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Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif, also known as Nawaz Sharif, (Punjabi, ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahoremarker, Punjabmarker, Pakistanmarker) is a Pakistanimarker politician and businessman. He was twice elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan, serving two non-consecutive terms, the first from November 1, 1990 to July 18, 1993 and the second from February 17, 1997 to October 12, 1999. His party is the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz group). He is best known internationally for ordering Pakistan's 1998 nuclear tests in response to Indiamarker’s nuclear testsmarker, and the abrupt end of his final term in a dramatic coup by the Pakistan military. Nawaz Sharif is currently a political leader in Pakistan.

Early life

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was born in Lahore on December 25, 1949. He is the eldest son of Mian Muhammad Sharif, a joint owner of the Ittefaq Group of Industries. His ancestors hail from Shopianmarker in the Kashmir valley .

Nawaz Sharif got his schooling from St. Anthony's High School. After graduating from Government College Lahore, he obtained his Law Degree from the Punjab University.

Chief Minister of Punjab

On April 9, 1985, he was sworn-in as Chief Minister of Punjab. On May 31, 1988, he was appointed caretaker Chief Minister, after the dismissal of Assemblies by General Zia. Nawaz Sharif was again elected as Chief Minister after the 1988 general elections. A massive uplift of Murree and Kahuta was undertaken during his term as Chief Minister of Punjab. He became close to Shaykh Tahir Alauddin and was seen in his gatherings along with Dr Tahir-ul-Qadri very often.

Prime Minister

First term

Sharif first became Prime Minister on November 1, 1990, running on a platform of right wing conservatives and vowing for an end to corruption.

In 1992 he commenced Operation Clean-up in the city of Karachimarker, a military operation targeting the Mohajir Qaumi Movement. On May 19' 1992, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif meets Sindh CM Muzaffar Hussain Shah, Home Minister Chaudhry Shujaat, COAS General Asif Nawaz, Sindh Coprs Commander General Naseer Akhtar and other officials at GHQ Rawalpindi to decide on the modalities of Operation Clean-up in Sindh; operation to be carried out by the Rangers and Mehran Force with full backing by the Army. Later in 2009, PML Nawaz spokesman Ahsan Iqbal denied of any involvement in the Operation Clean-up referring to it as an operation conducted entirely on military's discretion.

His government was sacked on April 18, 1993, when President Ghulam Ishaq Khan used the reserve powers vested in him by the Eighth Amendment to dissolve the National Assembly on charges of corruption, nepotism, extrajudicial killings and victimisation of opponents, appointing Mir Balakh Sher Mazari as the caretaker prime minister. Six weeks later, Supreme Court of Pakistan ruled that the Presidential order was unconstitutional, reconstituting the National Assembly and returning Sharif to power on May 26. Army stepped in asking Sharif to resign but negotiated settlement resulted in both Shareef along with President Ghulam Ishaq Khan to resign on July 18, 1993. Moin Qureshi who was accused by many circles of being an American implanted man, became caretaker prime minister, and was succeeded shortly thereafter by Benazir Bhutto, who was elected to office on October 19, 1993.

Second term

Sharif was re-elected Prime Minister in 1997.

In August 1997, Sharif signed the Anti-Terrorist Act which established Anti Terrorism Courts (ATC). The act was judged in 1998 unconstitutional by the Supreme Courtmarker (Merham Ali vs Pakistan).

Sharif's relationship with Muttahida Qaumi Movement(MQM) the party that was in alliance with Sharif in forming the provincial government in Sindh worsened, because of complaints by MQM that Sharif was not fulfilling his promises. Sharif ordered dissolution of provincial assembly in Sindh and an order imposing Governor's Rule in Sindh No. 8-1/98-Min-I was issued on October 30, 1998 and published in Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary. A wave of protests and agitation started in Sindh against Governor's rule. The government moved quickly to crush the demonstrations with force and besides police rangers and army were deployed. Many leaders and workers of Pakistan People's Party and Muttahida Qaumi Movement(MQM) were arrested and numerous criminal, political cases were filed against them by the then Government.

U.S.
Defense Secretary, William S.
Cohen, with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, at the Pentagon, December 3, 1998.


Relations with the military

Nawaz Sharif principally rose to prominence as a staunch proponent of the military government of President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq during the 1980s, especially maintaining ties with Lieutenant General Jilani and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Rahimuddin Khan. His political career was further facilitated by the military's tilt towards his right-wing inclinations; ISI Director-General Hamid Gul having played a substantial role in the formation of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad, the conservative political alliance that brought Sharif to power in 1990.

Naseerullah Babar, the Interior Minister in the government of Pakistan Peoples Party had disclosed in the National Assembly in 1994 how the ISI (the intelligence agency) had disbursed huge funds to purchase the loyalty of various right wing politicians including that of Nawaz Sharif and public figures so as to manipulate the 1990 elections, form the Islamic Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI- Pakistan democratic alliance) , and bring about the defeat of the Pakistan Peoples Party.In 1996, Air Marshal Asghar Khan filed a human rights petition in the Supreme Court against former chief of army staff and the former chief of the Inter-Services Intelligence, and a banker concerning the criminal distribution of the people's money for political purposes (HRC 19/96). In this case, Lt General Naseerullah Babar filed an affidavit in court supported by copies of various documents. The case is lying pending in the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Despite this, Sharif's first term as prime minister saw himself fall out with three successive army chiefs: with General Mirza Aslam Beg over the 1991 Gulf War issue; with General Asif Nawaz over the Sindh "Operation Clean-Up" issue; with General Abdul Waheed Kakar over the Sharif-Ishaq imbroglio. His second tenure saw fall out with two other Generals; General Karamat over the National Security Council and later with General Musharraf, when Nawaz did not allow the airplane carrying 180 passengers to land.

It was under Abdul Waheed Kakar that Nawaz Sharif along with the then President of Pakistan Ghulam Ishaq Khan were forced to resign in 1992-93. At the end of General Waheed’s three-year term in January 1996, General Jehangir Karamat was appointed army chief. His term was due to end on January 9, 1999. In October 1998, however, Sharif fell out with General Karamat as well, over the latter’s advocacy of the need for the creation of a "National Security Council" in what Sharif believed was a conspiracy to return the military to a more active role in Pakistani politics. Before that Sharif dismissed the Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Mansur Ul Haq.

In October 1998, General Karamat resigned and Sharif appointed General Pervez Musharraf as army chief. General Jehangir Karamat was seen by many as a straight person who compromised himself and stood for the wishes of the Prime Minister. Sharif would later regret appointing Pervez Musharraf to the Chief of Army position, as Musharraf would lead a coup to topple Sharif's government.

Both Nisar Khan, a Nawaz league leader whose brother was defence secretary and Shehbaz Sharif claim they arranged Musharraf's appointment. Nisar was later interned.

Pakistan's nuclear tests

Perhaps one of the most turning point in his political career was Pakistan's nuclear tests. It was during his term that Pakistan carried out its successful nuclear tests on May 28, 1998, and on May 30, 1998, in response to the Indian detonation of five nuclear devices roughly two weeks before. When India tested its nuclear tests second time, it caused a great alarm in Pakistan. The situation became more critical when Nawaz Sharif, as then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, came into immense public pressure from Pakistani civil society to replied Indiamarker by detonating Pakistan's nuclear devices. Nawaz held a secret meeting with Pakistani nuclear scientists and it was decided there to conduct country's first nuclear tests. Nawaz also high-alerted Pakistan Armed Forces inorder to defend country's nuclear installations.

On May 28, 1998, the Nawaz government justified the tests on national security grounds, as they demonstrated Pakistan's nuclear deterrent capabilities against an armed Indian nuclear program. Under Nawaz Sharif's leadership, Pakistan became the first Islamic country having Nuclear Power and became the 7th nation to become a nuclear power.

The Nawaz Government proclaimed an emergency on the same day as these nuclear tests were conducted. All fundamental rights were suspended and all the foreign currency accounts in Pakistani banks were frozen to minimize the effects of economic sanctions. This move was not welcomed by all sections of depositors and further deteriorated the investors and people's confidence. The foreign exchange reserves fell even further.

The Lahore Declaration

In 1999, Nawaz Sharif met with Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the Wagah border and a joint communique, known as the Lahore Declaration, was signed between the two leaders.

Kargil Conflict

Nawaz Sharif was Prime Minister during the Kargil War in 1999. Sharif claimed to have no knowledge of the planned attacks, saying that Pervez Musharraf acted alone. In 2009, however, a former Pakistani military official came forward and stated that Nawaz Sharif not only knew about the plans beforehand, but gave tacit approval for them.

Proposition of an Islamic society based on the Quran

On August 29, 1998 then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif proposed a law to create an Islamic order in Pakistan and establish a legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnat. Sharif told Pakistanis that the proposed Shariat Bill was a charter of duties and not power. This came a week after Sharif informally announced the measure during the commemoration the late President Zia ul-Haq's 10-year death anniversary on August 17. On October 8, 1998 Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif presented the Shariat Bill in the National Assembly. The Cabinet decided to present the bill on October 9, after removing some of its controversial aspects. Had he succeeded, the existing civil code would have been replaced by the Sharia, and Nawaz Sharif would have been declared the Amir-ul-Momineen, or Commander of the Faithful, an archaic caliphate-era title that would have given him absolute power.

The Pakistani government approved and passed the bill on October 10, 1998. After the vote, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said: "I congratulate the nation on the passage of the bill which will help create a truly Islamic system". The amendment, which was passed by the National Assembly by 151 votes to 16, was then passed to the upper house of parliament for a final vote. Two-thirds majority was needed for passage in the Senate, the upper chamber. On January 16, 1999 the Nawaz Sharif Government imposed Islamic law in the traditional tribal areas of the north-west straddling the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, vowing to impose it throughout the country.However, the amendment would fail in the senate and before Nawaz Sharif would recover from that setback, his government was summarily dismissed by a military coup.

Murder Allegations

In 2009, Pakistan's Supreme Court announced that they would hear petitions seeking the prosecution of Nawaz Sharif for the murder of Maj Khalid Saeed Orakzai. Sharif is alleged to have ordered the murder of Maj Khalid Saeed Orakzai to prevent his brother Shahid Orakzai from exposing Sharif's involvement in political kickbacks.

Military coup

See: 1999 Pakistani coup d'état


On October 12, 1999, Sharif tried to removed Musharraf as the army chief and appoint Ziauddin Butt in his place. Musharraf, who was in Sri Lanka, boarded a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan. Sharif ordered the Karachi airport sealed off to prevent the landing of the airliner, and ordered it to land at Nawab Shah Airport, but Musharraf contacted top army generals who took over the country and ousted Sharif's administration. Musharraf assumed control of the government as Chief Executive.

Hijacking and terrorism conviction

Sharif was convicted of hijacking and terrorism after he blocked Pervez Musharraf from landing his plane in Karachi in lieu of dismissing him from his post as Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army post.

In 2009, Pakistan's Supreme Court barred Sharif from holding public office in this case.

Corruption conviction

In the year 2000 Sharif, in what he called a politicalized trial, was charged, and convicted of corruption for failing to report and pay taxes on a helicopter worth at least $1 million. The ‎Court sentenced Sharif to fourteen years imprisonment, a fine of 20 million rupees, and barred him from holding public office for twenty-one years. this trail and conviction took place during Gen. Musharaf's presidency. Musharaf who was the political opponent of Mr. Sharif had jailed Mr. Sharif after taking power on 12 October 1999, following a nonviolent military coup d'état was accused of influncing the court decision against Mr. Sharif.he is not only a corrupt but a traitor also becouse of him our brave military men were martayerd.he also set to have taken some hafty amount from indian government to surrender from kargil.

Return to Pakistan 2007



On September 7, 2007, Justice Shabbir Hussain Chatha ordered police to arrest Shahbaz Sharif, brother of Nawaz Sharif and produce him before the court, after the hearing in Lahoremarker. The court ruled that "Shahbaz Sharif should be arrested (at) whichever airport he lands at". Nawaz Sharif also faced detention on the pair's planned return from exile to Pakistan on September 10, 2007, to challenge President Pervez Musharraf's eight-year military rule.

On September 8, 2007, Saudi intelligence chief Prince Muqrin bin Abdul Aziz and Lebanese politician Saad Hariri arrived separately in Islamabad, the former with a message from Saudi King Abdullah and the latter after a meeting with Nawaz Sharif in London. Prince Muqrin and Hariri addressed an unprecedented joint press conference at Army House, telling journalists that Nawaz was bound under the agreement not to return to Pakistan before ten years in exile. Asked about the details of the agreement, Prince Muqrin waved a copy of the agreement to the media and said: “It is here and signed.”

On September 10, Nawaz Sharif arrived in Islamabadmarker on a Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) flight from Londonmarker but was prevented from leaving the plane as the authorities at the Islamabad Airport wanted to escort him to the arrival lounge. The rest of the passengers on board were allowed to deplane, and negotiations began with Sharif as he, along with his few supporters, did not want an escort and wanted to deplane themselves.

Sharif finally agreed to be taken out of the plane, and was taken to the arrival lounge and upon his arrival there he was approached by the National Accountability Bureau chief who issued a warrant due to corruption charges made against him. After that, Nawaz Sharif boarded another airliner to be exiled back to Saudi Arabia. "He has been sent back", a senior security official told Agence France-Presse, as local television showed a PIA airplane carrying the deported Sharif from Islamabad airport.

Later on September 10, Nawaz Sharif landed at Jeddahmarker airport and was greeted by Saudi intelligence chief Prince Miqren bin Abdul Aziz. Pakistan's Religious Affairs Minister Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq stated that "He has not only embarrassed Pakistan but also the leadership of Saudi Arabia by violating the agreement." Although Nawaz Sharif had denied the existence of any 'exile deal' with the government before his homecoming, he later admitted that there was an agreement but that it was for only five years.

On presenting him before the Court, the European Union asked the Pakistani government to respect the court ruling. In Washington, D.C.marker, Sean McCormack of the White Housemarker (joined by India) stated that the deportation was an "internal matter" but said that elections should be "free and fair" (but expressing mild disapproval of Pervez Musharraf's action). But the United Statesmarker organisation Human Rights Watch accused the Pakistan Government of violating international law. Sharif's Pakistan Muslim League condemned the deportation by filing a contempt suit in the Supreme Court of Pakistanmarker. His brother Shahbaz Sharif was due to travel with Sharif from London but changed his plans at the last minute. On November 25, 2007, several weeks after the return of Benazir Bhutto, Nawaz Sharif was able to return to Pakistan. He was not arrested and, like Bhutto, was able to return to political activity.

A private television channel allegedly reported that Nawaz's media manager Pervaiz Rasheed seized tapes and intimidated their staff after Nawaz lost his temper in an interview. According to the director news of the private TV channel in a press conference, they had been held in hostage during an interview with former PM Nawaz Sharif. He (Nawaz) had also used unbecoming language against President Pervaiz Musharraf and PML(Q) top leaders while answering one of his questions.

2008 elections

On November 26, 2007, Nawaz Sharif filed for the January Parliamentary elections. He handed in his papers in Lahore filing for two parliamentary seats.

Mr Sharif announced his party's manifesto being a single demand for the restoration of the judges sacked in November by President Musharraf. Ms Bhutto however said that this is an issue that the new parliament can decide on. However after the death of Bhutto, Sharif met with Zardari and advised him to boycott elections. Asif Zardari refused the offer and offered Nawaz to take part in the elections arguing that the opposition parties would definitely win after this chain of unfortunate events in the country and mishandling of issues by the government. Nawaz accepted the offer and announced it publicly in a press conference. He gave the reason that in order to bring the President's government down the whole opposition must assemble and move in one direction.

On Monday, February 18 the PML (N) dominated the Punjab assembly and won 68 seats out of 272 from the National Assembly finishing second, directly behind the PPP (Bhutto/Zardari's party) at 88. However, after adding the reserved seats for women and minorities, total number rose to 91. The results became clear on February 19. His massive victory in Punjab was met by a festive mood. Later that day in a press conference he said that he would welcome the political leaders back to the parent party who had left his party and joined the PML (Q). Former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Asif Ali Zardari, the husband of slain former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto told February 21 2008 their parties will work together in the national parliament after scoring big wins in the 2008 election.

On Tuesday, February 26 2008, Nawaz announced that he and his brother Shabaz Sharif would run in by-elections upcoming in the country within the next few weeks, to become Members of Parliament, since they have no restrictions against them. the PML (N) left it to the PPP to chose a Prime Minister, since they agreed on forming a coalition government.

Nawaz Sharif has challenged the petition filed by the federal government against the acceptance of Mr Sharif’s candidature for National Assembly seat-121. Ashtar Ausaf Ali, former Advocate General of Punjabmarker, is the lawyer representing Nawaz Sharif.

The Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) and the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) on June 27, 2008, won 3 and 2 by-election seats, respectively, to the national parliament. Polls were postponed for the 6th seat in Lahoremarker due to Nawaz Sharif's eligibility contest. A court ruled he was ineligible due to the old conviction, amid the government appeal in the Supreme Court, which will hear the case on June 30, thus postponing the vote in the constituency. The two parties also won 19 of 23 provincial assembly seats where by-elections were held. The results will not affect the February 18 general election results in which Benazir Bhutto's PPP won 123 seats with 10,055,491 votes; in the 342-seat National Assembly and Sharif's party came second with 91 seats with 6,240,343 votes; and while the PML-Q came third with 54 direct seats with total coalition votes of 10,844,233 votes. Sharif's Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) won 8 provincial assembly seats, while the PPP won 7 provincial seats.

Assassination of Benazir Bhutto
On December 27, in a CNN interview just hours after the assassination of former Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Sharif said:

Sharif called Bhutto his sister and vowed to avenge her death.

Resignations from the Coalition Government
On May 12, PML (N) announced it was leaving the government after its failure to reinstate the judges; its ministers resigned.

2008 Musharraf impeachment

On August 7, 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his impeachment. Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif, announced sending a formal request or joint charge sheet that he steps down, and impeach him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf, however, said: “I will defeat those who try to push me to the wall. If they use their right to oust me, I have the right to defend myself." Pervez Musharraf, accordingly delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day. A senior coalition official told Reuters: "Yes, we have agreed in principle to impeach him." The draft of the ruling coalition’s joint statement had been finalized by the draft Committee, and Musharraf must obtain vote of confidence from the National Assembly and 4 provincial assemblies. The government summoned the national assembly, or lower house of parliament, to sit on August 11. Capt. Wasif Syed, spokesman for the Pakistan Peoples Party, confirmed: "A decision has been made that he has to go now, and all the parties have agreed on this point".

On 18 August 2008, Musharraf resigned as President of Pakistan. He said he was resigning for the country.

Presidential election

Pakistan's Election Commission on August 22 announced that Presidential elections would be held on September 6, and the nomination papers could be filed from August 26. The president is elected by the 2 houses of parliament and the 4 provincial assemblies. There was speculation that Nawaz Sharif would run for President, but on August 25, 2008, Nawaz Sharif announced that Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui would be the Pakistan Muslim League nominee to replace Pervez Musharraf as President of Pakistan. Siddiqui was defeated by Asif Ali Zardari for the presidency.

Reinstatement of Judges

Nawaz Sharif stated in Lahoremarker that: "I want to inform the entire nation that on Monday 12 May 2008, all deposed judges will be restored; the national assembly will approve a resolution the same day." The judges include Iftikhar Chaudhry, Supreme Court Chief Justice, and President Musharraf sacked 60 judges under the state of emergency. On 12 May 2008 the day that PML-N leader Nawaz Sharif stated that the deposed judges sacked under President Musharraf's emergency rule last November, would be reinstated, Mr Sharif over the weekend beginning 9 - 11 May met PPP Partner Asif Ali Zardari in Londonmarker to discuss the deadlock and the official date of when the judges would be reinstated, but the meetings dissolved, with no agreement that both party officials could agree upon. Returning to Islamabadmarker Nawaz spoke to media mogul Geo Television Network and announced that he is withdrawing his party members from the federal government(cabinet) and effectively resigning from the coalition government.

After repeated meetings with the ruling party and the refusal by the president to restore the deposed judges, Sharif decided to join the lawyers movement planned on completion of two years of first dismissal of chief justice on March 9, 2007. the plan was to start a long march from Karachi and Quetta simultaneously on March 12, 2009, reaching Islamabad and staging a permanent sit-in till restoration of all deposed judges. Sharif planned to attend a banned political rally in Islamabadmarker on 16 March 2009, to pressurize the government to reinstate the deposed judges, but was instead placed under house arrest. He duped police standing outside his door and went to attend the famous long march in Islamabad. In the meantime, the Pakistani Government announced to appeal against the disqualification of Sharif brothers from contesting election and occupying public office. The next day,the government agreed to reinstate the deposed judges of the Supreme Court after which Shariff gave his consent to call off his long march. After that political deadlock, Nawaz Sharif emerged as popular personality in the politics of Pakistan.

There was no way that anyone could get in or out of the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, not even for the ambulances carrying the sick. When the long march picked up peak of the tempo, with civil society joining the lawyers and politicians, it was at 0652 a.m.(PST, 16 March, i.e., before the start of planned sit-in) that the Prime Minister, after obtaining the President's approval (in the middle of long meetings of the army chief), announced the restoration of judges with immediate effect. Thus, Sharif was made a hero for restoration of original judiciary in the face of so many odds.

Ineligibility to contest

On June 23' 2008, the LHC ruled that Nawaz Sharif was ineligible to contest by-elections because of previous criminal conviction. Afterwards on February 25' 2009, the Supreme Court not only upheld the ban placed by LHC on Nawaz Sharif from contesting the elections, but also annulled the notification of the Election Commission (EC), declaring Shahbaz Sharif member of the provincial assembly. Providing its detailed judgement in the Sharif brothers’ disqualification case, the Supreme Court (SC) said: "Nawaz was publicly propagating his biased opinion, and was defaming the judiciary and the armed forces of Pakistan. Nawaz Sharif was a defaulter of consortium of National Bank of Pakistan, Habib Bank Limited, United Bank Limited, Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan, Muslim Commercial Bank, PICIC, Bank of Punjab and the First Punjab Mudarba and cases for recovery of loans were pending before the Lahore High Court".

Later, when the deposed judges were reinstated, the Supreme Court on May 27' 2009, declared Pakistan Muslim League (N) chief Nawaz Sharif and his brother Shahbaz Sharif eligible to contest elections and lifted the ban on their holding elected office.

While submitting an appeal against the October 10, 2000 Sindh High Court (SHC) verdict of upholding the conviction awarded by the Anti Terrorist Court (ATC), Mr Sharif requested the apex court to set aside the conviction, adding he was filing the petition irrespective of the consequences flowing from the presidential pardon under Article 45 of the Constitution. Mr Sharif has already approached the Rawalpindi Bench of the Lahore High Court by filing an appeal against his 14 years imprisonment by an accountability court in July 2000 helicopter case. On Friday July 17, 2009, a five-member larger bench of the Supreme Court announced the brief verdict on Nawaz Sharif’s appeal against his conviction in the plane hijacking case.

References

  1. World: Monitoring Nawaz Sharif's speech—BBC News, 28 May, 1998
  2. http://www.pmln.org.pk/profile.php
  3. Nawaz Sharif sitting on the floor in front of Shaykh Tahir Allauddin (min 2.13)
  4. http://www.pakistanihistory.com/92.htm
  5. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\08\25\story_25-8-2009_pg7_9
  6. NY Times
  7. Indian Express
  8. Indian Express
  9. http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20080823.htm
  10. BBC
  11. Indian express
  12. Channel NewsAsia, Pakistan court orders arrest of Sharif's brother
  13. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007%5C09%5C09%5Cstory_9-9-2007_pg1_1
  14. Mercurynews.com, Former Pakistani PM Sharif deported to Saudi Arabia: officials
  15. Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan - Nawaz loses cool with Business Plus team
  16. ChannelNewsAsia.com, US says ex-Pakistani premier Sharif's deportation an "internal matter"
  17. Newkeral.com, US denies hand in Sharif deportation
  18. Sharif not to fight election - BBC NEWS | South Asia
  19. Sharif's party 'to contest polls' - BBC NEWS | South Asia
  20. Pakistan leaders agree on coalition CNN 21 February 2008
  21. Nawaz sent notice to determine candidature status
  22. news.bbc.co.uk, Ruling parties win Pakistan polls
  23. http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=13109
  24. reuters.com, Sharif's party does well in Pakistani by-elections
  25. xinhuanet, Pakistan ruling coalition sweeps by-elections
  26. [1]
  27. timesonline.co.uk, President Musharraf of Pakistan to be impeached
  28. reuters.com, Pakistan rulers agree to begin Musharraf impeachment
  29. guardian.co.uk, Musharraf faces impeachment, Pakistan's ruling coalition agrees 'in principle' to begin proceedings to remove president
  30. paktribune.com, Draft of ruling coalition’s joint statement finalized
  31. afp.google.com, Pakistan coalition agrees to impeach Musharraf: officials
  32. edition.cnn.com, Pakistan: Musharraf could face impeachment
  33. timesofindia.indiatimes.com, Pakistan presidential poll on September 6
  34. radionetherlands.nl, Pakistan to choose president on 6 September
  35. CNN Wire: Sharif withdraws party from Pakistan ruling coalition
  36. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/supreme-court-rules-against-sharif-brothers--qs
  37. Daily Times - Sunday, March 22, 2009
  38. http://www.brecorder.com/index.php?id=2191&currPageNo=1&query=&search=&term=&supDate=
  39. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/09-nawaz-challenges-hijacking-conviction-before-sc-szh--10
  40. Supreme Court Acquits Nawaz in Plane Hijacking Case, Supreme Court Acquits Nawaz in Plane Hijacking Case,acquitting him of the hijacking charges


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