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Negeri Sembilan (Jawi: ; Cantonese: 森美兰; English: "the State of nine") , is one of the 13 states that constitutes the Federation of Malaysiamarker. It is located on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysiamarker, just south of Kuala Lumpurmarker and is bordered in the north by Selangormarker, in the east by Pahangmarker and in the south by Malaccamarker and Johormarker.

The name is believed to derive from the nine districts or negara (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatramarker (present-day Indonesiamarker). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken.

Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the Ruler is also unique whereby he is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest districts of Sungai Ujongmarker, Jelebu, Joholmarker, and Rembaumarker, making it one of the more democratic monarchies.

The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Serembanmarker. The royal capital is Seri Menantimarker in the district of Kuala Pilahmarker. Other important towns are Port Dicksonmarker and Nilaimarker.

The Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus ("the Special Abode").

The ethnic composition in 2005 was:Malay (497,896 or 54.96%), Chinese (220,141 or 24.3%), Indianmarker (137,588 or 15.18%), Other (50,267 or 5.54%).

History

The Minangkabaus from Sumatramarker settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Malaccamarker Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johormarker. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Melewar. When he arrived, he found that another royalty, Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler. He declared war against Raja Khatib and became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan (He Who is Highest Lord of the Nine States) in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.

In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujongmarker to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay Statesmarker (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.

The number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Kelangmarker to Selangor, and Segamatmarker to Johor.

Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1941 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malayamarker in 1948, and became a state of Malaysiamarker in 1963.

Government and politics

Constitution

The Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections. The constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy.

The Ruler

Istana Seri Menanti
The official constitutional title of the Ruler of the state is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertua Besar Negeri Sembilan and he holds office for life. The state's constitution proclaims the Yang di-Pertuan Besar is vested with the Executive Power of the state, is the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and is the fountain of all honour and dignity for the state. The current Yang di-Pertua Besar is His Royal Highness Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir. His Royal Highness replaces Almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman who died on 27 December 2008.

Unlike Malaysiamarker's eight other Royal Malay states, the Ruler of Negeri Sembilan is elected to his office by the territorial chiefs of the state. These chiefs are titled Undang. Only four of the Undangs have the right to vote in the election for the Ruler of the State. They are:

  • The Undang of Sungai Ujong
  • The Undang of Jelebu
  • The Undang of Johol
  • The Undang of Rembau


The Undang themselves cannot stand for election and their choice of ruler is limited to a male Muslim who is Malay and also a "lawfully begotten descendant of Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang".

State Executive Council / Assembly



The State Executive Council is established by the 1959 constitution. It consists of the Menteri Besar, who is its Chairman, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and the other members of the council are appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan Besar from the members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of the state is Dato' Seri Utama Muhammad Hassan.

Economy

Negeri Sembilan is mainly an agricultural state. However, the establishment of several industrial estates enhanced the manufacturing sector as a major contributor towards the state economy.

Agricultural activity includes rubber and oil palm plantations, livestock, fruit orchards and vegetable farming. About 3,099 square kilometers are used for rubber and oil palm plantations.

Manufacturing activity includes electrical and electronics, textiles, furniture, chemicals, machinery, metal works and rubber products. The main industrial areas are Senawangmarker, Sungai Gadut, Tuanku Jaafar Industrial Park, Nilai and Tanah Merah in Port Dicksonmarker.

Current states and sub-states of Negeri Sembilan



Original states of Negeri Sembilan



Current administrative districts of Negeri Sembilan



See also



External links




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