great Lakes Indians; A Pictorial Guide; Kubiak, William J.; Baker Book House Company, 1970
  2. Tanner, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History
  3. Rafert, The Miami Indians of Indiana
  4. Emerson, Thomas E. and R. Barry Lewis. Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest, Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2000:17. ISBN 978-0-252-06878-2.
  5. Great Lakes Indians; A Pictorial Guide; Kubiak, William J.; Baker Book House Company, 1970
  6. Anson, pg 13
  7. Sisson, Richard; Zacher, Christian; and Cayton, Andrew (eds.) (2007). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia, p. 1749. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-2533-4886-2
  8. Rafert, p. XXV
  9. Rafert, pg. 291.
  10. Rafert, pg. 292.
  11. Rafert, pg. 293.


References



  • Magnin, Frédéric (2005).Mottin de la Balme, cavalier des deux mondes et de la liberté, Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-7475-9080-1.






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