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A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of government public administration, sometimes led by a minister, but usually a senior public servant, that can have responsibility for one or more departments, agencies, bureaus, commissions or other smaller executive, advisory, managerial or administrative organisations.

Ministries are usually subordinate to the cabinet, and prime minister, president or chancellor. A government will usually have numerous ministries, each with a specialised field of providing public service. National ministries vary greatly between countries, but some common ones include Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of Health.

Examples

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, all government organizations that consist of civil servants, and which may or may not be headed by a government minister or secretary of state, are considered as departments. The term "ministry" has been retained for the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Justice.

Canada

In Canadamarker, some provincial-level government departments are called "ministries" (such as in Ontariomarker, British Columbiamarker, and Albertamarker) but most, along with their federal analogues, are termed "departments." Their heads are referred to as "ministers" in both levels of government, however. The specific tasks assigned to a minister is referred to as his or her "portfolio".

New Zealand

New Zealandmarker's state agencies include a large number of ministries and a somewhat smaller number of departments. Increasingly, state sector agencies are styled neither as ministries nor as departments. All New Zealand agencies are under the direction of one or more ministers or associate ministers, whether they are styled "ministries" or not, though each body also has an apolitical chief executive. In ministries and departments, these chief executives are often called Secretaries.

Other countries

Some countries such as Swedenmarker, Norwaymarker, Switzerlandmarker, the Philippinesmarker and the United Statesmarker do not use the term "ministry" for their sectors of government public administration, and instead call them departments. In Hong Kongmarker, the term "bureau" is used, while in Mexicomarker, ministries are referred to as secretariats. The government departments of the Soviet Union before 1946 were named "People's Commissariats". In the European Union, departments are termed Directorate-General with the civil servant in charge called a Director-General (in the European Commissionmarker, the political head of the department is one of the European Commissioners).

Fictional ministries

The term "ministry" has also been widely used in satire and parody to describe fictional departments.

See also




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