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The Mumbai Metro is the planned mass rapid transit and light rail system in Mumbai, India. It is currently under construction.

Need for a Metro System

Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar line (dotted, purple) of the Mumbai Metro along with the current Suburban Railway system
Greater Mumbai, the financial capital of India is the heart of commercial and trade activities of the country. Mumbai has always had the distinction and advantage of a high modal share (88%) in favor of a public mass transport system. The role of existing Suburban Rail Services is extremely important in the life of people of Greater Mumbai. The system carries about 6 million passengers every day. The BEST bus system provides feeder services to the many station going passengers, to complete their journey. However, due to the city’s geographical constraints, the road and rail infrastructure development could not keep the pace with the growing demand for last 4-5 decades.

Public Transport System is an efficient user of space and energy, with reduced level of air and noise pollution. As the population of a city grows, the share of public transport, road or rail-based should increase. With Mumbai’s population crossing 14 million, the share of public transport at 88% is quite good. However, over the past decade, the share has reduced from 91% to 88% and is likely to reduce further if corrective measures are not taken immediately. The Metro is here to meet this demand, not only between the east and the west, but also the north and the south, not only the divide due to geography, but also that in the psyche of the city. Considering the fact that road buses can optimally carry 10,000 persons per hour per direction (phpdt), the metro system may become virtually indispensable if the traffic density on the corridor exceeds 20,000 phpdt.

In Mumbai, vehicular growth Increased from 61,000 to over 1.02 Million in the last four decades. Inadequate road network is slowing down the traffic causing chronic road congestion & environmental pollution. 11 Million people travel by public transport in Mumbai daily. Suburban rail traffic has increased 6 times while the capacity has increased only 2.3 times. In the suburban railway, around 4500 4500 passengers travel per train against the carrying capacity of 1750 resulting an unbearable overcrowding.

Therefore the Metro system is needed because :
  • Existing suburban systems are under extreme pressure
  • The role of the existing bus system is limited to providing feeder services to railways.
  • Bus system alone cannot meet the future demand
  • There are constraints to expand the existing road network capacity
  • The Road & Rail improvements are not adequate for future demand
  • Many pockets in Island city and suburbs are not served by rail based mass system.
  • Environmental deterioration is happening due to growth in road traffic


Mumbai currently has an extensive commuter rail system, the Mumbai Suburban Railway. However, it is not built to rapid transit specifications. In May 2003, the original Mumbai rapid-transit plan was updated to include an elevated 10 km LRT system, to be built between Andherimarker and Ghatkopar via Asalphamarker, Marolmarker, Chakalamarker and Saki Naka. In January 2004, a master transit plan, including a 146 kilometer metro, was unveiled by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). The plan integrated a 146 kilometer-long metro system, of which 32 km is underground. In June 2004, government approval was given for a 13-station elevated light rail line between Ghatkopar and Versova. The foundation stone-laying ceremony was held on 21 June 2006. Work on the 11-km Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase-I, began on 8 February 2008. Construction of the route is expected to be completed in three years.

Project plan

A consortium led by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group's Reliance Energy Ltd (REL) which includes Connex and Hong Kong MTR Corporation together with Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) bagged the contract for the Rs 2,356 crore Phase-I of the ambitious Mumbai Metro Rail project.

Phase One will be implemented on a Build-Operate-Transfer basis for the period of 35 years. The phase includes construction of three metro lines. Work has already begun on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, which should be completed within three years by a special purpose vehicle formed by the Mumbai Metro-I consortium. The other corridors in the first phase includes the 38-km Colaba-Mahim-Charkop route and the 14-km Bandra-Kurla-Mankhurd route.

The cost of the project will be shared by the central and state governments.

Master Plan

The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide a rail based mass transit connectivity to people within an approach distance of 1 to 2 K.m, to serve the areas not connected by existing Suburban Rail System,to provide proper interchange facilities for connectivity to neighbouring areas like Thane, Navi Mumbai, Vasai–Virar etc. Mumbai Metro is to be built in three phases as shown below -

Phase I (2006 – 2011)

  • Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar - 11.07 km (Construction started, expected to be complete by 2010)
  • Charkop - Bandra - Mankhurd
  • Bandra - Colaba

Phase II (2011 – 2016)

  • Charkop - Dahisar (E) - 7.5 km
  • Ghatkopar – Mulund - 12.4 km

Phase III ( 2016 – 2021)

  • BKC - Kanjur Marg via Airport - 19.5 km
  • Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) - 18 km
  • Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar - 21.8 km
  • Sewri – Prabhadevi - 3.5 km

Total Length 146.5 km

Also Planned-

Navi Mumbai Metro

  • Belapur - Mansarovar - 24 km
  • Seawood - Panvel - 19 km
  • Mankhurd - Vashi - Nerul - Ulve - 14 km

Total Length 57 km

Rolling Stock

Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL), has said that they will use Rolling Stock manufactured by Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Works.

Mumbai Metro

Mumbai Metro One

Mumbai Metro One Private Limited is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 to implement the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar (VAG) Metro corridor in Mumbai. It is a Joint Venture Company formed by Reliance Energy Limited, a Reliance ADA Group Company, Veolia Transport, France and Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).Salient features include:
  • First Public Private Partnership in BOOT framework
  • Vital Infrastructure Project Status by State Govt.
  • Provides East to West Connectivity
  • Designed to carry about 6 lakhs Commuters per day initially
  • Reduces travel time from existing 1 Hr 30 Mins to about 21 mins
  • Reduces vehicular traffic substantially along the corridor
  • World class features and facilities
  • World class quality standards
  • Highest levels of Safety
  • Travel made easy for physically challenged people


Metro Systems are superior to other modes because they provide higher carrying capacity, faster, smoother and safer travel, occupy less space, are non-polluting and energy efficient.

To summarize, a Metro System:
  • Requires 1/5th energy per passenger Km. compared to road-based system.
  • Causes no air pollution
  • Causes lesser noise level
  • Occupies no road space if underground, and only about 2 meters width of road if elevated.
  • Carries same amount of traffic as 7 lanes of bus traffic or 24 lanes of private motor cars (either way), if it a medium capacity system.
  • Is more reliable, comfortable and safer than road based system.
  • Reduces journey time by anything between 50% and 75% depending upon road conditions

See also

External links


  3. [1]
  4. Mumbai Metro One Project updates

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