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Muawiyah I ( ); (602680) is the first Caliph in the Ummayad Dynasty. In Sunni Islam he is perceived as having two main parts to his life which are of major historical note. The first part was as one of the staunchest enemies of Mohammad and of Islam; indeed Muawiya was after the Battle of Badr the heir-apparent to the pagan throne of Mecca which was occupied in effect by his father Abu Sofyan and mother Hinda. After the defeat of his family following the fall of Mecca in 8 AH Muawiya said that he was then a Muslim and hence is regarded within Sunni Islam as a Sahabi (companion) of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Also he was Katib Al-waḥi (inspiration writer) – he later became a member of the Umayyad caliphate in Damascusmarker. Shia Muslims refuse to recognise the sincerity of his conversion, and cite as evidence his allegedly being cursed by Mohammad (see section on physical appearances below) and Muawiya's waging of continual civil war against the caliphate led by Ali, al-Hassan and many of the early companions. He engaged in a major civil war against the fourth and fifth (final) Rashidun (Rightly Guided Caliphs), Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) (Muhammad's son-in-law) and Muhammad's eldest grandson Al-Hassan, and Mu'awiya met with considerable military success, including the seizure of Egyptmarker. He assumed the caliphate after Ali's assassination and forcing the abdication of al-Hassan by threatening further bloodshed in 661 and led until 680.

Because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor (see Succession to Muhammad), the belief that he broke the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali by appointing his son Yazid as ruler and the belief that he was responsible for the deaths of various companions, Mu'awiyah has been hated and reviled by generations of Shi'a and is not regarded as a rightly guided caliph by some Sunni Muslims.

Early life

180 px
Mu'awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan was born in 602 C.E. into a powerful clan, the Banu Umayya, of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Meccamarker, in what is now western Saudi Arabiamarker, and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens.Like Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiya was a staunch follower of the pre-Islamic polytheism that was Abu Sufyan, opposed Muhammad before becoming a Muslim after Muhammad conquered Mecca.

In 630 CE, Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. General consensus among early Islamic historians is that Mu'awiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca when further resistance to Muslims became an impossibility. Some scholars hold the view that Mu'awiya was the second of the two to convert, with Abu Sufyan convincing him to do it.

Muhammad welcomed his former opponents, enrolled them in his army and gave them important posts in what was to become the Rashidun Caliphate. After Muhammad's death in 632, he served in the Islamic army sent against the Byzantine forces in Syria. He held a high rank in the Rashidun army which was led by his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan.

His wives

Historian recorded that Muawiyah had many wives, one of them is Maysun bint Jandal a Christian poetess and singer from Bani Kalb in south Syria. She gave birth to Yazid I in 645 when Muawiyah was a governor of Syria pointed by Umar ibn al-Khattab. However, he divorced her later and she took Yazid her only son back to her tribe.

Another wife was Fakhinah bint Qarzhah from the clan of Abdumanaf. He had 2 sons with her: Abdullah and Abdulrahman. Abdullah was dumb and was nicknamed "Abu al-Khayr". Abdulrahman died when he was young.

The third wife was Katwah bin Qarzhah, Fakhinah's sister. When Muawiyah invaded Cyprus he took her with him and she died there.

The fourth wife was Na'ilah bint Ammarah from the same tribe as Maysun. He divorced her after a while. Na'ilah was married to Habib al-Nu'man ibn al-Bashir al-Ansari.

Governor of Syria

Caliph Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab) had appointed Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan as governor of Syria. In the year 640, Umar appointed Muawiyah as governor of Syria when his brother died in an outbreak of plague. Muawiyah gradually gained mastery over the other areas of Syria, instilling remarkable personal loyalty among his troops and the people of the region. By 647, Muawiyah had built a Syrian army strong enough to repel a Byzantine attack and, in subsequent years, to take the offensive against the Byzantines in campaigns that resulted in the capture of Cyprusmarker (649) and Rhodesmarker (654) and a devastating defeat of the Byzantine navy off the coast of Lycia (655). At the same time, Muawiyah periodically dispatched land expeditions into Anatoliamarker.

According to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, Muawiyah I, after capturing Rhodes sold the remains of the Colossus of Rhodesmarker to a traveling salesman from Edessamarker. The buyer had the statue broken down, and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home. Pieces continued to turn up for sale for years, after being found along the caravan route.

All these campaigns came to a halt with the accession of Ali to the caliphate, when a new and decisive phase of Muawiyah's career began.

Conflict with Ali

Muawiyah fought a protracted campaign against Ali, allegedly seeking justice for the assassinated caliph Uthman Ibn Affan. Aisha (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow), Talhah (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Al-Zubayr (Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) were all in agreement with Muawiyah that those who assassinated Uthman should be brought to justice. However, Ali refused to apprehend and punish Uthman's murderers, citing rebel infiltration of the Muslim ranks, resulting in Muawiyah's refusal to acknowledge Ali's caliphate.

Muawiyah did not participate in the campaign by Aisha, Talhah and Al-Zubayr against Ali that ended in the Battle of the Camel. The city of Basrah went over to them but they were defeated in battle by Ali. Talhah and Al-Zubayr were killed. Ali pardoned Aisha and had her escorted back to Medinamarker.

Ali then turned towards Syria, where Mu'awiyah was in open opposition. He marched to the Euphrates and engaged Mu'awiyah's troops at the famous Battle of Siffin (657). Accounts of the clash vary – however, it would seem that neither side had won a victory, since the Syrians called for arbitration to settle the matter, arguing that continuing civil war would embolden the Byzantines. There are several conflicting accounts of the arbitrations.

In the meantime, dissension broke out in Ali's camp where some of his former supporters, later known as Kharijites, felt that Ali had betrayed them by entering into negotiations. Ali set out to quell the Kharijites. At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt. The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali had him replaced with Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr). Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr's rule resulted in widespread rebellion in Egypt. Mu'awiyah ordered 'Amr ibn al-'As to invade Egypt and 'Amr did so successfully. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed under Mu'awiyah's orders and stuffed into a donkey. It is said that Aisha never ate meat again in her life after this act.

When Alī was assassinated in 661, Mu'awiyah, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had the strongest claim to the Caliphate. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina.

Muawiyah said later: "I never fought against Ali, only about Uthman's death". That was attested by Al-Sharif al-Radi in his book Nahj al-Balagha, he said:

Rule

After being granted the title Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful) in the year 661, Mu'awiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate Caliphate, which now spread from Egypt in the west to Iranmarker in the east, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.

Mu'awiyah instituted several Byzantine-style bureaucracies, called divans, to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the Caliphate and the empire. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Mu'awiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (Chancellery) and the Barid (Postal Service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire.

To have an insight into Mu’awiyah’s character, we may mention what Ibn Katheer reports in his history book Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah.
"At the height of tension when fighting was about to erupt at Siffin between Imam Ali and Mu’awiyah, Mu’awiyah was informed that the Byzantine Emperor raised a very large army and was drawing very close to the borders of the Muslim state.
He wrote to him, giving him a very clear warning, 'By God, if you do not stop your designs and go back to your place, I will end my dispute with my cousin and will drive you out of the entire land you rule, until I make the earth too tight for you.'
The Byzantine Emperor was scared off and abandoned his plans"


However, other scholars contend that he simply placated the Byzantine emperor with offers of land, gold, and slaves.

Mu'awiyah died May 6, 680, allegedly from a stroke brought on by his weight. He was succeeded by his son Yazid I. Mu'awiyah had held the expanding empire together by force of his personality, through personal allegiances, in the style of a traditional Arab sheikh. However Mu'awiyah's attempt to start a dynasty failed because both Yazid and then his grandson Muawiya II died prematurely. The caliphate eventually went to Marwan I a descendant of another branch of Mu'awiya's clan.

Mu'awiya and Mawalis

It was in the time of Umar that discrimination was made amongst Muslims on the basis of race, for he had begun the system of Mawalis (non-Arab converts to Islam who became clients of Arabs / token Arabs with their own taxation system and exclusion from certain jobs). This unpopular system was restored by Muawiya . Umar had also rehabilitated Mu'awiya within the power structure of the Islamic state after his ostracisation during the time of Muhammad, by appointing him to the Governorship of Syria - Syria became Muawiya's powerbase. Umar had said that Mu'awiya would be the Caesar of the Arabs, a reference to his imperial ambitions. In accordance with the ways of Empire, Mu'awiya favoured his Arab subjects over non-Arab Muslims (the Mawalis) - the discriminatory treatment of non-Arab Muslims by the victorious Umayyad forces are documented by both Sunni and Shia sources as in the example below concerning Mu'awiya's commands to his governor Ziyad ibn Abih Mu'awiyah, in a famous letter addressed to Ziyad ibn Abih, the then governor of Iraq, wrote:

Be watchful of Iranian Muslims and never treat them as equals of Arabs. Arabs have a right to take in marriage their women, but they have no right to marry Arab women. Arabs are entitled to inherit their legacy, but they cannot inherit from an Arab. As far as possible they are to be given lesser pensions and lowly jobs.

Appearance and habits

There are conflicting reports regarding his appearance. According to certain sources, he was handsome and athletic and a proud horseman and warrior.

(The following is unclear as no specific hadith is mentioned)It has been argued that in the Arabic culture and language the expression is a colloquialism which means a wish that the person's belly be so full of blessings of Allah (in the form of food) that his belly cannot take anymore, or that he wishes the persons blessings to be without an end. This is similar to the English saying of a father saying to his son in a soccer match to "Break a leg". However, the two pre-eminent Masters of Sunni Hadith, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, have rejected absolutely the latter apology for Mu'awiya, and Imam Muslim indeed places the Hadith-e-Muawiya in the Chapter of those Cursed by Mohammad. Further, the Imam Nisa'i was murdered when he recited this Hadith in the presence of pro-Muawiya Arab-speaking Syrians as it was perceived as a curse of Mu'awiya, which debases the unreferenced suggestion that the term was a form of praise and not condemnation. Shias often question why there are no reliable precise accounts of Mu'awiya actually participating in any battles after his conversion to Islam - no names of enemies he personally defeated in combat are known.

Legacy

Mu'awiyah greatly beautified Damascus likening it to Rome, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinoplemarker. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslims charge that if anything, he was the instigator of the civil war, and weakened the Muslim nation and divided the Ummah, fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies and slander against the Prophet's family and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire.

One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, in which Muawiyah said he would not make his son his successor. Yazid was regarded by many Muslims of the time as a moral degenerate, a sadist and a hedonist, and in many accounts his beliefs hovered between polytheism and atheism

Sunni View

Many Sunni historians view Muawiyah as a companion of Muhammad, and hence worthy of respect for this reason, and many Sunnis Muslims indeed revere him, taking great issue with the Shia criticism and vilification of him. However other Sunni Muslims, while refusing to adopt the negativity of Shia sentiment to Muawiya nevertheless quietly withhold according him religious status owing to his rebellions against Ali and al-Hassan, who are regarded as pious rulers, Muawiyah being regarded as a wordly king of dubious sincerity. Sunnis believe that the imperial legacy of Muawiyah was overshadowed by his materialistic ambition for personal power and materialistic dominion - he fought against Ali, causing great bloodshed and slaying many highly regarded companions of Muhammad who took the side of Ali over many years, often cruelly murdering them; and though Ali defeated Muawiyah in battle Muawiya continued to raise the banner of war and civil strife against Ali's legitimate successor Al-Hassan. Finally Muawiyah transformed the caliphate from an elective monarchy with some emphasis on religious qualification into a hereditary one with no such stringent requirement, by designating his son Yezid as his successor.

A Sunni hadith says: "..Muawiyah who was really the best of the two men said to him, "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin 'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace..."

Sunni scholars interpret Hasan's willingness to abandon his claims in favor of Mu'awiyah as proof that Al-Hasan, Muhammad's eldest grandson, did not go so far as to view Muawiyah an apostate, renegade and hypocrite. Al-Hasan, they say, did so for the sake of peace and ending the civil war. Some Sunni Muslims say Hasan entered into the treaty simply to prevent further civil war and bloodshed. Pro-Alid Sunnis also say as Shias do that Al-Hassan aimed to show the Muslim world that the Umayyads should not be entrusted with responsibility for protecting the religion founded by Al-Hassan's grandfather since Muawiya would violate all the terms of the treaty, thereby proving himself untrustworthy.

Shi'a View

The Shi'a view Mu'awiyah as a tyrant, usurper and murderer. His supposed conversion to Islam before the conquest of Mecca is dismissed as a fable, or mere hypocrisy. He is also described as a manipulator and liar who usurped Islam purely for political and material gain. He was also widely regarded as a tyrant and usurper by both Shia Arabs and Persians, who despite being ruled by Sunni Arabs and their vassals for centuries, ultimately found the egalitarian Shia creed more palatable than the oppressive, Arab-supremacist tribal rule of Mu'awiya. Ali was noted for upholding the rights of non-Arab Muslims, whereas the Umayyads are remembered in Persian history for squashing them. The Umayyads suppressed Persian culture and language, and a number of Iran's greatest contributors to Persian literature - both Shias like Ferdowsi and Sunnis like Sa'di - took the side of Ali, not Mu'awiyah.

Mu'awiya opposed Ali, the rightful Imam, out of sheer greed for power and wealth. His reign opened the door to unparalleled disaster, marked by the persecution of Ali, slaughtering of his followers, and unlawful imprisonment of his supporters, which only worsened when Yazid come into power and the Battle of Karbala ensued. Mu'awiya is alleged to have killed many of Muhammad's companions (Sahaba), either in battle or by poison, due to his lust for power. A few historical figures killed by Mu'awiya include: the Sahaba Amr bin al-Hamiq,Muhammad ibn abu bakr Malik al-Ashtar, Hujr ibn Adi (to which the families of Abu Bakr and Umar condemned Mu'awiyah for, and the Sahaba deemed his killer to be cursed) and Abd al-Rahman bin Hasaan (buried alive for his support of Ali).

  • Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu, Page 484, By Syed Mohammed Subh-e-Kashaf AlTirmidhi, Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari, Published by Aloom AlMuhammed, number B12 Shadbagh, Lahore, 1 January 1963.


  • Habib Alseer Rabiyah AlAbrar, Volume 1, Alama JarulAllah Zamik (530 Hijri),


  • Hadoiqa Sanai, by Hakim Sanai (Died 525 Hijri, at Ghazni), Page 65-67,


  • Namoos Islam, by Agha Hashim Sialkoti, Published Lahore, 1939 - Pages 66–67


  • Tazkarah Tul-Aikram Tarikh-e-Khulafa Arab-Wa-Islam by Syed Shah Mohamed Kabir Abu Alalaiyi Dana Puri, Published Le Kishwar Press, Lakhnow, April 1924/ 1346 H


Mu'awiyah was also responsible for instigating the Battle of Siffin, the bloodiest battle in Islam's history, in which over 70,000 people (among them many of the last surviving companions of the Prophet Muhammad) were killed. Notable among the Companions who were killed by Mu'awiyah's forces was Ammar bin Yasir, a frail old man of 95 at the time of his murder. Shi'i Muslims see his being killed at the hands of Mu'awiyah's army as significant because of a well-known hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah in which the Prophet is recorded to have said: "Rejoice Ammar! The transgressing party shall kill you."

When the tide of the battle was turning in Ali's favor, Mu'awiyah stalled Ali's troops by raising the Qur'an on the tip of a bloody spear as a sort of "holy book shield" against attack by Muslims. This sort of act is widely regarded as blasphemy and desecration of God's word, and Shia scholars condemn Mu'awiyah for it, arguing such a practice would today be condemned by Sunni Muslims just as much as Shia Muslims.

The killing of the two children of Ubaydullah ibn Abbas can also be found in Sunni and Shi'a texts. [...] Then he [i.e. Mu'awiyah] was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. So he set out to reach them, and when he found them - they had two (tender) forelocks like pearls - [and] he ordered to kill them.

From the Shia point of view, Imam Hasan ibn Ali did not sign the treaty with Mu'awiya because he liked him; rather, he did so to prevent even worse bloodshed than had already happened at Siffin. Hasan's intention was to preserve the Muslim Ummah and eventually restore the Caliphate to its rightful heirs, the Prophet's family (as per the terms of the treaty). Unfortunately he was unable to do this as he was fatally poisoned on Mu'awiyah's orders, according to remour, but never verified.

See also



References

  1. History of Tabari
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  3. The History of al-Tabari, Volume IX, The Last Years of the Prophet, p32, SUNY Press
  4. Life of Muhammad, Ibn Hisham, Volume 2, p597 (Urdu)
  5. The Early Caliphate, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Al-Jadda Printers, pg. 169-206, 1983
  6. Aisha Bewley, Mu'awiyah: Restorer of the Muslim Faith, pg. 22. Dar al Taqwa Ltd. 2002.
  7. * Musharriful Mahbubin by Hazrat Khuwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Mushrrafi Qadri ra.gif Pages 216-218 * Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu, Page 484, By Syed Mohammed Subh-e-Kashaf AlTirmidhi, Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari, Published by Aloom AlMuhammed, number B12 Shadbagh, Lahore, 1 January 1963. * Habib Alseer Rabiyah AlAbrar, Volume 1, Alama JarulAllah Zamik (530 Hijri), * Hadoiqa Sanai, by Hakim Sanai (Died 525 Hijri, at Ghazni), Page 65-67, * Namoos Islam, by Agha Hashim Sialkoti, Published Lahore, 1939 - Pages 66-67 * Tazkarah Tul-Aikram Tarikh-e-Khulafa Arab-Wa-Islam by Syed Shah Mohamed Kabir Abu Alalaiyi Dana Puri, Published Le Kishwar Press, Lakhnow, April 1924/ 1346 H
  8. Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab People
  9. "Ansab al Ashraf" or "Futuh al-Buldan" by Baladhuri. p.417.
  10. "Tarikh-i Sistan". p82
  11. "Tarikh e Qum". p254-6.
  12. http://forums.ratedesi.com/archive/index.php/t-180678.html
  13. Sahih Muslim, Book of those Cursed by Mohammad but were not deserving
  14. IBn Khallikan, Al Wafat Al Ayan Imam, under the biography of Nisa'i, section dealing with his murder
  15. http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/en/chap8.php
  16. http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/muawiya/en/chap7.php
  17. http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/yazeed/en/index.php.
  18. Leader of the Jundallah Movemement, Abd Al-Malek Al-Rigi: We Train Fighters in the Mountains and Send Them into Iran. October 17, 2008
  19. Muhammad Muhsin Khan "The Translation of the Meanings of Salih al-Bukhari, volume 3" 1984 ISBN 81-7151-016-7, item 867
  20. Tarikh Tabri Volume 18 page 201 ; al Istiab, Volume 1 page 49, Chapter: Busar; al Isaba Volume, 1 page 289, Translation No. 642, Busar bin Irtat; Asadul Ghaba, Volume 1 page 113, Topic: Busar bin Irtat; Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Volume 3 page 225 ; Tarikh Asim Kufi, page 308.
  21. al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 52 ; Asad'ul Ghaba Volume, 1 page 846, Dhikr Umro bin Hamiq; Tarikh Yaqubi, volume 2 page 200, 50 H; Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 52, death of Amro bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai.
  22. al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 48, Dhikr 50 Hijri; al Istiab, Volume 1 page 363 ; al Isaba, Volume 4 page 623, Translation No. 5822 ; Asadul Ghaba, Volume 1 page 846, Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai; Tabaqat al Kubra, Volume 6 page 25 ; Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 240 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Risala Abu Bakr Khawarzmi, page 122 ; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Volume 3 page 12 ; al Maarif, page 127 ; History of Tabari, Volume 18 page 137
  23. Tadhirathul Khawwas, page 64 ; Muruj al Dhahab, Volume 3 page 420 ; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Volume 2 page 191 ; Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 179 ; Tarikh Tabari, English translation Volume 18 pages 144-146 ; Habib al Sayyar, Volume 1 page 72 ; Tabaqat al Kubra, Volume 6 page 213
  24. al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 53 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 249 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tarikh ibn Asakir, Volume 12 page 227 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Volume 3 page 13 Dhikr 51 Hijri; al Isaba, Volume 1 page 313 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Asad'ul Ghaba, Volume 1 page 244 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Shadharat ul Dhahab, Volume 1 page 57 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Tabaqat al Kubra, Volume 6 page 217 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Mustadrak al Hakim, Volume 3 page 468-470 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Akhbar al Tawaal, page 186 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi; Tarikh Abu'l Fida, page 166 Dhikr 51 Hijri; Muruj al Dhahab, Volume 3 page 12 Dhikr 53 Hijri; Tarikh Yaqubi, Volume 2 page 219
  25. al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, Volume 8 page 55 ; Kanz al Ummal, Volume 3 page 88 ; Tarikh al Islam by Dhahabi Volume 2 page 217 ; Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Volume 3 page 12 ; al Isaba, page 355 Dhikr Hujr; al-Istiab, Volume 1 page 97.
  26. Qadhi Abi Bakar al-Arabi. 'Awasim min al Qawasim' p.341 ; Allamah Muhibuddin al-Khateeb
  27. Bidayah wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 52 ; Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 245 ; History of Tabari, Volume 18 page 151.
  28. Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith #3800
  29. http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/siffin.asp
  30. Sunni: Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 194 Dhikr 40 Hijri; Shadharath al Dhahab, page 64 Dhikr 58 Hijri; Tarikh Taabari (English translation) Volume 18 pages 207-208 ; Murujh al Dhahab, Volume 3 page 30 ; al Istiab, Volume 1 page 49, Chapter: Busar; Tarikh ibn Asakir, Volume 10 page 146 ; Asad'ul Ghaba Volume 1 page 213 Dhikr Busar; Tarikh Islam by Dhahabi, Volume 2 page 187. Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Mu'awiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid
  31. Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Mu'awiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid


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