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The Moldavian Democratic Republic ( ), a.k.a. Moldavian Republic, was the state proclaimed on December 15 (old style December 2), 1917 by Sfatul Ţării (the National Council) of Bessarabiamarker, elected in October-November 1917 in the wake of the February Revolution and disintegration of the political power in the Russian Empiremarker.

Sfatul Ţării was its legislative body, while the Council of Directors General, renamed Council of Ministers after the Declaration of Independence, was its government.

History

When the February Revolution happened in Petrogradmarker in 1917, the governor of Bessarabia steped down and passed his legal powers to Constantin Mimi, the President of the Gubernial Zemstvo, which was named the Comissar of the Provisional Government in Bessarabia, with Vladimir Criste his deputy. Similar procedures took place in all regions of the Russian Empiremarker: the chiefs of the Tsarist administrations passed their legal powers to the chiefs of the County and Governorate Zemstvos, which were then called County/Governorate Commissars.

The Peasants Congress, which took place in October 1917, votted Mimi out and Ion Inculeţ as the new Commissar. This move was planned by Alexander Kerenski, who sent Inculeţ, an associate professor at the University of Petrograd, to Bessarabia to take hold of the situation. As soon as the Peasants Congress, which had no legal power, voted, Kerenski formally replaced Mimi with Inculeţ. When Inculeţ arrived in Chişinău to take power, he faced the quiet opposition of the nobility, therefore he agreed to take the position of deputy commissar to Vladimir Criste. When the republic was proclaimed, Criste stepped down and passed his legal powers to Inculeţ.

Sfatul Ţării (the National Council) of Bessarabiamarker, was elected in October-November 1917, and started to work in December 1917. It proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic.

In the wake of an unsuccessful Bolshevik attempt of takeover on January 18 - January 25 (old style January 5 - January 12), 1918, and prompted by the declaration of independence of Ukrainemarker, which thus effectively has cut of Bessarabia from Russia, Sfatul Ţării proclaimed the independence of the Moldavian Republic on February 6 (odl style January 24), 1918.

In the wake of the signing of separate peace armistices by Imperial Germanymarker with Romaniamarker, Ukraine, and Bolshevik Russia, and prompted by the strong internal sentiment of the population, on April 9 (old style March 27), 1918, Sfatul Ţării, with 86 votes in favor, 3 against and 36 abstentions, proclaimed the Union of Bessarabia with the Kingdom of Romania, with the condition of local autonomy and the continuation of Bessarabian legislative and executive as local legislative and executive bodies, legally ending the Moldavian Democratic Republic.

The union was confirmed in the Treaty of Paris . Of the three people who voted against, one emigrated to the Soviet Unionmarker, one became a successful local politician, and one continued his job as a teacher.

Leadership

The leadership of the Moldavian Republic was composed of Ion Inculeţ, the president of Sfatul Ţării and President of the Republic, Pantelimon Erhan, the President of the Council of Directors General, followed when the country declared independence by Daniil Ciugureanu, as President of the Council of Ministers. Sfatul Ţării was initially composed of 120 elected members, a number which was latter increased to 135 and 150. Due to different circumstances, on 9 April, there were 138 legislators, of which 125 took part in the vote, and 13 were absent.

On 8/21 December 1917, Sfatul Ţării elected the government of the Moldavian Democratic Republic - the Council of Directors General, with nine members, seven Moldavians, one Ukrainian, and one Jew:

In his thirst decree, the Council set forward the aim to "introduce order in all the aspects of life of the country, to eliminate anarchy and disaster, to organize all the aspects of state administration". An Executive Clerk Office (Cancelarie) of the Council of Directors General was set, and all state, public and private institutions were required to communicate through the Executive Clerk Office to the corresponding Director General for all questions regarding the government of the country. All acts in the domain of public administration made without the previous consent of the respective Directors General were declared legally void, while the director freed from responsibility for such acts.

See also



Gallery

File:Ion C. Inculeţ (1884-1940), President of Moldavian Democratic Republic.jpg|President Ion Inculeţ

References




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