The My Lai Massacre
( ; , ) was the mass murder
conducted by a unit
of the U.S. Army
on March 16,
1968 of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens in South Vietnam, all of whom
and a majority of whom were
, children, and elderly people.
Many of the victims were sexually abused, beaten, tortured, and
some of the bodies were found mutilated. The massacre took
place in the hamlets of Mỹ Lai and My Khe of Sơn
Mỹ village during the Vietnam
While 26 US soldiers were initially charged with
criminal offenses for their actions at My Lai, only William Calley
was convicted. He served only
three years of an original life sentence, while on house
When the incident became public knowledge in 1969, it prompted
widespread outrage around the world. The massacre also reduced U.S.
support at home for the Vietnam War. Three U.S. servicemen who made
an effort to halt the massacre and protect the wounded were
denounced by U.S. Congressmen, received hate mail, death threats
and mutilated animals on their doorsteps. Only 30 years after the
event were their efforts honored.
The massacre is also known as the Sơn Mỹ Massacre
( ) or
sometimes as the Song My Massacre
. The U.S. military
codeword for the hamlet was Pinkville
, 20th Infantry
, 23rd Infantry
, arrived in South Vietnam in December 1967. Their
first month in Vietnam passed without any direct enemy contact.
Nevertheless, by mid-March the company had suffered 28 incidents
involving mines or booby-traps which caused injuries and five
Tet Offensive of January 1968, attacks
were carried out in Quảng
Ngãi by the 48th Battalion of the NLF (National
Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, commonly referred to
by the Americans as the Viet Cong or
Victor Charlie). U.S. military intelligence postulated that
the 48th NLF Battalion, having retreated, was taking refuge in the
village of Sơn Mỹ, in Quang Ngai Province.
A number of specific hamlets within that
village — designated My Lai 1, 2, 3, and 4 — were suspected of
harboring the 48th.
U.S. forces planned a major offensive against those hamlets.
Colonel Oran K. Henderson urged his officers to "go in there
aggressively, close with the enemy and wipe them out for good."
Lieutenant-Colonel Frank A. Barker ordered the 1st Battalion
commanders to burn the houses, kill the livestock, destroy
foodstuffs, and perhaps maybe to close the wells.
On the eve of the attack, at the Charlie Company briefing, Captain Ernest
informed his men that nearly all the civilian residents
of the hamlets in Sơn Mỹ village would have left for the market by
07:00 and that any who remained would be NLF or NLF sympathizers.
He was also asked whether the order included the killing of women
and children; those present at the briefing later gave different
accounts of Medina's response. Some of the company soldiers,
including platoon leaders, later testified that the orders as they
understood them were to kill all guerrilla
and North Vietnamese
combatants and "suspects"
(including women and children, as well as all animals), to burn the
village, and pollute the wells. He was also quoted as saying
"They're all V.C. now go and get them" and was heard saying "Who is
my enemy?" and added "Anybody that was running from us, hiding from
us, or appeared to be the enemy. If a man was running, shoot him,
sometimes even if a woman with a rifle was running, shoot
Charlie Company was to enter the hamlet, spearheaded by its 1st
. The other two companies that made
up the task force were to cordon off the village.
Dead man and child.
Charlie Company landed following a short artillery and helicopter
gunship preparation. The Americans found no enemy fighters in the
village on the morning of March 16. Many soldiers suspected there
were NLF troops in the village, hiding underground in the homes of
their elderly parents or their wives. The U.S. soldiers, one
platoon of which was led by Second Lieutenant William Calley
, went in shooting at a
"suspected enemy position".
After the first civilians were wounded or killed by the
indiscriminate fire, the soldiers soon began attacking anything
that moved, humans and animals alike, with firearms, grenades and
bayonets. The scale of the massacre only spiraled as it progressed,
the brutality increasing with each killing. BBC
described the scene:
Dozens of people were herded into an irrigation ditch and other
locations and killed with automatic weapons. A large group of about
70 to 80 villagers, rounded up by the 1st Platoon in the center of
the village, were killed personally by Calley and by soldiers
ordered to fire by Calley. Calley also shot two other large groups
of civilians with a weapon taken from a soldier who had refused to
do any further killing.
Members of the 2nd Platoon killed at least 60–70 Vietnamese people,
as they swept through the northern half of My Lai 4 and through
Binh Tay, a small subhamlet about 400 meters north of My Lai
After the initial "sweeps" by the 1st and the 2nd Platoons, the 3rd
Platoon was dispatched to deal with any "remaining resistance".
They immediately began killing every still-living human and animal
they could find, including shooting the Vietnamese who emerged from
their hiding places, and finishing off the wounded found moaning in
the heaps of bodies. The 3rd Platoon also rounded up and killed a
group of seven to twelve women and children.
Since Charlie Company had encountered no enemy opposition,
, 3rd Infantry
, was moved into its landing zone between and attacked
the subhamlet of My Khe 4, killing as many as 90 people. U.S.
forces lost one man killed and seven wounded from mines and booby
During the next two days, both battalions were involved in
additional burning and destruction of dwellings, and in the
mistreatment of Vietnamese detainees. Most of the soldiers had not
participated in the crimes, but neither protested nor complained to
Warrant Officer One
Hugh Thompson, Jr.
, a helicopter
pilot from an aero-scout team, witnessed a large number of dead and
dying civilians as he began flying over the village — all of them
infants, children, women and old men, with no signs of draft-age
men or weapons anywhere. Thompson and his crew witnessed an unarmed
passive woman kicked and shot at point-blank range
by Captain Medina
(Medina later claimed that he thought she had a grenade). The crew
made several attempts to radio for help for the wounded. They
landed their helicopter by a ditch, which they noted was full of
bodies and in which there was movement. Thompson asked a sergeant
he encountered there (David Mitchell of the 1st Platoon) if he
could help get the people out of the ditch, and the sergeant
replied that he would "help them out of their misery". Thompson,
shocked and confused, then had a conversation with Second
Lieutenant Calley, Platoon Leader of 1st Platoon, who claimed to be
"just following orders". As the helicopter took off, they saw
Mitchell firing into the ditch.
Thompson then saw a group of civilians (again consisting of
children, women and old men) at a bunker being approached by ground
personnel. Thompson landed and told his crew that if the U.S.
soldiers shot at the Vietnamese while he was trying to get them out
of the bunker that they were to open fire at these soldiers.
Thompson later testified that he spoke with a lieutenant
(identified as Stephen Brooks of the 2nd Platoon) and told him
there were women and children in the bunker, and asked if the
lieutenant would help get them out. According to Thompson, "he [the
lieutenant] said the only way to get them out was with a hand
grenade". Thompson testified that he then told Brooks to "just hold
your men right where they are, and I'll get the kids out". He found
12 to 16 people in the bunker, coaxed them out and led them to the
helicopter, standing with them while they were flown out in two
Returning to My Lai, Thompson and other air crew members noticed
several large groups of bodies. Spotting some survivors in the
ditch Thompson landed again and one of the crew members entered the
ditch. The crew member returned with a bloodied but apparently
unharmed child who was flown to safety. The child was thought to be
a girl, but later investigation found that it was a 4-year-old boy.
Thompson then reported what he had seen to his company commander,
Major Frederic W. Watke
, using terms such as "murder" and
"needless and unnecessary killings". Thompson's reports were
confirmed by other pilots and air crew.
In 1998, the three former U.S. servicemen who stopped their
comrades from killing a number of villagers, significantly reducing
casualties at My Lai, were awarded medals
Washington D.C. The veterans also made contact with the survivors
of My Lai.
Dead bodies outside a burning
Owing to the chaotic circumstances and the Army's decision not to
undertake a definitive body count, the number of civilians killed
at My Lai cannot be stated with certainty. Estimates vary from
source to source, with 347 and 504 being the most commonly cited
figures. The memorial at the site of the massacre lists 504 names,
with ages ranging from one to 82 years. A later investigation by
the U.S. Army arrived at a lower figure of 347 deaths, the official
Cover-up and investigations
The first reports claimed that "128 Viet Cong and 22 civilians"
were killed in the village during a "fierce fire fight". General
William C. Westmoreland
congratulated the unit on the "outstanding job". As related at the
time by the Army's Stars and Stripes
magazine, "U.S. infantrymen had killed 128 Communists in a bloody
Initial investigations of the My Lai operation were undertaken by
the 11th Light Infantry Brigade's commanding officer, Colonel
Henderson, under orders from the Americal Division's executive
officer, Brigadier General
George H. Young
. Henderson interviewed several
soldiers involved in the incident, then issued a written report in
late April claiming that some 20 civilians were inadvertently
killed during the operation. The army at this time was still
describing the events at My Lai as a military victory that had
resulted in the deaths of 128 enemy combatants.
Six months later, Tom Glen
, a 21-year-old
soldier of the 11th Light Infantry Brigade, wrote a letter to
General Creighton Abrams
, the new
overall commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam, accusing the Americal
Division (and other entire units of the U.S. military) of routine
and pervasive brutality against Vietnamese civilians. The letter
was detailed and its contents echoed complaints received from other
, then a 31-year-old Army
Major, was charged with investigating the letter, which did not
specifically reference My Lai (Glen had limited knowledge of the
events there). In his report Powell wrote: "In direct refutation of
this portrayal is the fact that relations between American
the Vietnamese people are excellent." Powell's handling of the
assignment was later characterized by some observers as
"whitewashing" the atrocities of My Lai. In May 2004, Powell, then
United States Secretary
, told CNN
's Larry King
, "I mean, I was in a unit that was
responsible for My Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in
war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but
they are still to be deplored."
The carnage at My Lai might have gone unknown to history if not for
another soldier, Ron Ridenhour
former member of Charlie Company, who, independently of Glen, sent
a letter detailing the events at My Lai to President Richard M. Nixon,
Joint Chiefs of Staff, and
numerous members of Congress.
copies of this letter were sent in March 1969, a full year after
the event. Most recipients of Ridenhour's letter ignored it, with
the notable exception of Congressman Morris
(D-Arizona). Ridenhour learned about the events at My Lai
secondhand, by talking to members of Charlie Company while he was
Eventually, Calley was charged with several counts of premeditated
murder in September 1969, and 25 other officers and enlisted men
were later charged with related crimes. It was another two months
before the American public learned about the massacre and
Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh
, after extensive conversations
with Calley, broke the My Lai story on November 12, 1969; on
November 20, Time
magazines all covered the story, and
televised an interview with Paul Meadlo
. The Cleveland Plain
Dealer published explicit photographs of dead villagers
killed at My Lai.
In November 1969, General William
was appointed to
conduct a thorough investigation into the My Lai incident and its
subsequent cover-up. Peers' final report
, published in March 1970,
was highly critical of top officers for participation in a cover-up
and the Charlie Company officers for their actions at My Lai 4.
According to Peers's findings:
[The 1st Battalion] members had killed at least 175–200
Vietnamese men, women, and children. The evidence indicates that
only 3 or 4 were confirmed as Viet Cong although there were
undoubtedly several unarmed VC (men, women, and children) among
them and many more active supporters and sympathizers. One man from
the company was reported as wounded from the accidental discharge
of his weapon.
However, critics of the Peers Commission pointed out that it sought
to place thereal blame on four officers who were already dead,
foremost among them being the CO ofTF Barker, LTC Frank Barker, who
was killed in a mid air collision on June 13, 1968.
On November 17, 1970, the United
charged 14 officers, including Major General
Samuel W. Koster
, the Americal Division's
commanding officer, with suppressing information related to the
incident. Most of those charges were later dropped. Brigade
commander Henderson was the only officer who stood trial on charges
relating to the cover-up; he was acquitted on December 17,
After a four-month-long trial, in which he claimed that he was
following orders from his commanding officer, Captain Medina
, William Calley
was convicted, on March 29,
1971, of premeditated murder for ordering the shootings. He was
initially sentenced to life in prison. Two days later, however,
President Nixon made the controversial decision to have Calley
released from prison, pending appeal of his sentence. Calley's sentence was
later adjusted, so that he would eventually serve four and one-half
months in a military prison at Fort Benning.
In a separate trial, Captain Medina denied giving the orders that
led to the massacre, and was acquitted of all charges, effectively
negating the prosecution's theory of "command responsibility
", now referred
to as the "Medina standard
months after his acquittal, however, Medina admitted that he had
suppressed evidence and had lied to Colonel Henderson about the
number of civilian deaths.
Most of the enlisted men who were involved in the events at My Lai
had already left military service, and were thus legally exempt
from prosecution. In the end, of the 26 men initially charged,
Calley's was the only conviction.
argued that the outcome of the My Lai courts-martial was a reversal
of the laws of war that were set forth in the Nuremberg and Tokyo War
Crimes Tribunals. Secretary of the Army Howard Callaway
was quoted in the New
as stating that Calley's sentence was reduced
because Calley honestly believed that what he did was a part of his
orders — a rationale that stands in direct contradiction of the
standards set at Nuremberg and Tokyo, where German and Japanese
soldiers were executed for similar acts.
In the spring of 1972, the camp (at My Lai 2) where the survivors
of the My Lai Massacre had been relocated was largely destroyed by
Army of the Republic of
(South Vietnam) artillery and aerial bombardment. The
destruction was officially attributed to "Viet Cong terrorists".
However, the truth was revealed by Quaker
service workers in the
area, through testimony (in May 1972) by Martin Teitel
at hearings before the
Congressional Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Connected with
Refugees and Escapees. In June 1972, Teitel's account of the events
was published in the New York
More than a thousand people turned out March 16, 2008, forty years
after the massacre, to remember the victims of one of the most
notorious chapters of the Vietnam War
The memorial drew the families of the victims and returning U.S.
war veterans alike.
On August 19, 2009, Lt. Calley made his first public apology for
the massacre in a speech to the Kiwanis club of Greater Columbus
"There is not a day that goes by that I do not feel
remorse for what happened that day in My Lai," William
Calley told members of a local Kiwanis
"I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for
their families, for the American soldiers involved and their
I am very sorry."
Effects and analysis
The explosive news of the massacre fueled the outrage of the
antiwar movement, which demanded the withdrawal of American troops
from Vietnam. It also led more potential draftees to file for
status. Those who had always argued against the war felt
vindicated; those on the fringes of the movement became more
The more pivotal shift, however, was in the attitude of the general
public toward the war. People who previously had not been
interested in the peace/war debates began to analyze the issue more
closely. The horrific stories of other soldiers began to be taken
more seriously, and other abuses came to light.
Some military observers concluded that My Lai showed the need for
more and better volunteers to provide stronger leadership for the
troops. As the Vietnam conflict dragged on, the number of well
trained and experienced career soldiers on the front lines dropped
sharply as casualties and combat rotation took their toll. These
observers claimed the absence of the many bright young men who
avoided military service through college attendance or homeland
service caused the talent pool for new officers to become very
shallow. They pointed to Calley, a young, unemployed college
dropout, as an example of the raw and inexperienced recruits being
rushed through officer training. Others pointed out problems with
the military's insistence on unconditional obedience to orders
while at the same time limiting the doctrine of "command
responsibility" to the lowest ranks. Others saw My Lai and related
war crimes as a direct result of the military's attrition strategy,
with its emphasis on "body counts" and "kill ratios". The fact that
the massacre was successfully covered up for 18 months was seen as
a prime example of the Pentagon's "Culture of Concealment" and of
the lack of integrity that permeated the Defense establishment. The
fact that Calley was the only officer convicted led many to see him
as a scapegoat.
The My Lai massacre reflected the war of attrition in which
military success, for lack of terrain objective was measured
statistically by counting corpses. While casualty counts are valid
measurements of war, in Vietnam, they unfortunately became the
yardstick used to gauge the battlefield. Rather than means of
determination, they became objectives in themselves. The process
became so ghoulish that individual canteens were accepted
substitutes if bodies were too dismembered to estimate properly.
This appalling practice produced body counts that were largely
unquestioned and were readily rewarded by promotions, medals,
commendations and time off from field duty. General Westmoreland
had issued a special commendation to the 11th Infantry Brigade
based on the claims of 128 enemy killed in My Lai
- Frank A. Barker — Lieutenant Colonel, commander of the Task
Force Barker, ordered the destruction of the village, controlled
the artillery preparation and combat assault from his helicopter,
was killed in Vietnam on June 13 1968, before the investigation had
- Stephen Brooks — Lieutenant, Platoon Leader of 2nd Platoon,
- William L. Calley — 2nd Lieutenant, Platoon Leader of
1st Platoon, Charlie Company, the only person convicted of murder.
On August 19 2009 Calley became the first person ever to apologize
for the massacre. “There is not a day that goes by that I do not
feel remorse for what happened that day in My Lai,” Calley told
members of the Kiwanis Club of Greater Columbus, “I feel remorse
for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the
American soldiers involved and their families. I am very
- Oran K. Henderson — Colonel, brigade commander who ordered the
attack, had been in the helicopter over My Lai.
- Samuel W. Koster — Major General, commanding officer
of the Americal Division, charged with cover-up of the
- Eugene Kotouc — Captain from military intelligence, provided
some of the information on which the My Lai combat assault was
based; together with Medina and a Vietnamese police officer,
tortured and executed suspects later that day.
- Ernest Medina — Captain, company
commander of Charlie Company, who planned, ordered, and supervised
the execution of the operation in Sơn Mỹ village.
Some of the soldiers of the 1st Platoon, Charlie Company, included:
- Michael Bernhardt — a sergeant, refused to participate in the
killing of civilians and was threatened by Medina to not attempt to
expose the massacre by writing to his congressman, and as a result
he was allegedly given more dangerous duties such as point duty on
patrol. Later he would help expose and detail the massacre in
numerous interviews with the press, and also served as a
prosecution witness in the trial of Ernest Medina where he was
subjected to intense cross examination by defense council F. Lee
Bailey. Recipient of 1970 'Ethical Humanist Award'.
- Herbert Carter — platoon tunnel rat,
claimed he shot himself in the foot in order to be MEDEVACed out of the village.
- Dennis Conti — testified he initially refused to shoot but
later fired some M79 grenade
launcher rounds at a group of fleeing people with unknown
- James Dursi — killed a mother and child, refused to kill anyone
else even when ordered.
- Ronald Grzesik — a team leader, said he followed orders to
round up civilians but refused to kill them.
- Robert Maples — stated to have refused to participate.
- Paul Meadlo — said he was afraid of being shot if he did not
participate. Lost his foot to a land mine the next day, later
publicly admitted his part in the massacre.
- David Mitchell — a sergeant, accused by witnesses of shooting
people at the ditch site; pleaded not guilty. Mitchell was
acquitted. His attorney was Ossie
Brown of Baton
Rouge, thereafter the district attorney of East Baton Rouge Parish.
- Varnado Simpson — committed
suicide in 1997, citing guilt over several murders committed in My
- Charles Sledge — radio operator, later prosecution
- Harry Stanley — claimed to have refused to participate.
- Esequiel Torres — previously had tortured and hanged an old man
because Torres found his bandaged leg suspicious; he and Roschevitz
were involved in the shooting of a group of ten women and five
children in a hut, later he was ordered by Calley to shoot a number
of people with M60 machine gun and
he fired a burst before he refused to fire again, after which
Calley took his weapon and opened fire himself.
- Frederick Widmer - Frederick Widmer, who has been the subject
of pointed blame, is quoted as saying, "The most disturbing thing I
saw was one boy—and this was something that, you know, this what
haunts me from the whole, the whole ordeal down there. And there
was a boy with his arm shot off, shot up half, half hanging on and
he just had this bewildered look in his face and like, What did I
do, what's wrong? He was just, you know, it's, it's hard to
describe, couldn't comprehend. I, I shot the boy, killed him and
it's—I'd like to think of it more or less as a mercy killing
because somebody else would have killed him in the end, but it
Charlie Company, the unit deployed in My Lai 4 on the day of the
massacre led by 2LT Calley, was one of at least three that swept My
- William Doherty and Michael Terry — soldiers in the 3rd Platoon
who killed the wounded in the ditch.
- Ronald L. Haeberle — photographer attached to the
11th Brigade information office who accompanied C Company.
- Nicholas Capezza — chief medic in Charlie Company, insisted he
saw nothing unusual.
- Sergeant Minh — ARVN interpreter confronted
CPT Medina when he entered the hamlet on why so many civilians had
been killed. CPT Medina replied: "Sergeant Minh, don’t ask anything
— those were the orders."
- Gary Roschevitz — grabbed an M16 rifle
from Varnado Simpson to kill 5
Vietnamese prisoners, later according to various witnesses he
forced seven women to undress with the intention of them performing
sex with him, when the women refused he reportedly shot them.
Intervention helicopter's crew consisted of:
30 years later the crew was decorated for their actions at My Lai
with Soldier's Medals
, the U.S.
non-combat heroism awards (Andreotta, who was killed in action over
Vietnam shortly after the events at My Lai, received the medal
The massacre, like many other operations in Vietnam, was captured
by photography by U.S. Army personnel. The most published and
graphic photos were taken by Ronald
, a U.S Army 'Public Information Detachment'
photographer who accompanied the men of Charlie company that day.
Some of the (black and white) photographs he took were made using
an Army camera and were either subject to censorship or did not
depict any Vietnamese casualties when published in an Army
newspaper. On the other hand, Haeberle took color photographs with
his own camera while on duty the same day, which he kept and later
sold to the media.
Another soldier, John Henry Smail, 3rd Platoon, took at least 16
color photographs depicting U.S. Army personnel, helicopters, and
aerial views of My Lai. These, along with Haeberle's photographs
were included in the 'Report of the Department of the Army review
of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident'. Roger
Louis Alaux, artillery lieutenant who was with CPT Medina during
the massacre, also took some photographs that day, including aerial
views of My Lai from a helicopter and of the LZ.
Image:Deadwoman.jpg|Unidentified dead Vietnamese
woman.Image:Deadman.jpg|Unidentified dead Vietnamese
man.Image:MyLai Haeberle P37 BodyInWell.jpg|Unidentified dead body
thrown down a well.Image:Burningdwelling2.jpg|SP5 Capezza burning a
dwelling.Image:Haeberlewounded.jpg|PFC Mauro, PFC Carter, and SP4
Widmer (Carter shot himself in the foot with a .45 pistol during
the My Lai Massacre (either accidentally or
intentionally)).Image:Haeberlehutonfire.jpg|SP4 Dustin setting fire
to a dwelling.Image:Mylaiman.jpg|Unidentifed Vietnamese
man.Image:Deadwoman2.jpg|More victims at My Lai. Photo by
Ronald L. Haeberle
the British television station Yorkshire Television broadcast the
documentary Four Hours in My Lai as part of the ITV networked series First
Using eyewitness statements from both
Vietnamese and Americans the programme revealed new evidence about
planned to start
production on a film titled Pinkville
investigation of General Peers into the My Lai Massacre, featuring
(as General William
Peers), Woody Harrelson
Henderson). However, United Artists halted its December 2007
production start because of the 2007–2008
Writers Guild of America strike
. An earlier film of Stone’s,
, dealt with an
incident similar to the massacre.
15, 2008 the British
Broadcasting Corporation broadcast a documentary, The My
Lai Tapes on Radio 4, and subsequently on the BBC World Service in both English and
Vietnamese that used never before heard audio recordings of
testimony taken at The
Pentagon during the
1969-1970 Peers Inquiry.
- At the time of the original revelations of the massacre, My Lai
was pronounced like the English words "my lay". Later, the
pronunciation "me lie" became commonly used.
- Summary report from the report of General
- Department of the Army. Report of the Department of the
Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai
Incident ( The Peers Report), Volumes I-III
- My Lai Pilot Hugh Thompson
- My Lai was one of four hamlets associated with the village of
"Son My". Americal Division Veterans Association.
- The My Lai Massacre: Seymour Hersh's Complete and
Unabridged Reporting for the St. Louis Post Dispatch, November 1969
- "Report of the Department of Army review of the
preliminary investigations into the My Lai incident. Volume III,
Exhibits, Book 6 — Photographs, 14 March 1970". From the
Library of Congress, Military Legal
- "My Lai: A Question of Orders". Jan. 25, 1971.
- Summary of Peers Report. Significantly, he gave
no instructions for segregating and safeguarding non-combatants.
My Lai: An American Tragedy. © William George
- Peers Report: The Omissions and Commissions Of Cpt.
Ernest L. Medina.
- "American soldiers testify in My Lai court martial".
By Karen D. Smith. Dec. 6, 2000. Amarillo Globe-News.
- Michael Walzer: Just and Unjust Wars, New York: Basic Books
Publishing, p. 310.
- My Lai: An American Tragedy
- Hugh Thompson | Times Online Obituary
- Thompson's own testimony before a conference at the University
of Tulane in 1994 and from the Peers Report summary.
- Heroes of My Lai honoured. March 7, 1998.
- My Lai Massacre
- "The 23rd Infantry
Division , more commonly known as the Americal
Division of the United States Army was formed in May 1949 on the
island of New Caledonia."
- "Behind Colin Powell's Legend -- My Lai" by
Solomon, The Consortium for Independent Journalism, July 22,
- Text of Ron Ridenhour's 1969 letter
- Mo Udall, The Education of a Congressman
- Biography of General William R. Peers
- "Biography of Oran Henderson"
- Neier, A. War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the
Struggle for Justice, Random House, p. 95
- "An Introduction to the My Lai
- My Lai survivors gather to pray for
- Siegel, R. "My Lai Officer Apologizes for Massacre" All Things
Considered, NPR, Aug 21, 2009
- PBS/The American Experience. The My Lai Massacre
- The "culture of concealment" was often referred to as the
"second war" during the Vietnam War, one fought between the media
and the government. Huffington, Arianna (21 April 1999)
"Washington's culture of concealment" The San Diego
Union-Tribune page B-8
- (Shelby Stanton: The Rise and Fall of an American Army, Dell
Publishing: New York, 1988).
- Ltc Frank Akeley Barker
- Associate Press
- Peers Report: Captain Ernset Medina
- The Ethical Humanist Award: New York Society for
- The My Lai Trials Begin - TIME
- " Remember My Lai". WGBH Educational Foundation,
May 23 1989. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
- Four Hours in My Lai: A Case Study
- Trin Yarborough book: Surviving Twice: Amerasian Children of the
Vietnam War. 2005. Page 19. ISBN 1574888641.
- LHCMA Catalogue: FOUR HOURS IN MY LAI television
documentary archive, 1964-1992
- Pinkville (2008) at IMDB.
- The My Lai Tapes, 1968 Myth or Reality, BBC Radio
- The My Lai Tapes, audio file in
- The My Lai Tapes, audio file and
transcript in Vietnamese
- Vietnamese Wikipedia; Thảm sát Sơn Mỹ,
cited June 7, 2006. (Vietnamese Wikipedia article on the
- 161st Assault Helicopter Company. Unit History
of the 161st Assault Helicopter Company (who intervened in the
- Americal Division Veterans Association; Americal
Locations in Vietnam, cited June 3, 2006.
- Anderson, David L. (1998) Facing My Lai: Moving Beyond the
Massacre University Press of Kansas: Lawrence, Kansas —
extensive interviews with trial participants and soldiers.
- Becker, Elizabeth. Kissinger Tapes Describe Crises, War and Stark
Photos of Abuse., The New York Times, May 27,
- Belknap, Michal R. (2002) The Vietnam War on Trial: The My
Lai Massacre and the Court-Martial of Lieutenant Calley.
University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1211-4.
- Bilton, Michael and Sim, Kevin. (1992) Four Hours in My
Lai New York: Viking, 1992 — a recent re-examination, draws
extensively on interviews with participants and contains detailed
- Chomsky, Noam. After Pinkville, Bertrand Russell War Crimes
Tribunal on Vietnam, 1971
- Chomsky, Noam and Edward S. Herman. Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact
& Propaganda, 1973 and 2004
- Colburn, Lawrence and Paula Brock. The Choices Made — Lessons from My Lai on
Drawing the Line, Seattle Times, March 10,
- Gershen, Martin. (1971) Destroy or Die: The True Story of
My Lai New York: Arlington House.
- Goldstein, Joseph. (1976) The My Lai Massacre and its
Cover-Up New York: Free Press.
- Hammer, Richard. (1971) The Court-Martial of Lt.
Calley New York: Coward.
- Hersh, Seymour M. (1972). Cover-up: the Army's secret
investigation of the massacre at My Lai 4. Random House. ISBN
- Hersh, Seymour M. (1970). My Lai 4: A Report on the
Massacre and Its Aftermath. Random House. ISBN
- Hersh, Seymour M. The original, Pulitzer-Prize winning articles about
the My Lai Massacre for the St. Louis Post Dispatch, November 13,
November 20 and November 25, 1969.
- My Lai and Why It Matters: Review of Ron
Ridenhour's Videotaped Lecture
- O'Brien, Tim. (1994) In the Lake of the Woods,
McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 1-895246-31-8 — a haunting work of
historical fiction about a Vietnam Vet who can't escape his own
experience of My Lai.
- Olson, James S. and Roberts, Randy (eds.) (1998) My Lai: A
Brief History with Documents, Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN
- Peers, William. (1979) The My Lai Inquiry New York:
- Raimondo, Maj. Tony, JA. The My Lai Massacre: A Case Study,
Human Rights Program, School of
the Americas, Fort
- Ridenhour, Ron. "Jesus Was a Gook"
- Sack, John. (1971) Lieutenant Calley: His Own Story
New York: Viking.
- University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School. The My Lai Courts-Martial, 1970
- Teitel, Martin. Again, the Suffering of Mylai, article
preview, New York Times, June 7, 1972, pg. 45.
- Texas Tech University. The Vietnam Oral History Project
- The Toledo Blade. Special Report: Tiger Force
- Valentine, Douglas. The Phoenix Program, 1990.
. Chapter 24, "Transgressions" (deals with the
My Lai Massacre), online: . Author permission further explained: