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Mullan Road was the first wagon road to cross the Rocky Mountains to the Inland of the Pacific Northwest. It wasbuilt by US Army Lieut. John Mullan between the spring of 1859 and summer 1860. It led from Fort Benton, Montanamarker to Fort Walla Wallamarker, Washington Territory, roughly following the path of modern-day Interstate 90 through the Rockies.

Parts of the Mullan Road can still be traveled. One such section is near Washtucna, Washingtonmarker.

A segment of the Mullan Road in the vicinity of Benton Lakemarker was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, and the American Society of Civil Engineers designated it a historic civil engineering landmark in 1977. Three segments of the road in Idaho were also listed on the National Register in 1990. In 2009, the Point of Rocks segment in Montana was also listed on the National Register as part of the Point of Rocks Historic Transportation Corridormarker.

History

As early as 1852 the US government began to think about building an overland route to the Pacific Oceanmarker to help settle the area with pioneers and eliminate any claims that Francemarker, Englandmarker or Russiamarker had on the disputed territories. Despite the Lewis and Clark expedition, little detail was known about the country. Isaac Ingalls Stevens, a West Pointmarker graduate appointed the first governor of the Washington Territory, was ordered to survey a route from the Missouri Rivermarker to the Columbia River suitable for building a railroad. Stevens assumed the task, but also kept in mind that the route should be suitable for a wagon road.

In the spring of 1853, Congress authorized a US Army expedition, led by Stevens. It was made up of engineers and explorers; they organized near St. Paul, Minnesotamarker. They were to detail the geographical and topographical character of the country. Among them was a small, dark-haired young man, Lieutenant John Mullan; just a year out of West Pointmarker, he was anxious to prove his mettle as an engineer.

Mullan was placed in charge of surveying, and later improving, a wagon route (now commonly called the Mullan Road) between Fort Benton (Montanamarker) and Fort Walla Wallamarker (Washingtonmarker). Lieutenant Mullan, a topographical engineer, began gathering information in 1854. Delayed by the Yakima War which ended in 1858, construction began in 1859 from Fort Walla Wallamarker. In what was then Washington Territory, Lieutenant Mullan commanded a workforce of more than 200, including civilians workers, surveyors, engineers, and soldiers who carved a wide road across the region.

After the difficult project was completed in 1860, floods wiped out substantial stretches of the road. It was re-routed in 1861. Floods again damaged the road, and ultimately, no provision for maintenance was provided.

Although the road was never heavily used by the military, it was an important conduit for civilian passage, which hastened settling of the northwestern United States. In the first year after completion, it was used by an estimated 20,000 people, 6,000 horses and mules, 5,000 cattle and 83 wagons. The Mullan Road helped Walla Wallamarker become the largest town in Washington Territory by 1870, with a population of 1,394. The road continued to serve as an important route until the completion of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1883 provided faster and more convenient access to the region.

Route of the Mullan Road

From the origin at Fort Benton, Montana, the Mullan Road proceeded:
  • West from Fort Benton, Montanamarker
  • Passing North of Great Falls, Montanamarker
  • Dropping south to cross the continental divide west of Helena, Montanamarker (following a path through Mullan Passmarker, immediately north of that now traveled by U.S. Route 12)
  • Along the Clark Fork River, near the ghost town of Bearmouth, Montanamarker
  • Just west of Garrison, Montanamarker, it joined the route of present-day Interstate 90 (similar to the U.S. Route 12 transition to join Interstate 90 today)
  • It remained with the Interstate 90 route as it passed Missoulamarker proceeding west through Montana. The Mullan Road through the Missoula Valley fostered rapid growth for the burgeoning city, and allowed the U.S. Army to establish Fort Missoula there in 1877.
  • The road then crossed the border into Idahomarker near Mullan, Idahomarker (followed by the later Interstate 90). The highest elevation of the road is a second Mullan Pass at 5168 feet (1575 m), which lies about 7 miles (10 km) east of Mullan, Idaho on the Idaho-Montana border.
  • From the middle of the Idaho crossing, the road deviates from present-day major roads. The Mullan Road went southwesterly in Idaho to pass south of Lake Coeur d'Alenemarker
  • The road then passed into Washington some distance south of Spokane, Washingtonmarker
  • From there, the Mullan Road passed through the Palouse country and then the scablandsmarker of eastern Washington.
  • It passed through Benge, Washingtonmarker. The Benge section of the road was completed May 22, 1861; the wagon ruts were still visible in 2008 just northeast of town at the site of the First Benge School.
  • South of Benge, there is a stretch of the former road still labeled 'Mullan Road'. This gravel section of the Mullan Road travels southwesterly until it meets Washington State Route 26 near Washtucna, Washingtonmarker.
  • The portion of Mullan Road south of SR 26 in Washington, which follows the course of the Palouse River as it descends to the Snake River, has been reverted to grazing and is not accessible to the public.
  • After crossing the Snake River near the confluence with the Palouse River, the Mullan Road continues south to its terminus at Fort Walla Wallamarker near Walla Walla, Washingtonmarker.


References

  1. HistoryLink.org Essay 5225


External links




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