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Midges on a car
Midges comprise many kinds of very small two-winged flies. The term does not encapsulate a well-defined taxonomic group, but includes animals in several families of Nematoceran Diptera. The habits of midges vary greatly among the component families, which include:

Disease-spreading midges

The Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) are serious biting pests, and can spread the livestock diseases Blue Tongue and African Horse Sickness – but the other midge families are not. Most midges, apart from the gall midges (Cecidomyiidae), are aquatic during the larval stage. Some Cecidomyiidae (e.g., the sorghum midge) are important plant pests. The larvae of some Chironomidae contain haemoglobin and are sometimes referred to as bloodworms.

For further information concerning specific groups, consult their entries.

See also


  1. Merritt, R.W., and Cummins, K.W. (eds.), 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
  2. Walker, I. R. 2001. Midges: Chironomidae and related Diptera. pp. 43-66, In: J. P. Smol, H. J. B. Birks, and W. M. Last (eds). Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Volume 4. Zoological Indicators. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

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