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Nesebar ( , Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebar; Thracian: Menebria; Greek: Μεσήμβρια, Mesimvria, previously known as Mesembria; other spellings include Nessebar and Nesebur) is an ancient city and a major seaside resort on the Black Seamarker coast of Bulgariamarker, located in Nesebar municipalitymarker, Burgas Provincemarker. Often referred to as the "Pearl of the Black Sea" and "Bulgaria's Dubrovnikmarker", Nesebar is a rich city-museum defined by more than three millennia of ever-changing history.

It is a one of the most prominent tourist destinations and seaports on the Black Sea, in what has become a popular area with several large resorts—the largest, Sunny Beachmarker, is situated immediately to the north of Nesebar.

Nesebar has on several occasions found itself on the frontier of a threatened empire, and as such it is a town with a rich history. The ancient part of the town is situated on a peninsula (previously an island) connected to the mainland by a narrow man-made isthmus, and it bears evidence of occupation by a variety of different civilisations over the course of its existence. Its abundance of historic buildings prompted UNESCOmarker to include Nesebar in its list of World Heritage Sites in 1983.

 Nesebar has a population of 10,194 and the mayor is Nikolay Trifonov. The town lies at  .


History

Summer Sunset in Nessebar
Fortifications at the entrance of Nesebar
Wooden houses
Ruins of city walls


Originally a Thracian settlement known as Menebria, the town became a Greek colony when settled by Dorians from Megaramarker at the beginning of the 6th century BC, and was an important trading centre from then on and a rival of Apollonia (Sozopolmarker). It remained the only Doric colonymarker along the Black Sea coast, as the rest were typical Ionic colonies. Remains from the Hellenistic period include the acropolis, a temple of Apollo, and an agora. A wall which formed part of the fortifications can still be seen on the north side of the peninsula. Bronze and silver coins were minted in the city since the 5th century BC and gold coins since the 3rd century BC.

The town fell under Roman rule in 71 BC, yet continued to enjoy privileges such as the right to mint its own coinage. It was one of the most important strongholds of the Byzantine Empire from the 5th century AD onwards, and was fought over by Byzantines and Bulgariansmarker, being captured and incorporated in the lands of the First Bulgarian Empire in 812 by Khan Krum after a two week siege only to be ceded back to Byzantium by Knyaz Boris I in 864 and reconquered by his son Tsar Simeon the Great. During the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire it was also contested by Bulgarian and Byzantine forces and enjoyed particular prosperity under Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander (1331–1371) until it was conquered by Crusaders led by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1366. The Slavic version of the name, Nesebar or Mesebar, has been attested since the 11th century.

Monuments from the Middle Ages include the 5–6th century Stara Mitropoliya ("old bishopric"; also St Sophiamarker), a basilica without a transept; the 10th century church of the Virginmarker; and the 11th century Nova Mitropoliya ("new bishopric"; also St Stephenmarker) which continued to be embellished until the 18th century. In the 13th and 14th century a remarkable series of churches were built: St Theodoremarker, St Paraskevamarker, St Michael St Gabrielmarker, and St John Aliturgetosmarker.

The capture of the town by the Turks in 1453 marked the start of its decline, but its architectural heritage remained and was enriched in the 19th century by the construction of wooden houses in style typical for the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast during this period. It was a kaza centre in İslimyemarker sanjak of Edirne Provincemarker before 1878. After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878, Nesebar became part of the autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia as a kaza centre in Burgazmarker sanjak until it united with the Principality of Bulgaria in 1886.

Around the end of the 19th century Nesebar was a small town of Greek fishermen and vinegrowers, but developed as a key Bulgarian seaside resort since the beginning of the 20th century. After 1925 a new town part was built and the historic Old Town was restored.

Churches

Nesebar is sometimes said to be the town with the highest number of churches per capita.[45331], [45332] Although this might be wrong, their number and variety is still impressive. Some of the most famous include:

Whether built during the Byzantine, Bulgarian or Ottoman rule of the city, the churches of Nesebar represent the rich architectural heritage of the Eastern Orthodox world and illustrate the gradual development from Early Christian basilicas to medieval cross-domed churches.

Honour

Nesebar Gap on Livingston Islandmarker in the South Shetland Islandsmarker, Antarcticamarker is named after Nesebar.

Gallery

Image:Nesebar-architecture-lazarov1.JPG|Traditional wooden houseImage:Nesebar-fortifications-lazarov.JPG|Ruins of Basilica of Holy Mother EleusaImage:Nesebar-architecture-lazarov3.JPG|Wooden housesImage:Nesebar-nova-mitropoliya-lazarov.JPG|New church (from 19th century)Image:Nesebar - Wooden Houses.jpg|Wooden houseImage:Nesebar-stara-mitropoliya-lazarov.JPG|The Old BishopricImage:Nesebar-ruins-lazarov.JPG|Wall of Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and GabrielmarkerImage:Nesebar-windmill-lazarov.JPG|The middle-18th-century windmill



References

  1. http://acikarsiv.ankara.edu.tr/fulltext/3066.pdf


External links




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