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Mildred S. Dresselhaus (born Mildred Spiewak on November 11, 1930 in The Bronxmarker, New Yorkmarker) is an Institute Professor and Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technologymarker.

Dresselhaus received her undergraduate degree at Hunter Collegemarker in New York, and carried out postgraduate study at the University of Cambridgemarker on a Fulbright Fellowship and Harvard Universitymarker. She received a PhD from the University of Chicagomarker in 1958. She then spent two years at Cornell Universitymarker before moving to Lincoln Lab. She became a professor at MIT in 1967 and was promoted to Institute Professor in 1985.

Dresselhaus was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1990 in recognition of her work on electronic properties of metals as well as expanding the opportunities of women in science and engineering. and in 2005 she was awarded the 11th Annual Heinz Award in the category of Technology, the Economy and Employment. In 2000–2001, she was the Director of the Office of Science at the US Department of Energy. , she is the Chair of the governing board of the American Institute of Physics. She has also served as President of the American Physical Society, President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and treasurer of the National Academy of Sciencesmarker. Dresselhaus has devoted a great deal of time to supporting efforts to promote increased participation in physics by women.

Dresselhaus is particularly noted for her work on thermoelectrics, graphite, graphite intercalation compounds, and carbon nanotubes. Her group has made frequent use of band structure calculations, Raman scattering and high-field magnetotransport methods. Dresselhaus' former students include such notable physicists as Nai-Chang Yeh, Greg Timp, Mansour Shayegan, James S. Speck and Ahmet Erbil.

She is married to Gene Dresselhaus, a well-known theorist, and has four grown children and several grandchildren.

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