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Ness Ziona ( , Nes Tziyona) is a city in centralmarker Israelmarker founded in 1883. At the end of 2007 the city had a total population of 32,500, and its jurisdiction was 15,579 dunams.

History

Nahalat Rubin

Ness Ziona, 1934
Ness Ziona was first known as Nahalat Rubin (lit. "Reuben's Estate") after Reuben Lehrer, who owned the land. In 1878, the Templer Reisler purchased lands in Wadi al-Khanin (wadi of flowers), planted an orchard, and lived there with his family. After his wife and children died of malaria, he returned to Europe. He travelled to Odessamarker in 1882 and met Reuben Lehrer, a Russian Jew with Zionist ideals, who owned farmland there. Reisler traded his parcel of land in Palestine for Lehrer's land in Russia. Lehrer made aliyah with his eldest child Moshe in 1883, bringing his wife and 7 children over the following year.

Lehrer placed advertisements near Jaffamarker port asking others to join him. The pioneers established a neighborhood named Tel Aviv (the city of Tel Avivmarker did not yet exist) although the area was still known by its Arabic name, Wadi Khanin. In 1888, Avraham Yalovsky, a blacksmith, was killed defending his property from Arab gangs.

In 1891, Michael Halperin bought more land in the wadi. He gathered a group of people on the Hill of Love and unfurled a blue and white flag emblazoned with the words Ness Ziona ("Banner to Zion") written in gold. The name is based on a verse in the Book of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 4:6. This flag was similar to the official Flag of Israel adopted at the First Zionist Congress seven years later.

Arab attacks

Ness Ziona was attacked by Arab forces in the 1936-39 Arab Revolt, and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The outlying villages of Kfar Aharon and Tirat Shalom (now part of Ness Ziona) frequently exchanged fire with the Arab villages al-Qubaybamarker and Zarnuqamarker (now western Rehovotmarker). Most of Ness Ziona's youth joined the Haganah to fight off these threats. On May 15, 1948, Sarafand was evacuated by the Arabs, and on May 19, al-Qubayba and Zarnuqa were conquered by the Givati Brigade. Much of the territory abandoned by the fleeing Arab residents of nearby villages was added to Ness Ziona, increasing its size from 8 km² to about 15.3 km² immediately after the war.

After the establishment of the state

Givati brigade soldiers, 1948
During the war, Ness Ziona's population almost tripled to become 4,446 (according to an October 23, 1949 survey), and until 1950 the local council absorbed 9,000 olim, most of whom were housed in ma'abarot. In 1952 a new industrial zone was approved for the town on an area of 70 dunams. In 1955, a second industrial zone was approved.

Geography

Commemorative first-day cover in honor of Ness Ziona's 70th birthday
Ness Ziona is located on the Israeli coastal plain approximately 10 km inland of the Mediterranean Seamarker, to the south of Tel Avivmarker. The city is bordered to the north by Rishon LeZionmarker, to the east by Be'er Ya'akovmarker, and to the south by Rehovotmarker. Beit Hananmarker, Beit Ovedmarker, Ayanotmarker youth village and Kibbutz Netzer Serenimarker also border the city. Ness Ziona is now popular among Tel Aviv residents seeking to leave the city. The rural character has been preserved by urban planning that eschews skyscrapers and buildings higher than eight floors. Property values have risen by 30 percent in recent years.

Neighborhoods

Ness Ziona is composed of a central core and villages that came under its municipal jurisdiction over time. The city also has two industrial zones and a high-tech park, Kiryat Weizmann. Neighborhoods in Ness Ziona include
  • Emek HaHadarim (Citrus Valley)
  • Ganei Hadar (Citrus Gardens)
  • Ganei Iris (Iris Gardens)
  • Giv'at HaTor (Turtledove's Hill)
  • Giv'at HaTzabar (Cactus Hill)
  • Giv'at Nof
  • HaEmek (The Valley)
  • Kfar Aharon
  • Neve Hadar
  • Neve Karmit
  • Neve Nir
  • Lev HaMoshava (Heart of the Moshava)
  • Pisgat Sela
  • Ramat Ben Zvi
  • Ramat Semel
  • Savyonei HaPark
  • Sela
  • Shmurat Malibu (Malibu Preserve)
  • Tirat Shalom
  • Yad Eliezer (Memorial to Eliezer)


Demographics

According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2005 the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.6% Jewish and other non-Arabs. At the end of 2004 there were 612 immigrants (2.2%), although this rose sharply to 7.8% in 2005.

In 2005 there were 14,400 males and 14,900 females. 31.8% of the population was 19 years of age or younger, 15.2% between 20 and 29, 21% between 30 and 44, 19.1% from 45 to 59, 3.1% from 60 to 64, and 9.7% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2006 was 5.8%.

In 2005, there were 11,830 salaried workers and 984 self-employed. The mean monthly wagefor a salaried worker was NIS 7,597, a 9.2% increase over 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of NIS 9,802 (an 8.4% increase) versus NIS 5,595 for females (a 14% increase). The mean income for the self-employed was 7,064. There were 290 people receiving unemployment benefits and 986 receiving an income guarantee (welfare).

Economy

Ness Ziona is home to the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), chemical and biological research institute with some 350 employees, and Zenith Solar, a solar energy company. The Kiryat Weizmann Science Park is a magnet for many Israeli start-ups, among them Indigo, which was acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 2002 and manufactures high-end digital printing presses.

Education

According to CBS figures for 2001, there are 13 schools and 5,019 students in the city: 10 elementary schools with 2,821 students, and 4 high schools with 2,198 students. 62.9% of 12th graders were eligible for a matriculation certificate that year.

Sports

Ness Ziona Stadium
The city has been represented in the top division of Israeli football by two different clubs; Maccabi Ness Ziona competed in the top flight in the first post-independence season. However, they lost all 24 games, and were relegated. A new club, Sektzia Ness Ziona was formed in 1956 and reached the top flight in 1966. However, they were relegated after only one season. After folding, they reformed as Ironi Ness Ziona in 2001, and since then have reverted to their former name and reached Liga Artzit, the third tier. The club plays at the Ness Ziona Stadiummarker, which has also hosted Israel's U-19 team.

Transportation

Ness Ziona has two main roads - Highway 42 to the west, and Road 412 (Weizmann Street), which goes through the city center and connects to Rishon LeZionmarker and Rehovotmarker. The Ness Ziona Central Bus Station is located on Weizmann Street, although as of 2008 it is operational only for buses heading north, while the platform for buses heading south was moved across the street.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Ness Ziona is twinned with:According to the Ness Ziona Municipality, the city has four sister cities:

See also

Population groups in Israel

References

  1. At the Zenith of Solar Energy, Neal Sandler, Businessweek, March 26, 2008


External links




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