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The music of Montenegromarker represents a mix of the country's unique musical tradition and Western musical influences.

History

In the 10th and 11th centuries a composer of religious chants (Jovan of Duklja) was the oldest composer known from the Adriaticmarker coast. At the end of the 12th century a script was made, now called Ljetopis Popa Dukljanina, which described the secular use of musical instruments.

Seven liturgies from the 15th century, written by a Venetianmarker publisher L.A. Giunta, have been saved in a St. Clara monastery in Kotormarker. Religious music development was sparked in the 19th century, when a Catholic singing academy was opened in Kotor. Also, until the musical renaissance of the 20th century, Montenegrin music was based on the simple traditional instrument, the gusle.

The oldest singing society, named "Jedinstvo" (Unity) was formed in Kotor in 1839. In 1870 in Cetinjemarker, the first Montenegrin Army Music started being formed—although not many people applied for the orchestra, because being a soldier was much more valued in Montenegrin society than being a musician.

The first music school in Montenegro was founded in 1934 in Cetinjemarker. In the 20th century, Borislav Tamindžić, Senad Gačević and Žarko Mirković helped bring attention to Montenegrin music.

Classical music

Due to the country's turbulent history, filled with defensive wars and constant fighting for freedom, the development of culture, especially music, was a secondary interest for Montenegrins. The first notable Montenegrin composer was Jovan Ivanišević (1860-1889). He composed piano miniatures, orchestra, solo and chorus songs that were performed even in Praguemarker. Tragically, he died when he was only 29 years old.

In the 19th century, there were also many operas with librettos inspired by Montenegro and its culture. Other prominent 19th century composers include Aleksa Ivanović and Dragan Milošević, who graduated from Prague music schools.

In the beginning of 20th century, when music schools were first introduced, and culture started developing faster, Montenegrin music started flourishing. There have been a number of notable classical music composers from Montenegro, especially during the 20th century. In the first half of the century, two musical schools developed: one based in Cetinje, and the other one in Podgoricamarker. An important role in the music development of that time was played by Radio Titograd, which broadcast various music programmes daily, and helped popularise the music. At that time, composers started returning to the roots, introducing many traditional elements in modern compositions. Also, during the 1940s and 1950s, musical schools were opened in Kotor, Podgorica, Cetinje, Tivatmarker, Herceg Novimarker, Nikšićmarker, Barmarker, Ulcinjmarker and Beranemarker.

Montenegrin composers

  • Špiro Ognjenović
  • Jelisaveta Popović
  • Jovan Ivanišević
  • Mirko Petrović Njegoš
  • Jovan Milošević
  • Ilija Lakešić
  • Antun Homen
  • Anton Pogačar
  • Vida Matjan
  • Srećko Marković
  • Cvjetko Ivanović
  • Đorđije Radović
  • Borislav Tamindžić
  • Branko Zenović
  • Miodrag Ćupić
  • Marko Rogošić
  • Radonja Vučeković
  • Nikola Gregović
  • Dragan Rakić
  • Julio Marić
  • Slobodan Jerkov
  • Žarko Mirković
  • Senad Gačević
  • Milivoje Božović
  • Zlatko Baban
  • Dejan Krdžić
  • Darko Nikčević
  • Dragana Lučić
  • Nedjeljko Pejović
  • Matijas Kunstlman


Traditional music

Traditional music heritage is somewhat different in different parts of Montenegro. In traditional music, different styles can be noticed in the Gulf of Kotormarker area, Old Montenegro and Sanjak regions.

Old Montenegro traditional music is based around the traditional instrument, the gusle. The music is mainly vocal, or instrumental-vocal. Many songs are adapted from the epic, and are based on the events and tales from Montenegrin tradition.

Popular music

Popular music includes that from former Yugoslavia as a whole, which includes music from the ever-popular Lepa Brena, Ceca, Indy, Seka Aleksic, and many more. One of the most well-known singers from Montenegro would have to be Boban Rajovic/Piroman or Šako Polumenta.See also Montenegro in the Eurovision Song Contest.

Pop

Rock

Probably the best known rock band from Montenegro is Perper. Other notable rock bands include DST from Niksicmarker and Autogeni Trening from Podgoricamarker.

Hip hop

Hip hop in Montenegro evolved in the mid-1990s, and was popularized mostly thanks to the most famous Montenegrin hip hop group at that time, Monteniggers. Following their popularity, various hip hop artists emerged, such as Rade Rapido, MC Marko, and to some extent, Rambo Amadeus, who was active long before that. Song themes were often humorous commentaries on everyday life.

After a few years of stagnation, a new wave of Montenegrin hip hop started emerging through a growing number of hip hop oriented artists and bands, such as Who See from Kotormarker. The main problem these artists face is lack of support from record labels, and insufficient funds available for hip hop projects.Some internationally known artists such as "ADI" do get the recognition from the recordlabels and the mainstream.

Dance

In late 1980s and 1990s a dance music was popular, mostly thanks to Elmag radio, which aired those songs. The best known groups are: H2O (from Bar), This Beat, Bass Reflex, Brchko, PG Crew, Maxi Playboy, Koko Kid (from Podgorica), Bianco Nero (Black and White in Italian),Grofovi (from Mojkovac) and many others.

See also



External links




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