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Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and former Republican Governor of Massachusetts. Romney was CEO of Bain & Company, a management consulting firm, and co-founder of Bain Capital, a private equity investment firm. Romney successfully organized and steered the 2002 Winter Olympics as President and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Romney served one term as Governor from 2003 to 2007, and was a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 2008 United States presidential election. He is widely seen as a frontrunner for the Republican nomination for President in the 2012 Presidential Election.

Early life and education, marriage and family

Romney was born in Detroit, Michiganmarker, and is the son of former three-term Michigan Governor, American Motors chairman and 1968 presidential candidate George W. Romney, and 1970 Michiganmarker U.S. Senatorial candidate Lenore Romney. Mitt's father came from a humble background, and is credited with turning around American Motors from the brink of bankruptcy with his promotion of the fuel economic Rambler. Mitt was named "Willard" after hotel magnate J. Willard Marriott, his father's best friend. Mitt, his middle name, was the nickname of his father's cousin Milton Romney, who played quarterback for the Chicago Bears from 1925 to 1929. Mitt Romney has three older siblings: Lynn Romney Keenan; Jane Romney Robinson; and G. Scott Romney.

Romney was known as a kinetic kid who loved to pull off pranks, once staging an elaborate formal dinner in the center of a busy intersection. Romney graduated with honors from the Cranbrook Schoolmarker in Bloomfield Hills, Michiganmarker in 1965.

After attending Stanford Universitymarker for two quarters, Romney served in Francemarker for 30 months as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In June 1968, Romney was involved in a serious car accident while driving fellow missionaries in southern France. A Mercedes hit the Citroën DS Romney was driving; the fault for the accident, which left one person dead, was attributed to the driver of the other vehicle.

Soon after his return from missionary work in France, Romney married high school girlfriend Ann Davies on March 21, 1969.

Romney attended Brigham Young Universitymarker, where he graduated as valedictorian, earning his Bachelor of Arts degree summa cum laude in English in 1971. Romney received a ministerial deferment from the military draft while in France, and three years of deferments while a student. When he became eligible for military service in 1970, his high number in the annual draft lottery meant he would not be drafted.

The Romneys' first son, Tagg, was born in 1970 while both were undergraduates at Brigham Young, living in a $75-a-month basement apartment. They subsequently had Matt (born 1971), Josh (born 1975), Ben (born 1978) and Craig (born 1981). Ann Romney's work as a stay-at-home mom would enable her husband to pursue his career, first in business and then in politics.

In 1975, Romney graduated from a prestigious joint Juris Doctor/Master of Business Administration program coordinated between Harvard Law Schoolmarker and Harvard Business Schoolmarker. He graduated cum laude from the law school and was named a Baker Scholar for graduating in the top five percent of his business school class.

Business career

After graduation, Romney remained in Massachusetts and went to work for the Boston Consulting Group, where he had interned during the summer of 1974. Romney rapidly progressed through the ranks and from 1978 to 1984, he was the vice president of Bain & Company, Inc., another management consulting firm based in Bostonmarker. In 1984, Romney left Bain & Company to co-found a spin-off private equity investment firm, Bain Capital. During the 14 years he successfully headed the company, Bain Capital's average annual internal rate of return on realized investments was 113 percent, making money primarily through leveraged buyouts. He invested in or bought many well-known companies such as Staples, Brookstone, Domino's, Sealy Corporation and Sports Authority.

In 1990, Romney was asked to return to Bain & Company, which was facing financial collapse. As CEO, Romney managed an effort to restructure the firm's employee stock-ownership plan, real-estate deals and bank loans, while increasing fiscal transparency. Within a year, he had led Bain & Company through a highly successful turnaround and returned the firm to profitability without layoffs or partner defections.

Romney left Bain Capital in 1998 serve as the President and CEO of the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympic Games Organizing Committee. He and his wife have a net worth of between 250 and 500 million USD, not including Romney's blind trust in the name of their children, which is valued at about $100 million.

2002 Winter Olympics

Romney served as president and CEO of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games held in Salt Lake Citymarker. In 1999, before Romney was hired, the event was running $379 million short of its revenue benchmarks. Plans were being made to scale back the games to compensate for the fiscal crisis. The Games were also damaged by allegations of bribery involving top officials, including then Salt Lake Olympic Committee (SLOC) President and CEO Frank Joklik. Joklik and SLOC vice president Dave Johnson were forced to resign.

On February 11, 1999, Romney was hired as the new president and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Romney revamped the organization's leadership and policies, organized 23,000 volunteers, reduced budgets, and boosted fund raising. He also worked to ensure the safety of the Games following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 by coordinating a $300 million security budget. Despite the initial fiscal shortfall, the Games ended up clearing a profit of $100 million, not counting the $224.5 million in security costs contributed by outside sources. Romney holds the record for most private money raised by any individual for the Winter Olympics.

Romney contributed $1 million to the Olympics, and donated the $825,000 salary he earned as President and CEO to charity. He wrote a book about his experience titled Turnaround: Crisis, Leadership, and the Olympic Games. Romney was widely praised for his successful efforts to turn around the 2002 Winter Olympics.

Massachusetts political career

Campaign for United States Senate, 1994

In 1994, Romney won the Massachusetts Republican Party's nomination for U.S. Senate. Some early polls showed Romney close to Senator Ted Kennedy. Kennedy was more vulnerable than usual in 1994, in part because of the unpopularity of the Democratic Congress as a whole and also because this was Kennedy's first election since the William Kennedy Smith trial in Florida. Kennedy won the election with 58 percent of the vote to Romney's 41 percent, the second smallest margin in Kennedy's nine elections to the Senate.

Campaign for Governor, 2002

In 2002, Republican Acting Governor Jane Swift was viewed as an unpopular executive, and decided not to seek her party's nomination. Prominent GOP activists campaigned to persuade Romney to run for governor. Massachusetts Democratic Party officials improperly claimed that Romney was ineligible to run for governor, citing residency issues; the Massachusetts State Ballot Law Commission ruled that Romney was eligible to run for office. Supporters of Romney hailed his business record, especially his success with the 2002 Olympics, and the appeal of his broad economic background in the traditionally blue state of Massachusetts. He was elected Governor in November 2002 with 50 percent of the vote over Democratic candidate Shannon O'Brien, who received 45 percent of the vote.

Governor of Massachusetts, 2003–2007

Romney was sworn in as the 70th governor of Massachusetts on January 2, 2003. Upon entering office, Romney faced a projected $3 billion deficit, but a previously enacted $1.3 billion capital gains tax increase and $500 million in unanticipated federal grants decreased the deficit to $1.2 billion. Through a combination of spending cuts, increased fees, and removal of corporate tax loopholes, by 2006 the state had a $700 million surplus and was able to cut taxes.

Romney supported raising various fees by more than $300 million, including those for driver's licenses, marriage licenses, and gun licenses. Romney increased the state gasoline fee by 2 cents per gallon, generating about $60 million per year in additional revenue. Romney also closed tax loopholes that brought in another $181 million from businesses over the next two years.The state legislature, with Romney's support, also cut spending by $1.6 billion, including $700 million in reductions in state aid to cities and towns. The cuts also included a $140 million reduction in state funding for higher education, which led state-run colleges and universities to increase tuition by 63%. Romney sought additional cuts in his last year as Massachusetts governor by vetoing nearly 250 items in the state budget. All of those vetoes were overturned by the legislature.

The combined state and local fee burden in Massachusetts increased during Romney's governorship but still was below the national average. According to the Tax Foundation, that per capita burden was 9.8% in 2002 (below the national average of 10.3%), and 10.5% in 2006 (below the national average of 10.8%).

On April 12, 2006, Romney signed the Massachusetts health reform law which requires nearly all Massachusetts residents to buy health insurance coverage or face the loss of their personal income tax exemption. The bill also establishes means-tested state subsidies for people who do not have adequate employer insurance and who make below an income threshold, by using funds previously designated to compensate for the health costs of the uninsured. He vetoed eight sections of the health care legislation, including an employer assessment and provisions providing health coverage to senior and disabled legal immigrants not eligible for federal Medicaid. The legislature overrode all eight vetoes. Romney's communications director Eric Fehrnstrom responded saying "These differences with the Legislature are not essential to the goal of getting everyone covered with insurance."

At the beginning of his governorship, Romney opposed same-sex marriage and civil unions. Faced with the dilemma of choosing between same-sex marriage or civil unions after the November 2003 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Courtmarker decision legalizing same-sex marriages (Goodridge v. Department of Public Health), Romney reluctantly backed a state constitutional amendment in February 2004 that would have banned same-sex marriage but still allow civil unions, viewing it as the only feasible way to ban same-sex marriage in Massachusetts. In May 2004 Romney instructed town clerks to begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, but citing a 1913 law that barred out-of-state residents from getting married in Massachusetts if their union would be illegal in their home state, no marriage licenses were to be issued to out-of-state same-sex couples not planning to move to Massachusetts. In June 2005, Romney abandoned his support for the compromise amendment, stating that the amendment confused voters who oppose both same-sex marriage and civil unions. Instead, Romney endorsed a petition effort led by the Coalition for Marriage & Family that would have banned same-sex marriage and made no provisions for civil unions. In 2006 he urged the U.S. Senate to vote in favor of the Marriage Protection Amendment.

On December 14, 2005, Romney announced that he would not seek re-election for a second term as governor. Romney filed papers to establish a formal exploratory presidential campaign committee the next to last day in office as governor. This solidified suspicions that had been circulating as early as 2005 that Romney would attempt to run for President. Romney's term ended January 4, 2007.

Approval rating as Governor

Date Approval Disapproval Notes
Nov. 18, 2003 66% 33% Before Supreme Court ruling on Gay Marriage.
Nov. 27, 2003 45% 39% After taking a stance against Gay Marriage.
July 2004 48% ?
Jan. 2005 56% ?
March 2005 52% 37% After rumors of running for president.
April 2005 43% ?
March 2006 46% 47% After announcing not running for re-election.
May 2006 46% 52%
June 2006 39% 56%
Nov. 2006 34% 65% End of governorship.

Romney had a difficult time maintaining his approval ratings in office as governor of liberal Massachusetts in the wake of the legalization of gay marriage and the fall of Bush's approval ratings. For the majority of Romney's term however, his approval ratings were in positive territory. After Democrat Deval Patrick succeeded Romney as Governor of Massachusetts, Patrick's approval rating was 33% in April 2009 and 49% said Romney did a better job as governor than Patrick.

Campaign for President

2008 presidential campaign logo
Since the 2004 Republican National Convention, Romney had been discussed as a potential 2008 presidential candidate. On January 3, 2007, two days before he stepped down as governor of Massachusetts, Romney filed to register a presidential campaign exploratory committee with the Federal Election Commission. Romney formally announced his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination for president on February 13, 2007.

In the January 2008 Iowa Caucus, the first contest of the primary elections, Romney received 25% of the vote and placed second to Mike Huckabee, who received 34%. A few days later, Romney won the Wyoming Republican Caucuses. Romney finished in second place behind John McCain in the New Hampshire primary on January 8, 2008. In the January 15 Michigan primary, Romney won with 39% of the vote, followed by McCain (30%), Huckabee (16%), and others. On January 19, Romney won the Nevada caucuses, but placed fourth in the South Carolina primary. Romney then came in second behind John McCain in the Florida primary on January 29, and came in first ahead of John McCain in the Maine caucuses on February 2, giving McCain an overall 97-92 lead over Romney in delegates to the 2008 Republican National Convention. According to US election polls, going into Super Tuesday, Mitt Romney led in California (40% - 32% John McCain), Massachusetts (55% - 23%), Colorado (43% - 24%), and Utah (65% - 6%). McCain led in 12 states and was 21 points ahead of Romney in national polls.

Romney at a rally in January 2008

Romney partly financed his campaign with his own personal fortune, contributing over $35 million of the $90 million raised by his campaign, as of December 31, 2007.

Following the results of the 2008 Super Tuesday primaries, Romney suspended his campaign for the presidential nomination on February 7, 2008.He stated that by staying in the race he would only "forestall the launch of a national campaign and frankly I'd be making it easier for Senator Clinton or Senator Barack Obama to win. And in this time of war, I simply cannot let my campaign be a part of aiding surrender to terror." He went on to say "I am convinced that unless America changes course, we will become the France of the 21st century - still a great nation, but no longer the leader of the world, no longer the superpower."

Romney won 11 states primaries and caucuses, 4.2 million votes and 291 delegates, although he would have likely won more had he not ended his campaign early.

Romney decided not to seek donations to recover the $45 million in personal loans he made to his campaign. Instead, the loans are to be reclassified as contributions by Romney. The Romney committee raised approximately $65 million from individual donors during the primary campaign.

Romney endorsed McCain for President at a press conference in Boston, Massachusetts on February 14, 2008, one week after suspending his campaign.He became one of the McCain Campaign's most visible surrogates, appearing on behalf of the GOP nominee at fundraisers, state Republican party conventions and on cable news programs.“There’s nobody who represents me better today than Mitt Romney," said John McCain of his former rival's efforts to promote his candidacy.Romney also launched the Free and Strong America PAC to assist conservative "officeholders and candidates who are dedicated to promoting public policies that will strengthen America at this critical time in our history." The political organization, which takes its name from a key line in Romney's 2007 Faith in America speech, supported local, state and federal Republican candidates including Senator John McCain, Senator Elizabeth Dole, Congresswoman Michelle Bachmann and Congressman Pete Hoekstra.

Romney was reported to be under consideration on the McCain ticket as a vice-presidential nominee. Shortly after McCain opted for Alaskamarker Governor Sarah Palin as his running mate, Romney told reporters he had no interest in serving in a McCain Cabinet because he would not relish being "soldiered by 27-year-olds in the White House.... That is not an attractive position, in my view." Romney said his disinterest in a Cabinet position stemmed from his father's past experience as U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for President Richard Nixon. Romney said he was not disappointed at being passed over for the vice presidential spot, and felt Palin would connect well with voters and strengthen the Republican ticket. He added, "I want to work from the outside of the administration, fighting for the values and the views that I think are essential to keep our country strong right now."

Subsequent activities

Following the election, Romney paved the way for a possible 2012 presidential campaign by keeping much of his PAC's money to pay for salaries and consulting fees for his existing political staff. He also had a network of former staff and supporters around the nation who were eager for him to run again. In February 2009, Romney delivered a speech at the annual CPAC convention. There he won the 2012 presidential straw poll with 20%, leading many to think that he may emerge as the front runner in the 2012 race.In April 2009, Romney avoided questions about his political future by saying he was writing a book on "the challenges America faces". He continued to give speeches, grant interviews, and raise campaign funds on behalf of fellow Republicans.A June 2009 CNN/Opinion Research Corporation national poll showed Romney as the 2012 presidential co-favorite of the Republican electorate along with Palin and Mike Huckabee.The same month, a Pew Research Center poll found that among the general public, 40 percent viewed him favorably and 28 percent unfavorably. This was a marked improvement from the days of his 2008 presidential campaign, where his unfavorable ratings had been higher than his favorables. Romney also stood to gain from the Republican electorate's tendency to nominate candidates who had previously run for president before. Following the August 2009 death of his past rival Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Romney declared that he had no interest in running in the special election to replace him.

Public image

Mitt Romney is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, colloquially known as the Mormon church. Religion played a role in the 2008 presidential campaign, with polls indicating that a quarter of Republican voters were “less likely” to vote for a presidential candidate who was a Latter-day Saint. For privacy and religious reasons, Romney avoided speaking publicly about specific church doctrines, and pointed out that the U.S. Constitution prohibits religious tests for public office.

Political positions

Romney invited Iowa voters to "Ask Mitt Anything" in May 2007.
asserts that he has learned from experience, and that people can rely on him to keep his campaign promises. As a candidate for the Republican nomination for President, Romney increasingly expressed views in line with traditional conservatives on social issues and on domestic and foreign policy issues.


Romney was photographed attending a Planned Parenthood fundraiser in 1994, and his wife made a $150 contribution to the organization. In the past, Romney expressed support for the pro-choice position. Romney maintains that he has always followed his Church teachings and has been personally Pro-Life. Romney however acknowledges that his prior views were flawed, and now considers himself Pro-Life. Romney has consistently opposed Partial Birth Abortion and supports restrictions on Abortion such as parental notification provisions. Romney says that he believes that Roe v. Wade should be overturned, that "abortion is the wrong choice except in cases of incest, rape, and to save the life of the mother," and that "states, through the democratic process, should determine their own abortion laws and not have them dictated by judicial mandate." As a candidate for office in Massachusetts, Romney held moderate to liberal views on abortion, and stated that the legislature should be the driving force behind policy decisions even though he personally opposed abortion. He explains his shift in views as a process of evolution, contending that he has gradually come to agree with the Pro-Life position. Romney opposes criminal penalties against women who undergo abortion and believes that society's "hearts and minds" must be changed for policy implementation to be successful. Some critics of Romney portray him as an opportunist. For example, Democratic U.S. Representative Barney Frank of Massachusettsmarker once said, "The real Romney is clearly an extraordinarily ambitious man with no perceivable political principle whatsoever" to which a Romney spokesman replied that "We’ve never really paid much attention to what Barney Frank is saying, and we see no reason to start now."

Second Amendment Rights

Romney has been a strong supporter of both Second Amendment rights as well as certain pieces of gun control legislation. He has backed the Brady Bill, a five-day waiting period on gun sales, and a ban on certain assault weapons that he viewed as posing a threat to Policex. Romney has supported legislation that was endorsed by the National Rifle Associationmarker and the Gun Owners' Action League. Romney also says he believes that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to keep and bear arms, rather than merely protecting a right of states.

Illegal immigration

Romney welcomes increased legal immigration and supports giving "a biometrically-enabled and tamperproof card to non-citizens and ... a national database for non-citizens" to reduce illegal immigration. Romney's lawn care company had illegal aliens working at his private residence but Romney had the company fired soon after the fact was revealed to him in 2007.
He supports the deportation of illegal immigrant, prioritizes a secure border as well as employer verification, and opposes granting Amnesty to illegal Aliens. While Governor, he has opposed granting in-state tuition tuition and driver's licenses to illegal immigrants.

Same-sex marriage

Romney is a proponent of monogamous, heterosexual marriage. As a candidate for governor in 2002, Romney said: "Call me old fashioned, but I don't support gay marriage nor do I support civil union." During that 2002 campaign, he also supported hate crimes legislation and opposed other discrimination against gays, while supporting some partner benefits for gays, and he also opposed amending the state constitution to codify only traditional marriage because he believed the draft amendment would have outlawed other partner benefits. When the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of legalized same-sex marriage in 2003, Romney lobbied for a state constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriage but allow civil unions. Romney explained in 2005: "From day one I've opposed the move for same-sex marriage and its equivalent, civil unions.... I am only supporting civil unions if gay marriage is the alternative." Romney continues to oppose both marriage and civil unions between people of the same sex. Romney has supported Bill Clinton's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy" in 1994, and continued to do so in 2007.

Civil rights

Romney cites both Martin Luther King Jr. and his father George Romney as role models. The senior Romney made headlines by walking out on nominee Barry Goldwater because of his opposition to civil rights, despite opposition from many in his party. Governor Romney supports the Employment Nondiscrimination Act at state level. Romney has expressed support for decreasing barriers to entry into the workforce for women and minorities. He has expressed support for Muslims who face discrimination due to their religion.

Foreign policy

Romney supported the invasion of Iraq and the "troop surge". He however has criticized mismanagement of Iraq post invasion. He has stated that both diplomatic and military efforts should both be used to achieve success in the region." Upon hearing the testimony of David Petraeus, Romney reemphasized his agreement with current policy in Iraq and has called for a "Surge of Support" for the military. Romney has expressed support for an eventual reduction in military presence in Iraq but has strongly opposed a timetable for withdrawal. Romney has called for increased military spending to at least 4 percent of the United States GDP and wishes to increase the size of the military by at least 100,000 troops. Romney has expressed concern over the growing suppression of Democracy in Russia. He has supported dialogue and efforts to establish cooperation with the Muslim world to fight the war on terror. Romney has proposed a non-confrontational peaceful effort to welcome Democracy into the Middle East.

Tax policy and economic issues

Romney has supported tax relief for "middle income Americans," and has advocated eliminating the capital gains tax for all those who earn less than $200,000 per year. Romney would also like to eliminating the estate tax, known by opponents as the Death Tax, signed a pledge to oppose "any and all efforts" to increase income taxes, and promises to control spending by Congress. Romney has supported a balanced budget amendment to deal with the burgeoning federal deficit. He has stated that deficit spending results in devaluation of the dollar and a decline in the economic stability of the United States. He has proposed reining in growth in entitlement programs. He has also proposed eliminating pork-barrell spending on unnecessary programs. Romney has supported efforts to expand trade with developing countries, and has pushed to renegotiate trade deals with China to help eliminate the Trade Deficit.


Romney supports increased health insurance portability, coverage of pre-existing medical conditions, a cap on malpractice lawsuits, the implementation of a streamlined electronic medical records system, an emphasis on preventative care, and tax benefits aimed at making health insurance more affordable for the uninsured and targeted to promote universal access. Romney opposes a federal government run, single-payer system, but supports state efforts to reduce the uninsured population. As Governor, Romney signed the Massachusetts health reform law into law. He oppposes efforts to provide health coverage for Illegal Immigrants, and supports the Hyde Amendment to ban government funding for elective abortion.

Crime and punishment

Romney supports the death penalty and sentencing under the three strikes law. Romney opposes the use of torture; however, he supports the limited use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" to stop an imminent wide-scale terrorist attack. Romney supports mandatory increases in sentencing for repeat drunk drivers and has supported a federal effort to curtail the drug trade in Columbia.

Energy policy

Romney has supported a $20 billion package for energy research & new car technology. He opposes a unilateral US global warming policy and believes that worldwide global warming solutions are optimal. He has supported the development of alternative energy such as nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectric, and clean coal technology to break America's dependence on foreign oil. He has stated that large oil companies should reinvest profits in clean technology for oil refineries. He supports the popular measure of drilling in ANWRmarker as short term measure to help the US achieve energy independence. As Governor, Romney supported clean environment initiatives.


Romney supports increasing standards for education and quality based incentives for teachers. He proposes identifying failing schools, increasing school funding and accountability, greater choice, and English immersion. Romney has supported private and government efforts to increase merit scholarships for high school students. He has supported reforming underperforming schools with charter schools. Romney has supported means-tested vouchers for public and private schools as Governor. He has opposed efforts to teach creationism in schools, but believes that there should be more of an emphasis on family values in the educational system. Romney has supported efforts to fund nanotechnology and materials science education.

Later personal life

Ann Romney in 2007.
Ann Romney was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1998. Since then, she has been an outspoken advocate for those with multiple sclerosis. She is in remission and was active in his 2008 presidential campaign.

In addition to their five sons, the Romneys have eleven grandchildren.

In December 2007 the Romneys had three homes, one in Belmont, Massachusettsmarker in the Boston suburbs, a lakeside house in Wolfeboro, New Hampshiremarker, and a ski house in Park City, Utahmarker. In early 2009, they sold the homes in Massachusetts and Utah. As of May 2009 they had two homes, the one in New Hampshire and one in San Diego, Californiamarker.

Electoral history

See also


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  79. Scott Helman Romney retreats on gun control, Boston Globe (2007-01-14).
  80. Mitt
  81. "Flash Back: Romney's Four Wedge Issues", Human Events (2007-12-28).
  82. Ending Illegal Immigration
  83. "Illegal immigrants toiled for governor" Boston Globe
  85. Douglas Kmiec, Revising Kennedy, National Review, November 14, 2007. To quote Romney: "There is nothing more awful, in my view, than the violation of the marriage covenant that one has with one’s wife. The practice of polygamy is abhorrent, it’s awful, and it drives me nuts that people who are polygamists keep pretending to use the umbrella of my church....My church abhors it, it excommunicates people who practice it, and it's got nothing to do with my faith."
  86. Rick Klein. “Group promises aid for amendment foes”, Boston Globe (2004-02-11): “Romney opposed that amendment as a gubernatorial candidate in 2002. At the time, Romney said he felt the amendment went too far because it would have outlawed domestic-partner benefits for gay couples, as well as gay marriage, and said he would vote against it.”
  87. .
  91. Press release from official Mitt Romney website
  92. Romney Urges More Be Spent On Defense And Energy Research
  103. Faye Fiore, "Does perfection have its price for Romney?” Los Angeles Times (2007-11-24).
  104. "Mitt Romney's Rivals Try Class Warfare", Associated Press (2007-12-14).

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