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Moscow ( or /ˈmɒskəʊ/ in English, ; see also other names) is the capital and the largest city of Russiamarker. It is also the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and ranks among the largest urban areas in the world. Moscow is a major political, economic, cultural, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russiamarker and the world, a global city. It is also the seventh largest city proper in the world, a megacity. The population of Moscow (as of 1 June 2009) is 10,524,400.

It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Moscow sits on the junction of three geological platforms. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Unionmarker, Tsardom of Russiamarker and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlinmarker, one of the World Heritage Sites in the city, which serves as the residence of the President of Russia. The Russian parliament (the State Duma and the Federation Council) and the Government of Russia also sit in Moscow.

Moscow is a major economic centre and is home to one of the largest numbers of billionaires in the world; in 2008 Moscow was named the world's most expensive city for foreign employees for the third year in a row. However, in 2009, Moscow moved to third after Tokyomarker and Osaka came in first and second, respectively.

It is home to many scientific and educational institutions, as well as numerous sport facilities. It possesses a complex transport system, that includes 3 international airports, 9 railroad terminals, and the world's second busiest (after Tokyo) metro system which is famous for its architecture and artwork. Its metro is the busiest single-operator subway in the world.

Over time, the city has earned a variety of nicknames, most referring to its pre-eminent status in the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), Whitestone (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Forty Forties (Сорок Сороков.)

A person from Moscow is called a Muscovite in English, Moskvich in Russian.


The city is named after the river (old , literally "the city by the Moskva River"). The origin of the name is unknown, although several theories exist. One theory suggests that the source of the name is an ancient Finnic language, in which it means “dark” and “turbid”. The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when Yuri Dolgoruki called upon the prince of the Novgorod-Severskimarker to “come to me, brother, to Moscow.”

Nine years later, in 1156, Prince Yuri Dolgoruki of Rostovmarker ordered the construction of a wooden wall, which had to be rebuilt multiple times, to surround the emerging city. After the sacking of 1237–1238, when the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327. Its favourable position on the headwaters of the Volga River contributed to steady expansion. Moscow developed into a stable and prosperous principality, known as Grand Duchy of Moscow, for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia.

Under Ivan I the city replaced Tvermarker as a political centre of Vladimir-Suzdal and became the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol-Tatar rulers. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons but was passed intact to his eldest. However, Moscow's opposition against foreign domination grew. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovomarker which was not decisive, though. Only two years later Moscow was sacked by khan Tokhtamysh. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, allowing Moscow to become the centre of power in Russia. Under Ivan III the city became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia and other lands.

In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlinmarker.

In 1609, the Swedishmarker army led by Count Jacob De la Gardie and Evert Horn started their march from Veliky Novgorodmarker toward Moscow to help Tsar Vasili Shuiski, entered Moscow in 1610 and suppressed the rebellion against the Tsar, but left it early in 1611, following which the Polish-Lithuanian army invaded. During the Polish–Muscovite War hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski entered Moscow after defeated Russians in the Battle of Klushinomarker. The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish-Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682.

The plague of 1654–1656 killed half the population of Moscow. The city ceased to be Russia’s capital in 1712, after the founding of Saint Petersburgmarker by Peter the Great near the Baltic coastmarker in 1703. The Plague of 1771 was the last massive outbreak of plague in central Russia, claiming up to 100,000 lives in Moscow alone. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812, the Muscovites burned the city and evacuated, as Napoleon’s forces were approaching on 14 September. Napoleon’s army, plagued by hunger, cold and poor supply lines, was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces.

In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow’s first official mayor. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, on 12 March 1918, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Unionmarker less than five years later. During World War II (known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War), after the German invasion of the USSR, the Soviet State Defense Committee and the General Staff of the Red Army was located in Moscow.

In 1941, sixteen divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), twenty-five battalions (18,500 people) and four engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. That November, the German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the Battle of Moscowmarker. Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from 20 October the city was declared to be under siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. Joseph Stalin refused to leave the city, meaning the general staff and the council of people's commissars remained in the city as well. Despite the siege and the bombings, the construction of Moscow's metro system continued through the war, and by the end of the war several new metro lines were opened.
Map of Moscow, 1784

On 1 May 1944, a medal For the defence of Moscow and in 1947 another medal In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow were instituted. In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory over Nazi Germany, on 8 May 1965, Moscow became one of twelve Soviet cities awarded the title of Hero City.

In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which was boycotted by the United Statesmarker and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in Afghanistanmarker in late 1979. In 1991, Moscow was the scene of the failed coup attempt by the government members opposed to the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow continued to be the capital of Russia.

Since then, the emergence of a market economy in Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles. In 1998, it hosted the first World Youth Games.

Geography, time and climate


Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km through the East European Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city's limits. Elevation of Moscow in VVCmarker, where situated head Moscow weather station, is 156 m (512 ft). The highest point is Teplostanskaya highland with 255 m (837 ft).. Width of Moscow city (not limiting MKAD) from west to east is 39.7 km (24.7 mi), length from north to south – 51.7 km (32.1 mi).

Moscow's road system is centered roughly around the Kremlinmarker at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally radiate outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads (“rings”).

The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the sixteenth century city wall around that used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town). The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that goes from the Cathedral of Christ the Saviourmarker to the Yauza River. In addition, the Boulevard Ring changes street names numerous times throughout its journey across the city.

The second primary ring, located outside the bell end Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a sixteenth century wall that used to encompass part of the city. The third ring, the Third Transport Ring, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.

The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, is under construction to further reduce traffic congestion. The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (often called the MKAD from the Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the approximate boundary of the city. Outside the city, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits.


The city recognizes a unique time schedule which is used for Moscow and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburgmarker. During winter the areas operate in what is referred to as Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК) which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. During the summer, Moscow Time shifts forward an additional hour ahead of Moscow Standard Time to become Moscow Summer Time (MSD), making it UTC+4.
Moscow Time (UTC+3), Moscow Summer Time (UTC+4)


Moscow has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around , but during heat waves (which can occur between May and September), daytime high temperatures often top - sometimes for a week or a two at a time. In the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately , though there can be periods of warmth with temperatures rising above . The highest temperature ever recorded was in August 1936, and the lowest ever recorded was in January 1940. During the past few years, many monthly and daily high temperature records have been set.

Snow cover (present for 3–5 months a year) typically begins at the end of November and melts by mid-March, but in recent years, snow cover has persisted for shorter periods than the long-term average.

Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.

The average annual temperature in Moscow is , but for the last two years (2007-2008) the annual temperature has averaged above . In contrast, during the first half of the 20th century, Moscow experienced light frost during the late summer months.

On average Moscow has 1731 hours of sunshine per year, varying between a low of 8% in December to 52% in May–August. In 2004–2008, the average was between 1800 and 2000 hours

Administrative divisions and Government

[[File:Msk all districts abc eng.svg|thumb|Administrative okrugs of Moscow:1 City of Zelenograd,2 Northern,3 North-Eastern,4 North-Western,5 Central,6 Eastern,7 Southern,8 South-Eastern,9 South-Western,10 Western]]


Moscow is the seat of power for the Russian Federation. At the centre of the city, in Central Administrative Okrug, is the Moscow Kremlinmarker, which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as many of the facilities for the national government. This includes numerous military headquarters and the headquarters of the Moscow Military District. Moscow, like with any national capital, is also the host of all the foreign embassies and diplomats representing a multitude of nations in Russia. Moscow is designated as one of only two Federal cities of Russia (the other one being Saint Petersburgmarker). Among the 83 federal subjects of Russia, Moscow represents the most populated one and the smallest one in terms of area. Lastly, Moscow is located within the central economic region, one of twelve regions within Russia with similar economic goals.

Administrative divisions

The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor (Yury Luzhkov). It is divided into ten administrative okrugs and 123 districts. Nine of the ten administrative districts, except the City of Zelenograd (number 1 on the map), are located within City of Moscow main boundaries.

All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms and flags, some districts also have elected head officials. Additionally, most districts have their own cable television, computer network, and official newspaper.

In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status, or territories. These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations, such as the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centremarker, the Botanical Gardenmarker, large parks, and industrial zones. In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities. And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city centre, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious.

Moscow also hosts some of the government bodies of Moscow Oblastmarker, although the city itself is administratively separate from the oblast.


"Alye Parusa" residential development, Shchukino
Vorobyevy Gory residential development in Moscow

Moscow’s architecture is world-renowned. Moscow is also well known as the site of Saint Basil’s Cathedralmarker, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Saviourmarker and the Seven Sistersmarker.

For a long time, the view of the city was dominated by numerous Orthodox churches. The look of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, mostly due to Joseph Stalin, who oversaw a large-scale effort to modernise the city. He introduced broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, but he also destroyed a great number of historically significant architectural works. The Sukharev Towermarker, as well as numerous mansions and stores lining the major streets, and various works of religious architecture, such as the Kazan Cathedralmarker and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, were all destroyed during Stalin’s rule. During the 1990s, however, both the latter were rebuilt amid criticism due to the high costs and lack of historical perspective.

Architect Vladimir Shukhov was responsible for building several of Moscow’s landmarks during early Soviet Russia. The Shukhov Towermarker, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov, was built between 1919 and 1922 as a transmission tower for a Russianmarker broadcasting company. Shukhov also left a lasting legacy to the Constructivist architecture of early Soviet Russia. He designed spacious elongated shop galleries, most notably the Upper Trade Rows marker on Red Squaremarker, bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults.

Stalin, however, is also credited with building the The Seven Sistersmarker, comprising seven, cathedral-like structures. A defining feature of Moscow’s skyline, their imposing form was allegedly inspired by the Manhattan Municipal Buildingmarker in New York Citymarker, and their style with intricate exteriors and a large central spire has been described as Stalinist Gothic architecture. All seven towers can be seen from most elevations in the city; they are among the tallest constructions in central Moscow apart from the Ostankino Towermarker which, when it was completed in 1967, was the tallest free-standing land structure in the world and today remains the world’s third-tallest after the Burj Dubaimarker in Dubai and the CN Towermarker in Toronto.

The Soviet policy of providing mandatory housing for every citizen and his or her family, and the rapid growth of the Muscovite population in Soviet times, also led to the construction of large, monotonous housing blocks, which can often be differentiated by age, sturdiness of construction, or ‘style’ according to the neighbourhood and the materials used. Most of these date from the post-Stalin era and the styles are often named after the leader then in power (Brezhnev, Khrushchev, etc) and they are usually ill-maintained.The Stalinist-era constructions, usually in the central city, are massive and usually ornamented with Socialist realism motifs that imitate classical themes. However, small churches almost always Eastern Orthodox found across the city provide glimpses of its past. The Old Arbat Streetmarker, a popular tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the twentieth century. Many buildings found off the main streets of the inner city (behind the Stalinist facades of Tverskaya Streetmarker, for example) are also examples of bourgeois architecture typical of Tsarist times. Ostankino Palacemarker, Kuskovomarker, Uzkoyemarker and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists.

Attempts are being made to restore many of the city’s best-kept examples of pre-Soviet architecture. These revamped structures are easily spotted by their bright new colours and spotless facades. There are a few examples of notable, early Soviet avant-garde work too, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. Many of these restorations were criticized for their disrespect of historical authenticity. Facadism is also widely practiced. Later examples of interesting Soviet architecture are usually marked by their impressive size and the semi-Modernist styles employed, such as with the Novy Arbat project, familiarly known as “false teeth of Moscow” and notorious for the wide-scale disruption of a historic area in central Moscow involved in the project.

Plaques on house exteriors will inform passers-by that a well-known personality once lived there. Frequently, the plaques are dedicated to Soviet celebrities not well-known outside of Russia. There are also many "house-museums" of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city.

Moscow's skyline is quickly modernizing with several new towers under construction.

In recent years, the city administration has been widely criticized for heavy destruction that has affected many historical buildings. As much as a third of historic Moscow has been destroyed in the past few years to make space for luxury apartments and hotels.Other historical buildings, including such landmarks as the 1930 Moskva hotel and the 1913 department store Voyentorg, have been razed and reconstructed anew,with the inevitable loss of every historical value.Critics also blame the government for not applying the conservation laws:in the last 12 years more than 50 buildings with monument status were torn down, several of those dating back to the seventeenth century. Some critics also wonder if the money used for the reconstruction of razed buildings could not be used for the renovation of decaying structures, that include many works by architect Konstantin Melnikov and Mayakovskayamarker metro station.

Some organisations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society and Save Europe's Heritage, are trying to draw the international public attention to these problems.



One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallerymarker, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city. The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskayamarker area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses the works of the classic Russian tradition. The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found in the Old Tretyakov Gallery. Visitors can even see rare originals by early-fifteenth century iconographer Andrei Rublev. The New Tretyakov gallery, created in Soviet times, mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary artists, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early twentieth century art. The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin's famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery.

Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Artsmarker, which was founded by, among others, Marina Tsvetaeva's father. The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museummarker in Londonmarker in that its halls are a cross-section of world civilisations, with many plaster casts of ancient sculptures. However, it also hosts famous paintings from every major Western era of art; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are all sampled there.

The State Historical Museummarker of Russia (Государственный Исторический музей) is a museum of Russian history located between Red Squaremarker and Manege Squaremarker in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions. The Polytechnical Museummarker, founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata of the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. Its collection contains more than 160,000 items. The Borodino Panorama museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon’s army, that includes also the Triumphal arch erected in 1827. There is also a military history museum not to be missed, it includes statues, military hardware, along with powerful tales of that time.
Bolshoi Theatre.

Moscow is also the heart of Russian performing arts, including ballet and film. There are ninety-three theatres, 132 cinemas and twenty-four concert-halls in Moscow. Among Moscow’s many theatres and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatremarker and the Malyi Theatre as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatremarker. The repertories in a typical Moscow season are exhaustive and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are quite common. State Central Concert Hall Rossia, famous for ballet and estrade performances, is the place of frequent concerts of pop and rock stars and is situated in the soon to be demolished building of Hotel Rossiyamarker, the largest hotel in Europe.

Moscow International Performance Arts Centre, opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Musicmarker, is known for its performances in classical music. It also has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall.

There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circusmarker and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevardmarker named after Yuri Nikulin.

Soviet films are integral to film history and the Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many Soviet classic films as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions. However, despite the continued presence and reputation of internationally renowned Russian filmmakers, the once prolific native studios are much quieter. Rare and historical films may be seen in the Salut cinema, where films from the Museum of Cinema collection are shown regularly.

Parks and landmarks

There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, including 4 botanical gardens. There are also of green zones besides of forests. Moscow is a very green city if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and America. There are on average 27 square meters (290 sq ft) of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Parismarker, 7.5 in Londonmarker and 8.6 in New Yorkmarker.

The Central Park of Culture and Restmarker, named after Maxim Gorky, was founded in 1928.The main part (689,000 square metres 170 acres) along the Moskva river contains estrades, children's attractions (including the Observation Wheelwater ponds with boats and water bicycles), dancing, tennis courts and other sports facilities. It borders the Neskuchniy Garden(408,000 square metres 101 acres), the oldest park in Moscow and a former Emperor's residence, created as a result of integration of three estates of XVIII century. The Garden features the Green Theatre, one of the largest open amphitheatres in Europe and able to hold up to 15 thousand people.

Izmaylovsky Parkmarker created in 1931 is one of the largest urban parks in the world along with Richmond Parkmarker in Londonmarker.Its area of is six times greater than that of Central Parkmarker in New Yorkmarker.

Sokolniki Parkmarker, named after the falcon hunting that occurred there in the past, is one of the oldest parks in Moscow and has an area of .From a central circle with a large fountain radiate birch, maple and elm tree alleys. A labyrinth composed of green paths lies beyond the park's deer ponds.

Losiny Ostrov National Parkmarker ("Elk Island" National Park), with a total area of more than , borders Sokolniki Park and was Russia's first national park.It is also known as the "city taiga", where elk can be seen.
Entrance to the Moscow Zoo.

Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciencesmarker, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe.It covers territory of bordering the All-Russia Exhibition Centremarker and contains a live exhibition of more than 20 thousand of different species of plants from different parts of the world as well as scientific research laboratory.It also contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest with average age of trees exceeding 100 years as well as a greenhouse on more than 5000 square meters.

Lilac Park, founded in 1958, is known for its permanent sculpture exposition and a large rosarium.

Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Some of the better known attractions include the city's UNESCOmarker World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlinmarker and Red Squaremarker, which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries.The Church of the Ascension at Kolomenskoyemarker, which dates from 1532, is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site and another popular attraction.

Other popular attractions include the Moscow Zoomarker, home to nearly a thousands species and more than 6,500 specimens.Each year, the zoo attracts more than 1.2 million visitors. The long days will also afford one more time to cover the immense wealth of historical, cultural or simply popular sites in Moscow.


Moscow possesses a large number of various sport facilities and over 500 Olympic champions lived in the city by 2005. Moscow is home to sixty-three stadia (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadiummarker is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe (it hosted the 1998–99 UEFA Cup and 2007–08 UEFA Champions League finals).Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including twenty-four with artificial ice. The Olympic Stadiummarker was the world's 1st indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championships twice.Moscow will again be the host of the competition in 2010. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow, of which Central Moscow Hippodromemarker, founded in 1834, is the largest.

Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, although the yachting events were held at Tallinnmarker, in present-day Estoniamarker.Large athletic facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow had also made a bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on 6 July 2005, Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds. The Games were finally awarded to London.

The most titled ice hockey team in the Soviet Unionmarker and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow.Other big ice hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow, which was the second most titled team in the Soviet Unionmarker, PHC Krylya Sovetov, and HC Spartak Moscow.

The most titled Sovietmarker, Russianmarker, and one of the most titled Euroleague clubs, is the Basketball club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow.Another strong Basketballclub from Moskow is MBC Dynamo Moscow.

Moscow had more winners at the USSRand Russian Chess Championshipthan any other city. Some of them were the best players in the world.

The most titled Volleyball team in the Soviet Unionmarker and in Europe (CEV Champions League) is VC CSKA Moscow.

Central Moscow Hippodrome facade.
In Football, FC Spartak Moscow won more championship titles in the Russian Premier League than any other team, and were second only to FC Dynamo Kyiv in the Soviet Unionmarker.PFC CSKA Moscowwas the first Russian football team to win an UEFAtitle. FC Lokomotiv Moscow, FC Dynamo Moscowand FC Moscoware the other professional football teams based in Moscow.

Because of Moscow's cold local climate, winter sportshave a large following as well. Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiers and frozen ponds for skaters.

Moscow also hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennistournament on both the WTAand ATPtours. It is regarded as a very prestigious tournament and is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year.

Slava Moscow are a professional rugby unionclub, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Moscow recently became home to the offices of the Rugby Union of Russia, formerly located in Krasnoyarskmarker, Siberiamarker.

Moscow is the home of one club in the Russian Championshipof rugby league, RC Lokomotiv Moscow. They often participate in the Challenge Cupthe most prestigious knockout competition in rugby league.

In Bandyone of the most successful clubs in the world is Dynamo Moscow.

One of the best Futsalclubs in Europe, is the club MFK Dinamo Moskva.

Night life

There is a vibrant night life in Moscow. The major and one of the most popular nightlife areas is around Tverskaya Streetmarker.

The southern part of Tverskaya Street near the Manege Squaremarker and the Red Squaremarker area is known as an area with many expensive, luxurious bars and restaurants, and is considered to be a playground for New Russians and celebrities.

Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow.

The adjoining Tretyakovsky Proyezdmarker, also south of Tverskaya Street, in Kitai-gorodmarker, is host to upscale boutique stores such as Bulgari, Tiffany & Co., Armani, Prada and Bentley.Nightlife in Moscow has moved on since Soviet times and have today many of the worlds largest nightclubs.

Education and science

There are 1696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges. Besides these, there are 222 institutions offering higher education in Moscow, including 60 state universities and the Lomonosov Moscow State Universitymarker, which was founded in 1755.The university main building located in Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hillsmarker) is tall and when completed, was the tallest building outside the United States.The university has over 30,000 undergraduateand 7,000 postgraduatestudents, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to learn the Russian language.
Moscow is a financial center of Russian Federationmarker and CIS countries and well-known for its business schools, among the best are Finance Academy under the Government of RF; Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics; New Economic School; The State University of Managementmarker, and State University - Higher School of Economics.They offer undegraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate and economic theory as well Masters programs and MBAwith varied concentrations. Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world.

Bauman Moscow State Technical Universitymarker, founded in 1830, is located in the centre of Moscow and provides more than 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering offering a wide range of technical degrees.Since it opened enrolment to students from outside Russia in 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University has increased its international enrolment to up to two hundred.

The Moscow Conservatorymarker, founded in 1866 is a prominent music school in Russia, whose graduates included Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke.

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardinin 1919. Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalovwere among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Andrei Tarkovsky, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Alexander Sokurov, Yuriy Norshteyn, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolfamong graduates.

Moscow State Institute of International Relationsmarker, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six different schools focused on international relations.Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books — of which 20,000 are considered rare — can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Among other prominent institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologymarker, also known as Phystechmarker, Moscow Aviation Institutemarker, Moscow Motorroad Institute (State Technical University), and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institutemarker.Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologymarker has taught numerous Nobel Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau and Alexander Prokhorov, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institutemarker is known for its research in nuclear physics.The highest Russian military school is the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineeringor the fundamental science, in recent years Moscow has seen a significant growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in businessand management. Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and increased their student enrolments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduatedegrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programswith different (especially, European) countries also have become widespread in Moscow's universities, while many schools within the Russian capital will also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.

Moscow is known as one of the most important science centres in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciencesmarker are located in Moscow as well as numerous research and applied science institutions.The Kurchatov Institutemarker, Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physicsmarker, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematicsmarker are all situated in Moscow.

There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children. The Russian State Librarymarker, founded in 1862 is the national library of Russia.The Russian State Library is home to over 275 kilometres of shelves and forty-two million items, including over seventeen million books and serial volumes, thirteen million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 different languages comprise approximately twenty-nine percent of the collection.

The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library, specialising in Russian history. Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science.



Airport Vnukovo underground Railway Station

There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow: Sheremetyevo International Airportmarker, Domodedovo International Airportmarker, Bykovo Airportmarker, Ostafyevo International Airportmarker and Vnukovo International Airportmarker.Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most common entry point for foreign passengers, handling sixty percent of all international flights. Domodedovo International Airportmarker is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo's.The three other airports particularly offer flights within Russia and to and from states from the former Soviet Unionmarker.Moscow's airports vary in distances from MKADbeltway: Bykovo is the farthest, at 35 kilometres (21 mi); Domodedovo is next at 22 kilometres (13.7 mi); Vnukovo is 11 kilometres (6.8 mi); Sheremetyevo is 10 kilometres (6.25 mi); and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about from MKAD.

There are also several smaller airports near Moscow, such as Myachkovo Airportmarker, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.


Moscow also has two passenger terminals, (South River Terminalmarker and North River Terminalmarker or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment.The North River Terminal, built in 1937, is also the main hub for long-range river routes. There are also three freight ports serving Moscow.


Moscow employs several train stations to serve the city. Moscow's nine rail terminals (or vokzals)  are: They are located close to the city centre, but each handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. There are also many smaller railway stations in Moscow. As train tickets are relatively cheap, they are the mode of preference for travelling Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburgmarker, Russia's second-largest city.Moscow is also the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly of Russian territory to Vladivostokmarker on the Pacificmarker coast.

Suburbs and satellite cities are also connected by commuter elektrichka(electric rail) network. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby (up to ) large railway stations.


Local transport includes the Moscow Metro, a metrosystem famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. When it first opened in 1935, the system had just one line. Today, the Moscow Metro contains twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 177 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedymarker station, completed in 2003, at underground, has the longest escalators in Europe.The Moscow Metro is one of world's busiestmetro systems, serving more than nine million passengers daily. Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has wide plans of expansion of Moscow Metro.


There is also a short monorail linemarker, operated by the Moscow Metro company.The line connects station near Timiryazevskayamarker Metro station and station near tram depot at Sergeya Eyzenshteyna str., close to ARECmarker.The line opened in 2004

Bus & Trolleybus

As Metro stations outside the city centre are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to , an extensive bus network radiates from each station to the surrounding residential zones. Also Moscow has a bus terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses (Central Bus Terminalmarker) with daily turnover of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow.

Every large street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybusroutes. Also every large street of Moscow has trolley wires over it.


Moscow has an extensive tram system which first opened in 1899. Its daily usage by Muscovites is low (approx. 5%) although it still remains vital in some districts for those who need to get to the nearby Metro station.


In Russia and Moscow, the difference between hailing a cab and simply hitchhiking is blurry. It's an old Russian tradition for drivers to offer rides to strangers, for a fee. Generally, wherever you are, at any time of day or night, you can get a 'cab' in a matter of minutes or seconds by holding out your hand. Commercial taxi services are also available. Besides this route taxiis also wide spread.


There are over 2.6 million cars in the city on a daily basis. Recent years have seen the growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and the lack of parking space to become major problems.

The MKAD, along with the Third Transport Ringand the future Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freewaysthat run within Moscow city limits. However, as one can easily observe from a map of Moscow area, there are several other roadway systems that form concentric circlesaround the city.



Moscow is one of largest city economies in Europe and it comprises approximately 20% of Russian GDP. As of 2007 Moscow economy reached 6.73 trl roubles ($263 bln or $426bln PPP adjusted ).

In 2006, Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian rubleas well as increasing housing prices within the city. Moscow also ranked first in the 2007 edition and 2008 edition of the survey. However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third and behind Osaka at second.

A significant portion of Russia's profits and development is concentrated in Moscow as many multi-national corporations have branches and offices in the city. The plush offices and the lifestyles of the typical corporate employee in Moscow are often indistinguishable from any Western Europeancity, although the average salary for the Muscovite is a bit lower. Since the 1998 Russian financial crisis, various business sectors in Moscow have shown exponential rates of growth. Many new business centres and office buildings have been built in recent years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office space. As a result, many former industrial and research facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office use.
However, while the overall stability has improved in the recent years, crime and corruption continue to remain a problem hindering business development.

Lermontovskaya Square
The Cherkizovskiy marketplace is the largest marketplace in Europe with daily turnover of about thirty million dollars and about ten thousand sellers from different countries (including Chinamarker, Turkeymarker, Azerbaijanmarker and Indiamarker).It is administratively divided into twelve parts and covers a wide sector of the city.It is closed from 1st of July 2009.

In 2008, Moscow had 74 billionaires with average wealth of $5.9 billion, which placed it above New York's 71 billionaires. However, in 2009, there are only 27 billionaires in Moscow compared with New York's 55 billionaires. Overall, Russia lost 52 billionaires during the recession List of Russian billionaires by net worth. Topping the list of Russia's billionaires in 2009 is Mikhail Prokhorovwith $9,5 billion, ahead of the more famous Roman Abramovichwith $8.5 billion, in 2nd place. Prokhorov's holding company, "ОНЭКСИМ" group, owns huge assets in hidrogenium energy, nanotechnology, traditional energy, precious metals sector, while Abramovich, since selling his oil company Sibneft to Russian state-controlled gas giant Gazprom in 2005, has bought up steel and mining assets. He also owns Chelsea F.C.. Russia's richest woman remains Yelena Baturina, the 45-year-old second wife of Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov. Oleg Deripaska, the 1st of this list in 2008 with $28 billion, in 2009 is only 10th with $3.5 billion.

The nouveau riche, also called the "New Russians", often pejoratively, have a reputation for flaunting their wealth; the avenues for doing so, and subtly, have also increased in recent times — a sense of fashion and self-consciousness has instilled itself through the many haute coutureand haute cuisinespots in Moscow.


Primary industriesin Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software developmentand machineryindustries.

The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plantis one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world. Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Centerproduces various space equipment, including modules for space stations Mir, Salyutand the ISSas well as Proton launch vehiclesand military ICBMs. Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Tupolevand Yakovlevaircraft design bureaus also situated in Moscow. Automobile plants ZiLand AZLK, as well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrovagonmashmetro wagon plant is located just outside the city limits. The Poljot Moscow watch factoryproduces reliable military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad. Yuri Gagarinin his trip into space used "Shturmanskie", produced by this factory. The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. The Kristall distillery is the oldest distillery in Russia producing various vodkatypes, including "Stolichnaya" while a wide assortment of wines are produced at several Moscow wine plants, including Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. The Moscow Jewelry Factory and the Jewellerprom are important producers of jewellery in Russia; Jewellerprom used to produce the famous and exclusive Order of Victory, awarded to those aiding the Soviet Union's Red Armyduring World War II. There are also many other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as many microelectronic industries in Zelenogradmarker.

Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gasin the world and the largest Russian company, has head office also in Moscow, as well as many other oil, gas and electricity companies.

Moscow also hosts headquarters of various software development companies, including such as:
  • 1C Company – business software and games producer
  • ABBYY software house – developer of text recognition and translation software,
  • Akella – game developer company
  • Kaspersky Lab – worldwide-known producer of anti-virus software,

Despite the economic growth experienced in Moscow since the dawn of the twenty-first century, many industries have undergone various crises in recent years. Some of them have been sold to foreign investors, such as OTISand British American Tobacco, and others have been closed down to make room for new buildings constructed as business centres.

Additionally, some industry is now being transferred out of Moscow to improve the ecological state of the city. Nevertheless, the city of Moscow remains one of Russia's major industrial centres.

Living costs

Modern architecture of Moscow
Residential buildings under construction

During Sovietmarker times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm (some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors).Private ownershipof apartments was limited until the 1990s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area.

Due to the current economic situation, the price of real estatein Moscow continues to rise. Today, one could expect to pay US$4000 in average per square meter (11 sq ft) in the outskirts of the city or US$6,500–$8,000 per square meter in a prestigious district. The price sometimes may exceed US$40,000 per square meter in a flat. It costs about US$2500 per month to rent a 1-bedroom apartment and about US$1500 per month for a studio in the center of Moscow.

A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square meters (323 sq ft), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square meters (485 sq ft), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square meters (753 sq ft). Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas(country houses) outside the city.

In 2008, Moscow ranked top on the list of most expensive citiesfor the third year in a row.

As of 2006, there are 8.47 million Muscovites able to work. 1.73 million are employed by the state, 4.42 million are employed by private companies, and 1.99 million are employed by small businesses. There are 74,400 officially registered unemployed working age, of which 34,400 are eligible for unemployment benefits.

Future development

The "Moscow International Business Center" (Moscow-Citymarker) is a projected new part of central Moscow.Geographically situated in Presnensky District, located at the Third Ring, the Moscow-City area is under intense development.

The goal of MIBC "Moscow-City" is to create a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe, that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment. It will be a city within a city. The project was conceived by the Moscow government in 1992.

The construction of MIBC "Moscow-City" takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up 1 square kilometer (247 acres). This area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes.

The Federation Towermarker, now being built is to be completed in 2009, will become the tallest building in Europe when completed.

At overall completion the plan is to have one of the tallest buildings in the world; the Russia Towermarker is planned to be completed by 2012 at a height of 612,2 meters (2009 ft), second only to the Burj Dubaimarker.Also to be included in the project are a waterpark and other recreational facilities; trade and entertainment complexes, numerous prestigious office and residential buildings, the transport node and the new site of the Moscow governmentmarker.The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has already been completed, of which two have already opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned. A rail shuttle service, directly connecting MIBC with the Sheremetyevo International Airportmarker is also planned.
A Fourth Ring freeway (in addition to Moscow Automobile Ring Road, Garden Ringand the Third Ring) has been designed and is being built around Moscow. It is to be completed by 2012 and will have total length of .

In March 2009 the Russian business newspaper "Kommersant" reported that because of the Worldwide Economic Crisis, which started in 2008 and spread globally, many of the construction projects in Moscow (especially in the "Moscow International Business Center") are frozen and may be cancelled altogether—like the ambitious "Russia Tower" in "Moscow-city". Many of yesterday's monstrous development groups is now in near-bankrupt state like—Mirax-group or AFI Development.



Population of (1350—2009)
According to the 2002 Censusthe population of the city was 10,382,754, however, this figure only takes into account legal residents. Latest estimate—10,524,400 (1 June 2009). Population of Moscow with Moscow regionmarker is 17,001,292 (as of the 2002 Census).

For centuries Moscow has been the largest city in Russia and/or the Soviet Unionmarker, however the collapse of the latter has led to a decline in Siberianmarker as well as many other Russian cities, so that Moscow's growth and dominance over Saint Petersburgmarker and the rest of the nation has become even more pronounced.

Due to a low birth rate and high mortality rate, the population of Russia has been declining by approximately 700,000 persons per year since the fall of the Soviet Unionmarker.In 2003, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by approximately 49,400. Whilst the birth rate has risen in more recent years, the average age of Moscow's population continues to increase.

Substantial numbers of internal migrants mean that Moscow's population is still increasing, whereas the population of many other Russian cities is in decline. Migrants are attracted by Moscow's strong economy which contrasts sharply with the stagnation in many other parts of Russia. In order to help regulate population growth, Moscow has an internal passportsystem that prohibits non-residents from staying in the capital for more than ninety days without registration.


Christianity is the predominant religion in the city, of which the Russian Orthodox Churchis the most popular by virtue of being the country’s traditional religion and is deemed a part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. Moscow is also Russia's capital of Orthodox Christianity. The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the head of the church and resides in the Danilov Monasterymarker.Moscow was called "city of 1600 churches" (ru: "город сорока сороков церквей"city of forty forties churches) prior to 1917. In 1918 Russia became secular state and religion lost its position in society. After disintegration of Soviet Unionmarker in 1991 many of the destroyed churches have been restored and traditional religions are gaining popularity.

In Moscow there are other religious societies besides Orthodoxy: Muslims(Moscow is home to 1.5 million people of Muslim backgrounds, many from countries previously a part of the Soviet Union), Protestants, Old-believers, Single-believers, Judaism and various cult buildings of those religions.

The New Agemovement has also led to emergence of some "non-traditional" religions in large cities of Russia. Polls indicate that around 1% of population of Moscow and St. Petersburgmarker self-identify as Buddhists.Many of these are Slavic and have no ethnic connection to Buddhism.


Moscow and Saint Petersburgmarker have often served as the capital for auto theft in Russiamarker, this crime in particular dramatically increased during the early 1990’s.Pick-pocketing is frequent in Moscow, as well as burglaryfrom vehicles. Organized crime in Moscow and Russiamarker in general, have often been involved with drug trafficking, cyber crime, prostitution, and financial crimes.Robbers in the city tend to pose as policeofficers, it is recommended to not travel alone and to use caution outside of Metro stations. Moscow has historically had a high murder rateper capita. For the year of 1998, Moscow had a murder rate of 18.1 killings per 100,000 residents and was the most dangerous European city; other cities that followed closely behind were Helsinkimarker and Lisbonmarker..A new studysays Nearly 60% of blackand African peopleliving in Russia's capital Moscow have been physically assaulted in racially motivated attacks ..


Moscow is the headquarters of nearly all Russian nationwide television networks, radio stations, newspapersand magazines.


English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News which are, respectively, the largest and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russiamarker.Expert, Kommersant, and are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. Expertand Kommersantare among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers.

TV and radio

Other notable media of Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned Russian television stations.

Moscow television networks (Russian-language):

Moscow radio stations:

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Moscow has many twin cities. In order to find source on the cities, it is found on the sister city's page.

See also



  • Caroline Brooke. Moscow: A Cultural History. 2006 (Oxford University Press)
  • Karel Neubert. "Portrait of Moscow". 1964
  • Albert J. Schmidt. "The Architecture and Planning of Classical Moscow: A Cultural History". 1989
  • Kathleen Berton. "Moscow: An Architectural History". St. Martin's, 1991
  • Marcel Girard. "Splendours of Moscow and Its Surroundings", trans. from French. 1967
  • John Bushnell. "Moscow Graffiti: Language and Subculture". Unwin Hyman, 1990
  • S.S. Hromov et al. (eds.). "History of Moscow: An Outline", trans. from Russian. 1981
  • Galina Dutkina. "Moscow Days: Life and Hard Times in the New Russia". Trans. Catherine Fitzpatrick. Kodansha America, 1995.


  1. Thomas Brinkoff, Principal Agglomerations of the World, accessed on 2009-03-12. Data for 2009-01-01.
  2. Mercer's 2008 Cost of Living survey highlights
  4. In old Russian the word "Сорок" (Forty) also meant a church administrative district, which consisted of about forty churches.
  5. Russian: On the origins of Moskva
  6. Moscow — Historical background
  7. Genesis of the Anti-Plague System: The Tsarist Period
  8. According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.
  10. See also: The Official Site of the Tretyakov Gallery Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  11. See also: The Official Site of the Polytechnical Museum Retrieved on 2006-07-23. ( English version)
  12. See also: The official site of Borodino Panorama museum
  13. See also: The Official Site of the State Central Concert Hall "Rossia". Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  14. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow International Performance Arts Centre. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
  15. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Nikulun Circus. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  16. See also: The Official Site of the Museum of Cinema. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  17. Green dress of Moscow
  18. Neskuchniy Garden
  19. The Official Site of the Main Moscow Botanical Garden. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  20. UNESCO considers the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square to be part of a single World Heritage Site. See also UNESCO's profile on this site.
  21. BBC Sport: The mood in Moscow
  24. See also: The Official Site of the Central Moscow Hippodrome
  25. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Conservatory. Retrieved on 2006-07-17.
  26. {{cite web |url={7F81DBB2-6EEE-4796-B2DF-7230433C5C41}" |title=Facts and Figures |publisher=MGIMO (Moscow State Institute of International Relations) |accessdate=2006-07-06}}
  27. See also: The official homepage of the Russian State Library
  28. Official site of the State Public Historical Library
  29. Airport Myachkovo changed the owners
  30. See also: [1] Realty news. Retrieved on 2006-07-22.
  31. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Cristall distillery. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  32. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  33. See also: The Official Site of the Moscow Jewelry Factory. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  34. See also: The Official Site of the Experimental Moscow Jewelry Atelier Jewellerprom. Retrieved on 2006-07-07
  35. US$4,500 for a Square Meter of Apartment Space. The Moscow Times
  36. The absolute record of realty cost is broken
  37. Costs of realty in Moscow (2006)
  38. World's most expensive cities - Buy a House: MLS Listings & Home Buying Tips - MSN Real Estate
  39. Russia Tower Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  42. Plan of the Fourth Transport Road
  43. Almaty official site
  44. Moscow and Rejkjavik sister cities. . Retrieved on 2008-03-11
  45. Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.

External links

Official sites


  • "Russkoe Radio"
  • "Evropa Plus"
  • "DFM"
  • "NRJ"
  • "Maximum"
  • "Radio Dacha"
  • "Nashe Radio"
  • "Radio 7"
  • "Umor FM"
  • "Retro FM"
  • "Radio Rossia"
  • "Radio Podmoskovie"
  • "Radiocompany Moscow"
  • "Unost"
  • "Mayak"
  • "Orphey"
  • "Echo of Moscow"
  • "Radio Jazz"
  • "Classic Radio"
  • "Vesti FM"
  • other

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