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Mold ( ) is a town in Flintshire, North Walesmarker, on the River Alynmarker. It is the administrative seat of Flintshire County Council, and was also the county town of Clwyd from 1974 to 1996. According to the 2001 UK Census, it has a population of 9,568.

Origin of the name

The placename Mold originates from the Norman-French "mont-hault" (high hill), and is recorded as Mohald in a document of 1254. The Welsh language placename of Yr Wyddgrug is recorded as Gythe Gruc in a document of 1280-1, and comes from the words "Yr" (the), "gwydd" (tomb, sepulchre) and "crug" (mound).

History

The town grew up around the now ruined Mold Castlemarker, built by Robert de Montalt in around 1140, and the site of frequent battles between English and Welsh forces. The castle was apparently captured for the Welsh by Owain Gwynedd in 1146, though it is equally possible that reports of this event are meant to refer to a castle of the same name in mid-Wales. It was lost to Henry II of England in 1167, and recaptured by the Welsh in 1201. A further period of English authority commenced in 1241, when Dafydd ap Llywelyn yielded possession of the castle to the de Montalt family; however, the prince recaptured the castle in 1245.

About a mile west of the town is Maes Garmon, (The Field of Germanus), which is the traditional site of the Alleluia Victory by British forces led by Germanus of Auxerre over invading Picts and Scots, fought shortly after Easter 430.



In 1833, workmen digging a prehistoric mound at Bryn yr Ellyllon (Fairies' or Goblins' Hill) discovered a unique golden cape, which dates from 1900-1600 BC in the Bronze Age. The cape weighs 560 g and was produced from a single gold ingot, and now forms one of the great treasures of the British Museummarker in Londonmarker.This golden cape provided inspiration in the naming of the town's "Wetherspoons" pub.

Mold hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1923 and 1991, and again in 2007. There was an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1873.

Mold used to be a part of the British Rail network, having a large railway station and adjacent marshalling yards and engine sheds; however, this closed when Croes Newydd at Wrexhammarker was opened. The station was closed in the Beeching Cuts of the early 1960s, though the track survived until the 1970s to serve the Synthite chemical works. Subsequently the town's new Tescomarker supermarket was built on the station's site.

The Mold Riot

In the summer of 1869 a riot occurred in the town which had considerable effects on the future policing of public disturbances in Great Britainmarker. On 17 May 1869, John Young, the English manager of the nearby Leeswood Green colliery, angered his workers by announcing a pay cut. He had previously strained relationships with them by banning the use of the Welsh language underground. Two days later, following a meeting at the pithead, the miners attacked Young before frogmarching him to the police station. Seven men were arrested and ordered to stand trial on 2 June. All were found guilty and the alleged ringleaders, Ismael Jones and John Jones, were sentenced to a month's hard labour. A large crowd had assembled to hear the verdict, and the Chief Constable of Flintshire had arranged for policemen from all over the county, and soldiers from Chestermarker to be present. As the convicts were being transported to the railway station the crowd grew restive and threw missiles at the officers. The soldiers opened fire on the crowd, killing four people including one completely innocent bystander. Although he strenuously denied the connection, Daniel Owen's first novel, Rhys Lewis, published in instalments in 1882-1884, was heavily based on these events. Daniel Owen was a writer who lived in Mold.

Community

Attractions in Mold include St Mary's Churchmarker (a 15th century parish church), a small museum and the regional arts centre, Clwyd Theatr Cymrumarker.

Mold is a cittaslow (slow food town), which became the first town in Wales to achieve this distinction. Mold has a market every Wednesday and Saturday at which much fresh produce can be obtained. For speciality and fresh local food, the Celyn Farmers' Market is held on the first Saturday of every month in Mold (and it continues, as it started, on the third Sunday of the month in nearby Northopmarker). There are several producers in the Mold markets who also appear regularly at the famous Borough Marketmarker in London. The Mold Food & Drink Festival is held during September each year. The food festival has a central event area on the edge of the town centre, and many central and nearby businesses contribute to the event.

Mold has two secondary schools that serve the town and the surrounding villages. With approximately 1,800 pupils, the Alun Schoolmarker is the largest school in the county. It is adjoined by the only Welsh language secondary school in Flintshire, Ysgol Maes Garmonmarker.

Notable people



See also



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