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Sardinia is probably the most culturally distinct of all the regions in Italy and, musically, is best-known for the tenores polyphonic chant, sacred songs called gozosmarker and launeddas, an ancient instrument that consist in a set of three single-reed pipes, all three mouth-blown simultaneously using circular breathing, with two chanters and one drone

Launeddas

Launeddas is an ancient instrument, dating back to at least the 8th century BC, they are played using circular breathing.Launeddas are used to play a complex style of music that has achieved some international attention, and they are still played during religious ceremonies and dances (su ballu).Some of the most famous player were Efisio Melis, Antonio Lara, Dionigi Burranca e Luigi Lai. Many of the launeddas musicians are from de south of the island from villages like Villaputzumarker, San Vitomarker and Muraveramarker in the subregion named Sarrabus, or from Samatzaimarker but even from Cabras near Oristanomarker and Ovoddamarker near Nuoromarker. Distinctively, they are played using extensive variations on a few melodic phrases and, because of the technique of circular breathing, a single song can last over an hour.

Cantu a chiterra

Traditional singing accompanied by guitar cantu a chiterra is also found in Sardinia, represented by performers like Luiginu Cossu, Maria Carta, and nowadays Franco Denanni; this genre is especially well-known in the northwest region of Logudoro near the city of Sassarimarker and in the northeast region of Gallura.

Polyphonic singing

Rural polyphonic chanting known as cantu a tenore is sung with four vocal parts. They are bassu (bass), mesa boghe (middle), contra (counter) and boghe (leader and soloist). The most popular group is Tenores di Bitti, and others include Tenores de Oniferi.In November 2005 The A Tenore vocal style of the Sardinian pastoral culture was proclaimed a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCOmarker.

Other traditional singing, dance and music

Sacred gozosmarker (in Sardinian language gosos), or sacred songs, can be heard during religious celebrations, sung by choruses like Su Cuncordu 'e su Rosariu.

Traditional dances include ballu tundu, passu torrau, durdurinu, dillu, logudoresa, arroxiada, passu e trese, and campidanesa

Aside from the launeddas, traditional instruments include benasmarker, organittu, chiterra, tamburrinos.

Other influential Sardinian musicians include Totore Chessa (organetto), 1930s launeddas legend Efisio Melis, Maria Carta, Mauro Palmas, Elena Ledda of Sonos and Suonofficina, Cordas et Cannas, Antonello Salis piano, Paolo Fresu (trumpet) and Gesuino Deiana (guitar).

Musical and theatrical facilities

The modern Teatro Comunale of Cagliarimarker is home to the permanent Choir and Orchestra of the Opera and Concert Association of Cagliari and seat of the Cagliari Opera Foundation. As well, there is a Roman amphitheater in Cagliari that is used for outdoor summer concerts and festivals. The city is the site of Palestrina music conservatory.

The town of Tadasunimarker is the site of one of the interesting Giovanni Dore museum, a collection of 400 traditional Sardinian folk instruments. The Ente Musicale di Nuoromarker was founded in 1987 and, among other activities, sponsors the annual Nuoro Jazz Festival directed by trumpeter Paolo Fresu. Sassarimarker is the site of the Luigi Canepa music conservatory, the Teatro Politeama Verdi, built in 1884 and the Civic Theatre (1827).

Hymns and Anthems

S'hymnu sardu nationale was the official anthem of Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont, it was written in Sardinian Language, by Vittorio Angius, in 1842. It was also the first italian Anthem, substituted by the Marcia Reale (Royal March of Ordinance), in 1861.

Dimonios (Devils) is the official hymn of Sassari Mechanized Brigade, written in Sardinian Logudorese language, in 1915.

References

  • A. F. W. Bentzon, The Launeddas. A Sardinian folk music instrument (2 voll. Acta Musicologica Danica n°1), Akademisk Forlag, Copenaghen, 1969


  • A. F. W. Bentzon, Launeddas, Cagliari, 2002 ISBN 8888998004


  • Surian, Alessio. "Tenores and Tarantellas". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp. 189 - 201


  • Guide Cultura, i luoghi della music (2003), ed. Touring Club Italiano.


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