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The Mississaugas are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe First Nations people located in southern Ontariomarker, Canadamarker, closely related to the Ojibwa. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning "[Those at the] Great River-mouth."

History

According to the oral histories of the Anishinaabe, after departing the "Second Stopping Place" near Niagara Fallsmarker, the core Anishinaabe peoples migrated along the shores of Lake Eriemarker to what is now southern Michiganmarker. They became "lost" both physically and spiritually. But, the Mississaugas migrated along a northern route by the Credit River, to Georgian Baymarker, to what were later considered their traditional lands on the shores of Lake Superiormarker and northern Lake Huronmarker around the Mississagi River. The Mississaugas then called for the core Anishinaabe to Midewiwin (return to the path of the good life). The core Anishinaabe peoples formed the Council of Three Fires and migrated from their "Third Stopping Place" near the present city of Detroitmarker to their "Fourth Stopping Place" on Manitoulin Islandmarker, along the eastern shores of Georgian Bay.

By the time the Frenchmarker explorers arrived in 1720, the Mississaugas were a distinct tribe of Anishinaabe people. They had moved from the Mississagi River area southward into the Kawartha lakes region. From this location, a smaller contingent moved southeast to an area along the Credit River, just west of modern-day Torontomarker. The Frenchmarker identified the peoples as Mississaugas.

Alternate forms of the name are Mississaga, Massassauga and Missisauga, plural forms of these three, and "Mississauga Indians". Before the Anishinaabe language replaced the Wyandot language in mid-17th century as the lingua franca of the Great Lakes region, the Mississaugas were also known by their Wendat name.

When Conrad Weiser conducted a census in Logstownmarker in 1748, he identified the people as Tisagechroamis, his attempt at conveying their name in Wendat. exonym Other variants of the spelling were Tisagechroamis, Tisaghechroamis, Tisagechroan, Tisagechroanu and Zisaugeghroanu. "The Tisagechroanu were the Mississagas from Lake Huron, a large tribe and French Indians, or under French influences. The name Tisagechroanue here is probably a misprint, for it is most often found Zisaugeghroanu."

In the waning years of the American Revolution, starting in 1781, the Mississaugas made a series of land cessions to the British Crown that encompassed much of present-day southern Ontariomarker.

Legacy



Today

Historically, there are five First Nations that make up the Mississauga Nations. Today, the Mississaugas are the following:

One of the largest is the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nations. As of 2005, the Mississaugas of New Credit have a population of 1,375 which makes up a small part of the Ojibwa nation of 200,000 people.

References




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