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The Music of Brazilmarker encompasses various regional music styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. After 500 years of history the Brazilian music developed some unique and original styles like choro, sertanejo, brega, forró, frevo, samba, maracatu, Bossa nova, MPB, Brazilian rock, axé and others. Samba is no doubt the best known form of Brazilian music worldwide, though Bossa nova and other genres have also received much attention abroad. Brazil also has a growing community of modern/experimental composition, includingelectroacoustic music. All genres of Brazilian music formed a solid tradition.

Art music

Origins

The first registration of the musical activity in Brazilmarker come from the activities of two jesuit priests, since 1549. Ten years later, they had already founded settlements for indigenous people (the Reduções), with a musical-educational structure.

One century later, the Reduções of the southern Brazil, which were founded by spaniard Jesuits, had a strong cultural development, where some music schools were founded. Some of the reports of that time shows the fascination of the indigenous people for the european music . The indians also took part in the music, with both the construction of musical instruments and practice of vocal and instrumental performance. The musical standards were, naturally, all of them from the European culture, and the purpose of the musicalization for the indigenous people was mostly for Catechism, with negligible original creative contribution by themselves. Later, the remaining indians, who survived the massacres and epidemies, went to the more remote regions of Brazil, escaping from the contact with the european settlers, and their part in the national musical life was getting smaller, until almost completely disappearing.

The 18th Century School

In the 18th Century, there is most intense musical activity in all the more developed regions of Brazil, with a moderately stabilized institutional and educational structure. The few private orchestras became more common and the churches presented a great music variety.

In the first half of this century, the most outstanding works were composed by Luís Álvares Pinto, Caetano de Mello de Jesus and Antônio José da Silva, the Jew, who became successful in Lisbonmarker writing librettos for comedies, which were performed also in Brazil with music by Antônio Teixeira.

In the second part of the 18th century, there were a great flourishment in Minas Geraismarker, mostly in the regions of Vila Rica (currently Ouro Pretomarker), Mariana and Arraial do Tejuco (currently Diamantina), where the mining of gold and diamond for the portuguese metropolis attracted a sizable population. At this time, the first outstanting brazilian composers were revealed, most of them mulattoes. The musical pieces were mostly sacred music. Some of the noteworthy composers of this period were Lobo de Mesquita, Manoel Dias de Oliveira, Francisco Gomes da Rocha, Marcos Coelho Neto and Marcos Coelho Neto Filho. All of them were very active, but in many cases few pieces survived until the present days. Some of the most famous pieces of this period are the Magnificat by Manuel Dias de Oliveira and the Our Lady's Antiphon, by Lobo de Mesquita. In the city of Arraial do Tejuco, nowadays Diamantina, there were ten conductors in activity. In Ouro Pretomarker about 250 musicists were active, and in all of the territory of Minas Gerais most of thousand musicists were active

With the impoverishment of the mines in the end of the century, the focus of the musical activity changed to other points, specially Rio de Janeiromarker and São Paulomarker, where André da Silva Gomes, a composer of portuguese origin, released a great number of works and dinamized the musical life of the city.

The Classical Period

José Maurício Nunes Garcia.
A crucial factor for the changes in the musical life was the arrival of the portuguese household in Rio de Janeiromarker, in 1808. Until then, Rio de Janeiro has no differences in relation to other cultural centers of Brazil, and even less important than Minas Gerais, but the presence of the household change radically this situation.

The king John VI of Portugal brought with himself the great musical library from the House of Bragança, one of the best of Europa at that time, and ordered the arrival of musicists from Lisbonmarker and the castrati from Italymarker, re-ordering the Royal Chapel. Later, John VI ordered the construction of a sumptuous theater, called the Royal Theater of São João. The secular music had the presence of Marcos Portugal, who was designed as the official composer of the household, and of Sigismund von Neukomm, who contributed with his own work and bring the works of the austrian composers like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn. The works of these composers influenced strongly the brazilian music of this time.

José Maurício Nunes Garcia, the first of the great brazilian composers, was revealed at this time. With a large culture for his origin - he was poor and mulatto - he was one of the founders of the Irmandade de Santa Cecília, in Rio de Janeiro, teacher and kappelmeister of the Royal Chapel during the presence of John VI in Brazil. Nunes Garcia was the most prolific brazilian composer of this time. He composed also the first opera written in Brazil, Le Due Gemelle (The two twins), with text in italian, but the music is now lost.

Other important composers of this period are Gabriel Fernandes da Trindade, who composed the only brazilian chamber music from the 19th century which survived to the present times , and João de Deus de Castro Lobo, who lived in the cities of Mariana and Ouro Preto, which were decadent at this time.

This period, however, was brief. In 1821, John VI went back to Lisbon, taking with himself the household, and the cultural life in Rio de Janeiro became empty. And, despite of the love from Peter I of Brazil for the music - he was also author of some musical pieces like the Brazilian Independence Anthem, the difficult financial situation didn't allow many luxuries. The conflagration of the Royal Theater in 1824 was another symbol of the decadence, which reached the most critical point when Peter I renounced the throne, going back to Portugal.

The Romantic Period

Antonio Carlos Gomes
The only composer who had a relevant work in this period was Francisco Manuel da Silva, disciple of Nunes Garcia, who suceedeed him as kappelmeister. Despite of his few resources, he founded the Musical Conservatory of Rio de Janeiro. He was the author of the Brazilian National Anthem. His work reflected the musical transition for the Romanticism, when the interest of the national composers was focused in the opera. The most outstanding brazilian composer of this period was Antônio Carlos Gomes, who composed italian-styled operas with national themes, such as Il Guarany and Lo Schiavo. These operas were very succesful in european theaters, like the Teatro alla Scalamarker, in Milanmarker. Other important composer of this time is Elias Álvares Lobo, who wrote the opera A Noite de São João, the first brazilian opera with text in portuguese.

The opera in Brazil was very popular until the middle of the 20th century, and many opera houses were built at this time, like Teatro Amazonas in Manausmarker, Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiromarker, Municipal Theater of São Paulomarker do Rio, and many others.

At the end of the 19th century, the greatest composers for the symphonic music were revealed. One of the most outstanding name of this periode was Leopoldo Miguez, who followed the wagnerian style and Henrique Oswald, who incorporated elements of the french impressionism.

The Nationalism

Heitor Villa-Lobos
In the beginning of the 20th century, there was a movement for creating an authentically brazilian music, with less influences of the european culture. In this sense, the folklore was the major font of inspiration for the composers. Some composers like Brasílio Itiberê da Cunha, Luciano Gallet and Alexandre Levy, despite having an european formation, included some tipically brazilian elements in their works. This trend reached the highest point with Alberto Nepomuceno, who used largely the rhythms and melodies from the brazilian folklore.

An important event, later, was the Modern Art Week, in 1922, which had a large impact in the concepts for the national art. In this event the composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, regarded as the most outstanding name of the brazilian nationalism, was revealed.

Villa-Lobos did researches about the musical folklore of Brazil, and mixed elements both from classical and popular music. He explored many musical genres such as concertos, symphonies, ballets, operas and other symphonic, vocal and chamber music. Some of his masterworks are the ballet Uirapurumarker, their choros and the popular symphonic series Bachianas Brasileiras.

Some other composers of this time are Oscar Lorenzo Fernández, Francisco Mignone, Camargo Guarnieri and Osvaldo Lacerda (who is still alive).

The Avant-Garde Movement

As a reaction against the nationalist school, who was identified as "servile" to the centralizing politics of Getúlio Vargas, in 1939 appeared the Movimento Música Viva (Living Music Movement), led by Hans Joachim Koellreutter and by Egídio de Castro e Silva, defending the adoption of an international style, derived from the Dodecaphonism by Arnold Schoenberg. This group was integrated by composers like Cláudio Santoro, César Guerra-Peixe, Eunice Catunda and Edino Krieger. Koellreutter adopted revolutionary methodes, in respect to the individuality of each student and giving to the students the freedom of creativity before the knowledge of the traditional rules for composition. The movement edited a magazine and presented a series of radio programs showing their fundaments and works of contemporary music. Later, Guerra-Peixe and Santoro followed an independent way, centered in the regional music. Other composers, who used freely the previous styles were Marlos Nobre, Almeida Prado, and Armando Albuquerque, who created their own styles.

After 1960, the brazilian avant-garde movement received a new wave, focusing the serial music, the microtonal music, the concrete music and the electronic music, employing a completely new language. This movement was called Música Nova (New Music) and was led by Gilberto Mendes and Willy Corrêa de Oliveira.

Contemporary

Nowadays, the brazilian music follows a worldwide trend using both the experimentalism and the traditional music guidelines. Some of the contemporary brazilian composers are Amaral Vieira, Ronaldo Miranda and Edson Zampronha.

The São Paulo State Symphony
Brazil has a large number of internationally recognized orchestras and performers, despite of the relativelly low support of the government. The most famous brazilian orchestra is probably the São Paulo State Symphony, currently under the french conductor Yan Pascal Tortelier. Other brazilian orchestras worthy of note are the São Paulo University Symphony, the Orquestra Sinfônica Brasileira and the Petrobras Sinfônica, supported by brazilian state oil company Petrobras.

There are also regular opera schedule every year in cities like São Paulomarker and Rio de Janeiromarker. The state of São Paulomarker also hosts the Winter Festival in the city of Campos do Jordãomarker.

Some of the most famous brazilian conductors are Roberto Minczuk, John Neschling and Isaac Karabtchevsky. The instrument players include, among others: Roberto Szidon, Antonio Meneses, Cussy de Almeida, Gilberto Tinetti, Arnaldo Cohen, Nelson Freire, Eudóxia de Barros, Guiomar Novais and Magdalena Tagliaferro. And some of the most famous brazilian singers were, historically, Zola Amaro, Constantina Araújo and Bidu Sayão; among the alive singers there are Eliane Coelho, Kismara Pessatti, Maria Lúcia Godoy, Sebastião Teixeira, and others.

Indigenous and folk music

The native peoples of the Brazilian rainforest play instruments including whistles, flutes, horn, drum and rattle. Much of the area's folk music imitates the sound of the Amazon Rainforest. When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil, the first natives they met played an array of reed flutes and other wind and percussion instruments. The Jesuit missionaries introduced songs which used the Tupi language with Christian lyrics,an attempt to convert the people to Christianity [28241], and also introduced Gregorian chant and the flute, bow, and the clavichord.

Drum known as Ilú used in Xambá religion in Pernambuco
The earliest music in what is now Brazil must have been that of the native peoples of the area. Little is known about their music, since no written records exist of this era. With the arrival of Europeans, Brazilian culture began to take shape as a synthesis of native musical styles with Portuguese music and African music.

Samba

By the beginning of the 20th century, samba had begun to evolve out of choro in Rio de Janeiro's neighborhood, inhabited mostly by poor blacks descended from slaves. Samba's popularity has grown through the 20th century, especially

Capoeira music

Three berimbau players
The Afro-Brazilian sport of capoeira is never played without its own music, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music. The main instruments of capoeira music include the berimbau, the atabaque and the pandeiro. Capoeira songs may be improvised on the spot, or they may be popular songs written by older mestres (teachers), and often include accounts of the history of capoeira, or the doings of great mestres.

Maracatu

A typical, cross-gendered maracatu cearense blackface queen.
Pre-Carnival show in Caucaia, Ceará, February 2009.
This type of music is played primarily in the Recifemarker and Olindamarker regions during Carnaval. It is an Afro-Brazilian tradition. The music serves as the backdrop for parade groups that evolved out of ceremonies conducted during colonial times in honour of the Kings of Congo, who were African slaves occupying symbolic leadership positions among the slave population. The music is played on large alfaia drums, large metal gonguê bells, snare drums and shakers. An important variant is found in and around Fortaleza, Ceará (called maracatu cearense), which is different from the Recife/Olinda tradition in many respects: triangles are used instead of gonguês, surdos or zabumbas instead of alfaias. Also, important female personages are performed by cross-dressed male performers, and all African and Afrobrazilian personages are performed using blackface makeup.

Afoxé

Afoxê is a kind of religious music, part of the Candomblé tradition. In 1949, a group called Filhos de Gandhi began playing afoxé during Carnaval parades in Salvador; their name translates as Sons of Gandhi, associating black Brazilian activism with Mahatma Gandhi's Indian independence movement. The Filhos de Gandhi's 1949 appearance was also revolutionary because, up until then, the Carnaval parades in Salvador were meant only for light-skinned people.

Samba-reggae

The band Olodum, from Pelourinho, are generally credited with the mid-1980s invention of samba-reggae, a fusion of Jamaicanmarker reggae with samba. Olodum retained the politically-charged lyrics of bands like Ilê Aiyê.

Music of Salvador: Late 60s to mid-70s

In the latter part of the 1960s, a group of black Bahians began dressing as Native Americans during the Salvadoran Carnaval, identifying with their shared struggles through history. These groups included Comanches do Pelô and Apaches de Tororó and were known for a forceful and powerful style of percussion, and frequent violent encounters with the police. Starting in 1974, a group of black Bahians called Ilê Aiyê became prominent, identifying with the Yoruba people and Igbo people of West Africa. Along with a policy of loosening restrictions by the Brazilian government, Ilê Aiyê's sound and message spread to groups like Grupo Cultural do Olodum, who established community centers and other philanthropic efforts.

Eastern Amazônia

Eastern Amazônia has long been dominated by carimbó music, which is centered around Belémmarker. In the 1960s, carimbo was electrified and, in the next decade, DJs added elements from reggae, salsa and merengue. This new form became known as lambada and soon moved to Bahia, Salvadormarker by the mid-1980s. Bahian lambada was synthesizer-based and light pop music. French record producers discovered the music there, and brought it back with them to Francemarker passing by Portugalmarker, where a Bolivianmarker group called Los Kjarkas saw their own composition launch an international dance craze. Soon, lambada had spread throughout the world and the term soon became meaninglessly attached to multiple varieties of unrelated Brazilian music, leading to purist scorn from Belém and also Bahia.

Another form of regional folk music, bumba-meu-boi, was popularized by the Carnival celebrations of Parintinsmarker and is now a major part of the Brazilian national scene.

Popular music

The field of Brazilian popular music can be traced back to the 1930s, when radio era spread songs across the country. This period also marks the beginning of a substantial predominance of women: from the divas of this radio era until our days, women sharply prevail as solo vocalists. By 2006, more than 100 discs of female interpreters were thrown. In the same period, there were only 34 from male interpreters.Well-known radio era artists include chanteuses Nora Ney, Dolores Duran, Maysa Matarazzo, Ângela Maria. Along with Carmen Miranda, Chiquinha Gonzaga, they were the pioneers of this feminine profile of the Brazilian Music that remains until present days.

Popular music included instruments like cuicas, tambourines, frying pans, flutes, guitars and the piano. The most famous singer, Carmen Miranda, eventually became an internationally-renowned Hollywoodmarker film star. Her songwriter was Ary Barroso, one of the most successful songwriters in early Brazil, along with Lamartine Babo and Noel Rosa.

Much of the hip hop, reggae and rock heard in Brazil speaks powerfully about the government and social standards. Music is used in a very powerful way, to get points across to people, or to relay messages across the country. It embodies many socialpolitical views of people, whether it's the artists or listeners view. However, the message being said by the artists have different meanings to each and every listener. Listeners construct their own meaning or message in a song.

Choro

Choro (literally "cry" in Portuguese, but in context a more appropriate translation would be "lament"), traditionally called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"). Instrumental, its origins are in 19th century Rio de Janeiro. Originally choro was played by a trio of flute, guitar and cavaquinho (a small chordophone with four strings). The young pianist Ernesto Nazareth published his first choro (Não Caio Noutra) in 1878 at the age of 14. Nazareth's choros are often listed as polkas; he also composed waltzes, schottisches, milongas and Brazilian Tangos. (He resisted the popular term maxixe to represent Brazilian tango.) Much of the success of the choro style of music came from the early days of radio, when bands performed live on the air. By the 1960s, it had all but disappeared, being displaced by Bossa Nova and other styles of Brazilian popular music. However, in the late 1970s there was a successful effort to revitalize the genre carried out by some famous artists: Pixinguinha and Waldir Azevedo.

Música Popular Brasileira



Tropicalia eventually morphed into a more popular form, MPB (Música Popular Brasileira), which now refers to any Brazilian pop music. Well-known MPB artists include chanteuses Nara Leão, Gal Costa, Maria Bethânia, Rita Lee, Simone and Elis Regina and singer/songwriters Chico Buarque, Milton Nascimento, Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Ivan Lins, Djavan, João Bosco, Aderbal Duarte, and others.

Bossa nova

Antonio Carlos Jobim and other 1950s composers helped develop a fusion of jazz harmonies and a smoother, often slower, samba beat called bossa nova, which developed at the beach neighborhoods of Ipanemamarker and, later, the Copacabanamarker nightclubs. The first bossa nova records by João Gilberto quickly became huge hits in Brazil. Bossa nova was introduced to the rest of the world by American jazz musicians in the early 1960s, and songs like "The Girl from Ipanema", which remains the biggest Brazilian international hit, eventually became jazz standards.

Música nordestina

Música nordestina is a generic term for any popular music from the large region of Northeastern Brazil, including both coastal and inland areas. Rhythms are slow and plodding, and are derived from accordions and guitars instead of percussion instruments like in the rest of Brazil—in this region, African rhythms and Portuguese melodies combined to form maracatu and dance music called baião has become popular. Most influentially, however, the area around the state of Pernambuco, the home of forró, frevo and maracatu.

Música gaúcha

Música gaúcha is a general term used for the music originally from Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil. It is somewhat of a mixture between Argentinian-Uruguayan styles with Portuguese melodies and aboriginal rhythms. The most famous musicians of this genre are Renato Borghetti, Yamandú Costa, Jayme Caetano Braun and Luiz Marenco.

Repentismo

Northeastern Brazil is known for a distinctive form of literature called literatura de cordel, which are a type of ballads that include elements incorporated into music as repentismo, an improvised lyrical contest on themes suggested by the audience.

Similar to Repentismo, appears among the Caipira culture a musical form derived from Viola Caipira, which is called Cururu.

Frevo

Frevo is a style of music from Olindamarker and Recifemarker. Frevo bands began playing during the Carnival, the most popular event of Brazil.

Forró

Forró is played by a trio consisting of a drum and a triangle and led by an accordion. Forró is rapid and eminently danceable, and became one of the foundations for lambada in the 1980s. Luiz Gonzaga was the preeminent early forró musician who popularized the genre in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo in the 1940s with songs like "Asa Branca".

Forró Dos Cumpadre

A kind of very popular music in Minas Geraismarker MG Brazilmarker. It started as a joke on 1970 and recorded at once ( in just one take ) without any previous rehearsal, became a top hit in the Steel Valley Governador Valadaresmarker.

Forró Dos Cumpadre is a humorous music and very odd compared with the other kind of Forró in Brazil. It is played with two acoustic guitars instead of accordion, zabumba and a metal triangle and talks about nonsense things imitating animals in a hilarious way. A very funny music based on the culture of region.Examples of this brazilian music, composed by Nelio Guerson and Carlos Guerson, are available for reviewing on Palco MP3 and Last Fm

Funk Carioca and rap

Funk Carioca is a type of dance music from Rio de Janeiro, derived from and superficially similar to Miami Bass. In Rio it is most often simply known as Funk, although it is very different musically from what Funk means in most other places and contexts. It's usually seen as party music and high and medium class people are usually reluctant to admit they listen to it, since music from this genre usually contains sexually explicit lyrics and is attributed to poor people derived from the Favela. Funk Carioca, like other types of hip-hop lifts heavily from samples such as international rips or from previous funk music. Many popular funk songs sampled music from the movie Rocky.

Funk as well as rap was introduced to Brazil in a systematic way in the 1980s. These types of music were heavily supported in big cities by people—usually teenagers—of lower socioeconomic status. Many funk artists have openly associated themselves with black movements and often in the lyrics of their songs, comment on race relations and openly express black pride.

In São Paulomarker and other places in the south of Brazil, in more urban areas, rap is more prevalent than funk. The lower class, mostly nonwhite rappers are referred to as "Rapeiros". They dress similarly to American rappers that they have seen on television. Early Brazilian rap was based upon rhyming speeches delivered over dance bases sampled from funk albums, with occasional scratches. São Paulo has gained a strong, underground Brazilian rap scene since it's emergence in the late 1980s with many independent labels forming for young rappers to establish themselves on.

In the 1990s in Rio de Janeiromarker, funk as well as rap were reported by the press to have been adopted by the drug lords of the city as a way to market their drugs at dance hall events. Some crime groups were known to subsidize funk parties to recruit young kids into the drug dealing business. These events were often called baile funk (which can mean a funk dance party) and were sometimes notorious for their blatant sexuality and violence. However, while some funk and rap music was used to send messages out about slums and drugs, others were used mostly to deliver socio-political messages about local, regional, or national issues they are affected by. In fact, some groups adhered to what they called rap consciência (socially conscious rap) and opposed hip-hop which some considered too alienated and consumerist. Despite these differences, both types of music continue to thrive in Brazil today.

The intrusion of alien elements in Brazil’s cultural system is not destructive process. The return of a democratic government allowed for freedom of expression. The Brazilian music industry opened up to international styles and this has allowed for both foreign and local genres to co-exist and identify people. Each different style relates to the people socially, politically, and economically. “Brazil is a regionally divided country with a rich cultural and musical diversity among states. As such, musicians in the country choose to define their local heritage differently depending on where they come from.” This shows how globalization has not robbed Brazil of its identity but instead given it the ability to represent its people both in Brazil and the rest of the world.

Brazilian rock

The musical style know in Brazil as "Brazilian rock n' roll" dates back to a portuguese-version cover of "Rock Around the Clock", in 1954. In the 1960s, young singers like Roberto Carlos and the Jovem Guarda movement were very popular. The 60s also see the rise of bands such as the "tropicalistas" Os Mutantes and the experimental (mixing progressive rock, jazz and MPB), O Som Imaginário.

The 1970s saw the emergence of many Progressive rock and/or Hard rock bands such as O Terço, A Bolha, A Barca do Sol, Som Nosso de Cada Dia, Vímana and Bacamarte, some of which attained some recognition internationally; Rita Lee, in her solo career after Os Mutantes, championed the glam-rock aesthetics in Brazil; Casa das Máquinas and Patrulha do Espaço were more bona-fide Hard rock bands, and the likes of (Raul Seixas, Secos e Molhados, Novos Baianos and A Cor do Som) mixed the genre with traditional Brazilian music. In the late 1970s, the Brazilian Punk rock scene kicked off mainly in São Paulo and in Brasília, booming in the 80s, with Inocentes, Cólera, Ratos de Porão, Garotos Podres etc...

The real commercial boom of Brazilian rock was in the 1980s, with many bands and artists like Blitz, Gang 90, Barão Vermelho, Legião Urbana, Engenheiros do Hawaii, Titãs, Paralamas do Sucesso, and many others, and festivals like Rock in Rio and Hollywood Rock. The late 1980s and early 1990s also witnessed the beginnings of an electronica-inspired scene, with a lot more limited commercial potential but achieving some critical acclaim: Suba, Loop B, Harry, etc...

In the 90s, the meteoric rise of Mamonas Assassinas, which sold more than 3 million copies of its only CD (a record, by Brazilian standards) came to a tragic end when the band's plane crashed, killing all five members of the band, the pilot and the co-pilot. Other commercially successful bands included Jota Quest, Raimundos and Skank, while Chico Science & Nação Zumbi and the whole Mangue Bit movement received much critical attention and accolades, but very little commercial success - success that declined after the death of one of its founders, Chico Science. It was also in the 90s that the first seeds of what would grow into being the Brazilian indie scene were planted, with the creation of indie festivals such as Abril Pro Rock and, later in the decade, Porão do Rock.

In present time (2009), the Brazilian variant of Emo music is very popular, with groups such as Fresno, Strike and NX Zero. Female singer Pitty is also very popular. The indie scene has been growing exponentially since the early 2000s, with more and more festivals taking place all around the country. However, due to several factors including but not limited to the worldwide collapse of the music industry, all the agitation in the indie scene has so far failed in translating into international success, but in Brazil they developed a real, substantial cultural movement. That scene is still much of a ghetto, with bands capturing the attention of international critics one year and then playing only on Brazil the next year, due to the lack of financial and material support which would allow for careers to be developed. The notable exception is CSS, an alternative Electro Rock outfit that has launched a successful international career, performing in festivals and venues in North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The record company Trama[28242] tries to support some bands with structure and exposure, and can be credited with early support to CSS. Alternative Rock shares a reasonable success in Brazil, with bands like System of a Down and Snow Patrol. Some other bands also go strong in the independent scene like Exxótica, Bastardz, Forgotten Boys and Sapatos Bicolores.

Brazilian metal

Brazilian metal was originated in the mid 80's with three prominent scenes: Belo Horizonte, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The most famous Brazilian metal bands are Sepultura, Soulfly, Angra, Krisiun, Dr. Sin, Shaaman, and the singer Andre Matos. Sepultura is considered an influential thrash metal band, influencing the development of death metal.

Famous bands of the 1980s include Korzus, Sarcófago, Overdose, Dorsal Atlântica, Viper, MX, PUS, Mutilator, Chakal, Vulcano and Attomica. From 1990s include Andralls, Symbols, The Mist, Scars, Distraught, Torture Squad, Eterna and Silent Cry. From 2000's include Eyes of Shiva, Tuatha de Danann, Claustrofobia, Apokalyptic Raids and Wizards.

Sertanejo

Música sertaneja or Sertenejo is a term for Brazilian country music. It originally referred to music from originating among Sertão and musica caipira (Caípira music appeared in the state of São Paulomarker, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiásmarker and the regions of Minas Geraismarker, Paranámarker and Mato Grosso. Musical rhythm very spread out in the Southeastern and south region of Brazil), but has since gained more influences from outside Brazil. In particular American country music, Mexican mariachi, and the Music of Paraguay. For several years it was a category at the Latin Grammy Awards.

Record labels

See also



References

  1. apud Padre Noel Berthold, in: Trevisan, Armindo, in A Escultura dos Sete Povos. Brasília: Editora Movimento / Instituto Nacional do Livro, 1978. (portuguese)
  2. Mariz, Vasco. História da Música no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2005. 6ª ed. (portuguese)
  3. Castagna, Paulo. Encarte do CD Gabriel Fernandes da Trindade - Duetos Concertantes. São Paulo: Paulus, 1995. (portuguese)
  4. A nação das cantoras
  5. Childhood Secrets *
  6. Ernesto Nazareth - Rei do Choro
  7. Polkas and Tangos
  8. Forró Dos Cumpadre on Palco MP3
  9. Forró Dos Cumpadre on Last Fm
  10. Funk Carioca
  11. Behague, Gerard. "Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music (1985–95)." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006): 79–90.
  12. Sansone, Livio. "The Localization of Global Funk in Bahia and Rio." In Brazilian Popular Music & Globalization, 135–60. London: Routledge, 2002.
  13. AllBrazilianMusic: the music from Brazil
  14. Behague, Gerard. "Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music (1985–95)." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006): 79–90.
  15. Behague, Gerard. “Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The local and the Global in Brazilian popular music (1985–1995)”. Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006): 79–90.
  16. Phillip Galinsky. Maracatu Atomico: Tradition, Modernity and Postmodernity in the Mangue. Published 2002, ISBN 0415940222.


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