is the use of two or more languages
, either by an individual speaker or by a
community of speakers. Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual
speakers in the world's
person, in a broad definition, is
one who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively
(through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through
listening, reading, or perceiving). More specifically, the terms
are used to describe
comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved.
A generic term for multilingual persons is polyglot
Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one
language during childhood, the so-called first language
(L1). The first language
(sometimes also referred to as the mother tongue) is acquired
without formal education, by mechanisms heavily disputed. Children
acquiring two languages in this way are called simultaneous
bilinguals. Even in the case of simultaneous bilinguals one
language usually dominates over the other. This kind of
bilingualism is most likely to occur when a child is raised by
bilingual parents in a predominantly monolingual environment. It
can also occur when the parents are monolingual but have raised
their child or children in two different countries.
Definition of multilingualism
One group of academics argues for the maximal definition which
means speakers are as proficient in one language as they are in
others and have as much knowledge of and control over one language
as they have of the others. Another group of academics argues for
the minimal definition, based on use. Tourists, who successfully
communicate phrases and ideas while not fluent in a language, may
be seen as bilingual according to this group.
However, problems may arise with these definitions as they do not
specify how much knowledge of a language is required to be
classified as bilingual. As a result, since most speakers do not
achieve the maximal ideal, language learners may come to be seen as
deficient and by extension, language teaching may come to be seen
as a failure. One does not expect children to "speak chemistry" or
to have become a professional athlete by the time they have left
school, yet for graduating school children anything less than
fluency in a second language could be seen as inadequate .
Since 1992, Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers fall
somewhere between minimal and maximal definitions. Cook calls these
A broadly held, yet nearly as broadly criticised , view is that of
the United States linguist Noam Chomsky
in what he calls the human
device '— a mechanism which enables an individual to
recreate correctly the rules (grammar) and certain other
characteristics of language used by speakers around the
learner. This device, according to
Chomsky, wears out over time, and is not normally available by
puberty, which he uses to explain the poor
results some adolescents and adults have when learning aspects of a
If language learning is a cognitive
, rather than a language acquisition device, as the
school led by Stephen Krashen
suggests, there would only be relative, not categorical,
differences between the two types of language learning.
Despite the differences in theories, most studies agree that the
earlier children learn a second language, the better off they are,
cognitively speaking at least. These studies could be used to make
the learning of a second language mandatory in all schools as early
as possible, in order to give children every means of increasing
their cognitive abilities. Many European schools offer secondary
language classes for their students, if for no other reason than
the proximity of other countries with different languages.
States, however, in spite of its proximity to francophone Quebec and
hispanophone Mexico, is the only technologically advanced country
that does not require the study of a foreign language in its
Comparing multilingual speakers
Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his
or her so-called communicative competence
or ability may
not be as balanced. Linguists have distinguished various types of
multilingual competence, which can roughly be put into two
- For compound bilinguals, words and phrases in
different languages are the same concepts. That means that 'chien'
and 'dog' are two words for the same concept for a French-English speaker of this type. These
speakers are usually fluent in both languages.
- For coordinate bilinguals, words and phrases in the
speaker's mind are all related to their own unique concepts. Thus a
bilingual speaker of this type has different associations for
'chien' and for 'dog'. In these individuals, one language, usually
the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first
language may be used to think through the second language.
These speakers are known to use very different intonation and
pronunciation features, and sometimes to assert the feeling of
having different personalities attached to each of their
- *A sub-group of the latter is the subordinate
bilingual, which is typical of beginning second language
The distinction between compound and coordinate bilingualism has
come under scrutiny. When studies are done of multilinguals, most
are found to show behavior intermediate between compound and
coordinate bilingualism. Some authors have suggested that the
distinction should only be made at the level of grammar rather than
vocabulary, others use "coordinate bilingual" as a synonym for one
who has learned two languages from birth, and others have proposed
dropping the distinction altogether (see Baetens-Beardsmore, 1974
Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a
"spectrum or continuum of bilingualism" that runs from the
relatively monolingual language learner to highly proficient
bilingual speakers who function at high levels in both languages
Those bilinguals who are highly proficient in two or more
languages, such as compound and coordinate bilinguals, are reported
to have a higher cognitive proficiency, and are found to be better
language learners (third, fourth, etc.) at a later age, than
monolinguals. The early discovery that concepts of the world can be
labelled in more than one fashion puts those bilinguals in the
There is, however, also a phenomenon known as distractive
acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient
or unstructured language input follows from the second language, as
sometimes happens with immigrant
the speaker can end up with two languages both mastered below the
monolingual standard. The vast majority of immigrant children,
however, acquire both languages normally .
Japan, it has been found that a large number of older
immigrant children, whose parents have come from other Asian
nations or South America to work in Japanese factories and whose
first language is seen by society at large as less prestigious than
Japanese, were able to communicate
with other children in the school grounds but were unable to master
the language necessary for learning in the school system.
a result, thousands of these children have dropped out of the
school system, without mastering either their first or second
language. While community activists have long called for government
help, only in the past few years has the Japanese Ministry of
Education slowly begun to study this issue.
Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in
these immigrant children. Those who were literate in their first
language before arriving in Japan, and who have support to maintain
that literacy, are at the very least able to maintain and master
their first language.
The neuroscientist Katrin Amunts
studied the brain of polyglot Emil Krebs
who mastered 68 languages, and determined that the area of Krebs'
brain responsible for language — Broca's
— was organized differently from monolingual men.
Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a
language, but do not speak it. Receptive bilingualism may occur
when a child realizes that the community language is more
prestigious than the language spoken within the household and
chooses to speak to their parents in the community language only.
Families who adopt this mode of communication can be highly
functional, although they may not be seen as bilingual. Receptive
bilinguals may rapidly achieve oral fluency when placed in
situations where they are required to speak the heritage
Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility
, which is the
case of a native Spanish speaker who is able to understand
Portuguese, or vice versa, due to the high lexical and grammatical
similarities between Spanish and Portuguese 
Potential multilingual speakers
- Natives under a State in which they do not
share the predominant language, such as Welsh people within the United Kingdom.
- People with a strong interest in a foreign language.
- People who find it necessary to acquire a second language for
practical purposes such as business, information gathering
(Internet, mainly English) or entertainment (foreign language
films, books or computer games).
- Language immersion
- Immigrants and their descendants. Although the heritage language may be lost after one or two generations,
particularly if the replacing language has greater prestige.
- Children of expatriates. However,
language loss of the L1 or L2 in
younger children may be rapid when removed from a language
- Residents in border areas between two countries with different
languages, where each language is seen as of equal prestige:
efforts may be made by both language communities to acquire an L2.
Yet, in areas where one language is more prestigious than the
other, speakers of the less prestigious language may acquire
the dominant language as an L2. In
time, however, the different language communities may reduce to
one, as one language becomes extinct
in that area.
- Children whose parents each speak a different language, in
multilingual communities. In monolingual communities, when parents
maintain a different-parent/different-language household, younger
children may appear to be multilingual; however entering school
will overwhelm the child with pressure to conform to the dominant
community language. Younger siblings in these households will
almost always be monolingual. On the other hand, in monolingual
communities, where parents have different L1s, multilingualism in
the child may be achieved when both parents maintain a one-language
(not the community language) household.
- Children in language-rich communities where neither language is
seen as more prestigious than the other and where interaction
between people occurs in different languages on a frequent basis.
of this would be some border towns in Québec, but English
is rapidly becoming seen as the more "prestigious" language by
- Children who have one or more parents who have learned a second
language, either formally (in classes) or by living in the country.
The parent chooses to speak only this second language to the child.
One study suggests that during the teaching
process, the parent also boosts his or her own language skills,
learning to use the second language in new contexts as the child
grows and develops linguistically.
- People who learn a different language for religious reasons.
(see: Sacred language)
A person who speaks several languages is called a polyglot. The
following claimed to speak ten or more languages:
- José Rizal - "competent" in 22
- Wendy Vo, 8 years old Vietnamese American, speaks 11 languages:
Vietnamese, English, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, French, Japanese,
Hindi, Arabic, Russian, Cantonese and Portuguese
- Rahul Sankrityayan - knew 36
languages and wrote in a number of them.
- Abdulaziz Sachedina - speaks
Hindi, Urdu, French, Persian, Arabic, Gujarati, Swahili, English, Modern Turkish and German.
- Pramod Kumar Agarwal - at
age 25 years speaks Hindi, English, French, Bengali, Gujarati, Romanian, Marwari, Dutch.
- Ali Ufki - mastered 16 languages.
- Ziad Fazah - claims to speak 59
- - confident in 22 languages.
- Muhammad Hamidullah - fluent
in 22 languages.
- Alexander Arguelles -
"systematically studies" 58+ languages.
- P. V. Narasimha Rao - knowledge of 13
- Richard Simcott - can
communicate orally in 14 languages and use around 20 in their
- Sir John Bowring - reportedly spoke
100 languages, with knowledge of 200+.
- Giuseppe Caspar
Mezzofanti - perfect knowledge of 38 languages and about 30
- Heinrich Schliemann -
conversant in 13 languages.
- Harold Williams -
fluent in 58 languages.
- Emil Krebs - mastered 68 languages in
speech and writing.
- Uku Masing - knowledge of 65
- Kenneth L. Hale - knowledge of 50+ languages.
- Mario Pei - spoke 35 languages;
acquainted with the structure of at least 100 of the world's
- Daniel Tammet - speaks 10+
- Pope Benedict XVI - Fluent in
- Richard Francis Burton -
spoke 29 languages.
- Barry Farber - "student" of 26
- Paul Robeson - study of 20+
- Kató Lomb - highly proficient in
- Bjørn Clasen speaks 10
languages on at least conversation level, not counting
- Edgardo Donovan - 9 languages
and/or 16 dialects - certified by the Defense Language
- İlber Ortaylı - can
speak 16 languages fluently, knows more than 16 languages.
- Scott Henry Maxwell - Native
English speaker, who spoke Japanese fluently at the age of 14,
learned Mandarin, Korean, and several other languages.
- J. R. R.
Tolkien -fluent in 13, yet knew 12
others, not including his self
- Hans Conon von der
- Maria Gaetana Agnesi
- Pope John Paul II - Spoke ten
languages fluently, and had a grasp of several more.
- Anthony Burgess
- Rowan Williams— Brought up
bilingually in English and Welsh,
also reads or speaks Spanish,
French, German, Russian, Biblical Hebrew, Syriac, Latin and both Ancient and Modern Greek.
- William James Sidis - knew 8
languages and invented his own, Vendergood, by the time he was eight. It is
believed that he knew forty or so languages in his later years and
supposedly could learn a language in a day.
- Friedrich Engels - knew 12
- Steve Kaufmann - speaks twelve
languages to varying degrees of fluency: Cantonese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swedish.
- Dr.Bhim Rao Ambedker-a
great scholar of many disciplines like economics,political
science,sociology,history,philosophy,literature etc was a polymath
as well as a polyglot.He had good command over some two dozen
languages of the world including
- Damodar Dharmananda
- Vyacheslav Menzhinsky -
spoke over ten languages, including Korean, Chinese, Turkish,
- Matija Čop - able to speak 19
- Irika Rositano - Knows 12
- Akyol - knowledge of more than 30
- Alessandro Bausani - Italian
orientalist who knew more than 30 languages
- Jacques Bergier - French
chemical engineer, spy, journalist, writer etc. spoke 14 languages
- Ali pirhani Hamedan,I.R.Iran
,spoke 19 languages fluently ,
- Jack Halpern , Linguist,
speaks 10 languages, reads four more
- William Rowan Hamilton -
physicist and mathematician known also for his ability with
- Stephen Wurm, polyglot and
- Mithridates VI of
Pontus, ancient king who, according to Pliny, "could speak the
languages of all the twenty-two nations he governed"
- Kenneth Lee Pike, American
linguist, famous for analyzing the language of a native speaker in
front of a live audience
- Gianrenzo P. Clivio, Italian-Canadian linguist who
was fluent in 24 languages and over 20 dialects; and had knowledge
of many more.
- Moses McCormick - Native
English speaker who claims to speak
Mandarin, Japanese, Korean, Thai,
Russian, Arabic, Turkish, Indonesian, Farsi, Hindi,
Malay, Swahili, Zulu, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Hebrew and Urdu. And who studies or has studied Spanish, Bulgarian, Icelandic, Bengali, Armenian, Mongolian, Laotian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Tibetan, Yoruba, Taiwanese, Hausa, Igbo,
Uyghur, Amharic, Somali, Burmese, Twi,
Tamil, Sinhalese and Georgian among others.He posts videos of
himself speaking and teaching the languages he studies nearly on a
Definition of "language"
There is no clear definition of what it means to "speak a
language". A tourist who can handle a simple conversation with a
waiter may be completely lost when it comes to discussing current
affairs or even using multiple tenses. A diplomat or businessman
who can handle complicated negotiations in a foreign language may
not be able to write a simple letter correctly. A four-year-old
French child would usually be said to "speak French
fluently", but it is possible that he
cannot handle the grammar as well as even some mediocre foreign
students of the language do and may have a very limited vocabulary
despite possibly having perfect pronunciation.
In addition there is no clear definition of what "one language"
means. For instance the Continental Scandinavian languages
similar that many of the native speakers understand all of them
without much trouble . This means that a speaker of Danish,
Norwegian or Swedish can easily get his count up to 3 languages. On
the other hand, the differences between variants of Chinese, like
, are so big that intensive studies
are needed for a speaker of one of them to learn and even to
understand a different one correctly. A person who knows how to
speak five Chinese
perfectly would still be said to know only one
but some would argue that the differences between
these dialects are greater than the differences between many
European Romance languages.
As another example, a person who has learned five different
languages such as French
, all belonging to the closely
related group of Romance
, has accomplished something less difficult than a
person who has learnt Hebrew
, of which none is remotely related to
Furthermore, what is considered a language can change, often for
purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian
was assembled from
and later split after Yugoslavia
broke up, or when Ukrainian
was dismissed as a Russian
dialect by the Russian tsars
Many small independent nations' schoolchildren are today compelled
to learn multiple languages because of international interactions.
example in Finland, all
children are required to learn at least two foreign languages: the
other national language (Swedish or Finnish) and one alien language
Many Finnish schoolchildren also select
further languages, such as French, German or Russian.
Multilingualism within communities
Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact
. Multilingualism was
more common in the past than is usually supposed : in early times,
when most people were members of small language communities, it was
necessary to know two or more languages for trade or any other
dealings outside one's own town or village, and this holds good
today in places of high linguistic diversity such as Sub-Saharan Africa and India.
Linguist Ekkehard Wolff estimates that 50% of the population of
Africa is multilingual.
In multilingual societies, not all speakers need to be
multilingual. Some states can have multilingual policies and
recognise several official languages, such as Canada (English and
French). In some states, particular languages may be associated
with particular regions in the state (e.g., Canada) or with
particular ethnicities (Singapore). When all speakers are
multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the
functional distribution of the languages involved:
- diglossia: if there
is a structural functional distribution of the languages involved,
the society is termed 'diglossic'. Typical diglossic areas are
those areas in Europe where a regional language is used in informal,
usually oral, contexts, while the state language is used in more
formal situations. Frisia (with Frisian and German or Dutch) and Lusatia
(with Sorbian and German) are
well-known examples. Some writers limit diglossia to situations
where the languages are closely related, and could be considered
dialects of each other. This can also be observed in Scotland where
in formal situations, English is
used. However, in informal situations in many areas, Scots is the preferred language of
- ambilingualism: a region is called ambilingual
if this functional distribution is not observed. In a typical
ambilingual area it is nearly impossible to predict which language
will be used in a given setting. True ambilingualism is rare.
Ambilingual tendencies can be found in small
states with multiple heritages like Luxembourg, which has a combined Franco-Germanic heritage, or
Singapore, which fuses the cultures of Malaysia, China, and
India. Ambilingualism also can manifest in
specific regions of larger states that have both a clearly dominant
state language (be it de jure or de facto) and a
protected minority language that is limited in terms of
distribution of speakers within the country. This tendency is
especially pronounced when, even though the local language is
widely spoken, there is a reasonable assumption that all citizens
speak the predominant state tongue (E.g., English in Quebec vs.
Canada; Spanish in Catalonia vs. Spain). This phenomenon can also
occur in border regions with many cross-border contacts.
- bipart-lingualism: if more than one language
can be heard in a small area, but the large majority of speakers
are monolinguals, who have little contact with speakers from
neighbouring ethnic groups, an area is called 'bipart-lingual'. The
typical example is the Balkans.
Multilingualism between different language speakers
Whenever two people meet, negotiations take place. If they want to
express solidarity and sympathy, they tend to seek common features
in their behavior. If speakers wish to express distance towards or
even dislike of the person they are speaking to, the reverse is
true, and differences are sought. This mechanism also extends to
language, as has been described by Howard
' Accommodation Theory.
Some multilinguals use code-switching
, a term that describes the
process of 'swapping' between languages. In many cases,
code-switching is motivated by the wish to express loyalty to more
than one cultural group , as holds for many immigrant communities
in the New World. Code-switching may also function as a strategy
where proficiency is lacking. Such strategies are common if the
vocabulary of one of the languages is not very elaborated for
certain fields, or if the speakers have not developed proficiency
in certain lexical domains, as in the case of immigrant
This code-switching appears in many forms. If a speaker has a
positive attitude towards both languages and towards
code-switching, many switches can be found, even within the same
sentence. If, however, the speaker is reluctant to use
code-switching, as in the case of a lack of proficiency, he might
knowingly or unknowingly try to camouflage his attempt by
converting elements of one language into elements of the other
language. This results in speakers using words like courrier
(literally mail that is black) in French, instead of the
proper word for blackmail
Sometimes a pidgin language
develop. A pidgin language is basically a fusion of two languages,
which is mutually understable for both speakers. Some pidgin languages
develop into real languages (such as papiamento at Curaçao) while other
remain as slangs or jargons (such as Helsinki slang, which is more or less
mutually intelligible both in Finnish and Swedish.
Bilingual interaction can even take place without the speakers
switching. In certain areas, it is not uncommon for speakers each
to use a different language within the same conversation. This
phenomenon is found, amongst other places, in Scandinavia
. Most speakers of Swedish
can communicate with each other
speaking their respective languages, while few can speak both
(people used to these situations often adjust their language,
avoiding words that are not found in the other language or that can
be misunderstood). Using different languages is usually called
non-convergent discourse, a
term introduced by the Dutch linguist
Reitze Jonkman. The phenomenon is also found in Argentina, where Spanish and
Italian are both widely spoken,
even leading to cases where a child with a Spanish and an Italian
parent grows up fully bilingual, with both parents speaking only
their own language yet knowing the other. Another example is
the former state of Czechoslovakia, where two languages (Czech and Slovak) were in common use.
Czechs and Slovaks understand both languages, although they would
use only one of them (their respective mother tongue) when
speaking. For example, in Czechoslovakia it was common to hear two
people talking on television each speaking a different language
without any difficulty understanding each other. Another example
would be a Slovak having read a book in Czech and afterwards being
unsure whether he was reading it in Czech or Slovak. This
bilinguality still exists nowadays, although it has started to
deteriorate after Czechoslovakia split up .
Multilingualism at the linguistic level
Models for native language literacy programs
Sociopolitical as well as socio-cultural identity arguments may
influence native language literacy. While these two camps may
occupy much of the debate about which languages children will learn
to read, a greater emphasis on the linguistic aspects of the
argument is appropriate. In spite of the political turmoil
precipitated by this debate, researchers continue to espouse a
linguistic basis for it. This rationale is based upon the work of
Jim Cummins (1983).
In this model, learners receive literacy instruction in their
native language until they acquire a "threshold" literacy
proficiency. Some researchers use age 3 as the age when a child has
basic communicative competence in L1 (Kessler, 1984). Children may
go through a process of sequential acquisition if they migrate at a
young age to a country where a different language is spoken, or if
the child exclusively speaks his or her heritage language at home
until he/she is immersed in a school setting where instruction is
offered in a different language.
The phases children go through during sequential acquisition are
less linear than for simultaneous acquisition and can vary greatly
among children. Sequential acquisition is a more complex and
lengthier process, although there is no indication that non
language-delayed children end up less proficient than simultaneous
bilinguals, so long as they receive adequate input in both
In this model, the native language and the community language are
simultaneously taught. The advantage is literacy in two languages
as the outcome. However, the teacher must be well-versed in both
languages and also in techniques for teaching a second
This model posits that equal time should be spent in separate
instruction of the native language and of the community language.
The native language class, however, focuses on basic literacy while
the community language class focuses on listening and speaking
skills. Being a bilingual does not necessarily mean that one can
speak, for example, English and French.
Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in
the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can
be transposed to the second language — the common underlying
proficiency hypothesis. His work sought to overcome the perception
propagated in the 1960s that learning two languages made for two
competing aims. The belief was that the two languages were mutually
exclusive and that learning a second required unlearning elements
and dynamics of the first in order to accommodate the second
(Hakuta, 1990). The evidence for this perspective relied on the
fact that some errors in acquiring the second language were related
to the rules of the first language (Hakuta, 1990). How this
hypothesis holds under different types of languages such as Romance
versus non-Western languages has yet to undergo research.
Another new development that has influenced the linguistic argument
for bilingual literacy is the length of time necessary to acquire
the second language. While previously children were believed to
have the ability to learn a language within a year, today
researchers believe that within and across academic settings, the
time span is nearer to five years (Collier, 1992; Ramirez,
An interesting outcome of studies during the early 1990s however
confirmed that students who do successfully complete bilingual
instruction perform better academically (Collier, 1992; Ramirez,
1992). These students exhibit more cognitive elasticity including a
better ability to analyse abstract visual patterns. Students who
receive bidirectional bilingual instruction where equal proficiency
in both languages is required perform at an even higher level.
Examples of such programs include international and multi-national
Multilingualism in computing
Multilingualisation (or "m17n") of computer systems can be
considered part of a continuum between localisation ("L10n") and
- A localised system has been adapted or converted for a
particular locale (other than the one it was originally developed
for), including the language of the user interface, input, and
display, and features such as time/date display and currency; but
each instance of the system only supports a single locale.
- Multilingualised software supports multiple languages for
display and input simultaneously, but generally has a single user
interface language. Support for other locale features like time,
date, number and currency formats may vary as the system tends
towards full internationalisation. Generally a multilingualised
system is intended for use in a specific locale, whilst allowing
for multilingual content.
- An internationalised system is equipped for use in a range of
locales, allowing for the co-existence of several languages and
character sets in user interfaces and displays. In particular, a
system may not be considered internationalised in the fullest sense
unless the interface language is selectable by the user at
Translating the user interface is usually part of the software localization
also includes adaptations such as units and date conversion. Many
software applications are available in several languages, ranging
from a handful (the most spoken
) to dozens for the most popular applications (such as
, web browsers
, etc). Due to the status of
English in computing
development nearly always uses it (but see also Non-English-based
), so almost all commercial software is
initially available in an English version, and multilingual
versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on
the English original.
Policies and proposals
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Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (1999), G.
Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University
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Learning. A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (4Th
ed.) (pp. 330-335). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies,
- Gift of the Gab, New Scientist, January 8, 2005
(Michael Erard - Stories)
- Tribute to Narasimha Rao. The Hindu. Retrieved on
March 2 2007
- Narasimha Rao. The Daily
Telegraph. Retrieved on March 2 2007
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- Wallace, Amy (1986). The prodigy: a biography of William James
Sidis, America's greatest child prodigy. New York: E.P. Dutton
& Co. p. 284 ISBN 0-525-24404-2.
- Ludwig M., Arnold (2004). King of the Mountain: The Nature
of Political Leadership. University Press of Kentucky.
- Ems Ukaz
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and Derek Nurse (Eds.) African Languages - An
Introduction, 317. Cambridge University Press.
Shana (1980) "Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y
termino en español": toward a typology of code-switching.
Linguistics 18: 7/8: 581-618.
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Bilingualism in Language-Delayed Children
- Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2007). "Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual
humanity", Glossa. An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 2, n.
- Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. (2006). Handbook of
Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
- Burck, C. (2005) Multilingual Living. Explorations of Language
and Subjectivity. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Cenoz, Jasone (2009) Towards Multilingual Education. Bristol:
- Collier, V.P. (1992). A synthesis of studies examining long-term
language-minority student data on academic achievement.
Bilingual Research Journal, vol. 16, 187-212.
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Schmitt (Ed.) Applied Linguistics. Oxford University
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the Multiple Faces of Literacy. Tesol Quarterly, 27(3),
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study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and
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