the Netherlands do not have weapons of mass
destruction made by itself, the country participates
in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements
and trains for delivering U.S. nuclear weapons, i.e. it has weapons of mass
destruction made by another country.
The Netherlands is also one of the producers of components that can
be used for creating deadly agents, chemical weapons and other
kinds of weapons of mass destruction. Several Dutch companies provided Iraq with
components for these weapons during the 1980s.
The Netherlands ratified the Geneva
on 31 October 1930. It also ratified the Biological Weapons Convention
on 10 April 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention
30 June 1995.
Urenco Group operates a uranium enrichment plant at Almelo to produce
low-enriched uranium for use in
nuclear power plants.
plant could be used to produce highly enriched uranium
use in nuclear weapons. The Netherlands has not actually produced
HEU, however; HEU for use in its Petten nuclear research reactor
imported from the U.S. In 2006 the reactor was converted to run on
Urenco's enrichment technology may have been stolen by Abdul Qadeer Khan
in the 1970s as the
basis for Pakistan's nuclear enrichment program, which has resulted
in Pakistan developing and testing nuclear weapons. See Pakistan and weapons of
United States-NATO nuclear weapons sharing
The Netherlands ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
(NPT) on 2 May 1975.
past (1960's till 1990's) the Netherlands took part in deployments
of NATO nuclear artillery shells for its self-propelled
howitsers and missile artillery units. These 8 inch
shells and warheads for Honest John and
later Lance missiles were stored at the
special ammunition storages 't Harde and Havelterberg.
They are not operational
2006 Royal Netherlands Navy
aircraft and their predecessors
the P-2 Neptunes
, based at former
Airbase Valkenburg near Leiden
in the Caribbean
were assigned U.S. Navy Nuclear Depth Bombs
(NDB) for use in
anti-submarine warfare. These weapons were originally the Mk 101 Lulu
yielding 11 kT, and a later
replacement the Mk-57 (also referred to as the B-57
The NDBs were stored under U.S. Marine guard at RAF St. Mawgan, Cornwall, UK, with 60 similar weapons stored there for
and Nimrod aircraft.
The storage arrangements were agreed between the British Prime Minister Harold Wilson
and President Johnson
in 1965 in a secret
memorandum now declassified in the UK archives.
(2008) the USAF still provides 22 tactical
B61 nuclear bombs for use by the
Netherlands under the NATO nuclear weapons sharing
agreement. These weapons are stored at Volkel Air
Base and in time of war they may be delivered by
Royal Netherlands Air
Force F-16 warplanes .
Many countries believe this violates Articles I and II of the NPT,
where the Netherlands has committed:
- "... not to receive the transfer from any transferor whatsoever
of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or of control
over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly ...
or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive
The U.S. insists its forces control the weapons and that no
transfer of the nuclear bombs or control over them is intended
"unless and until a decision were made to go to war, at which the
[NPT] treaty would no longer be controlling", so there is no breach
of the NPT.
Dutch production of CW precursor chemicals
other companies from the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the United States, Belgium, Spain, India, and
Brazil, Dutch companies provided Iraq with the
chemicals used as precursors to produce
chemical weapons for use against
Iran in the Iran–Iraq
who suffered from chemical
warfare during the Iran–Iraq
(1980–1988) submitted an indictment some years ago with a
Tehran court against nine companies that had provided Saddam
Hussein with these chemicals. 455 American and European companies
provided aid to Iraq during its war with Iran and two thirds of the
companies were German.
published a 12,000-page report about the conflict and
named the entire suite of companies involved.
Sale of WMDs by Dutch businessmen
A Dutch businessman named Frans van
(b. 1942), has been prosecuted for complicity in
for selling chemicals to Iraq in
the 1980s while knowing that Saddam Hussein might use them as
weapons against Iranians and others. He has acknowledged that he
sold chemicals to Saddam's regime. He exported tons of
European-made chemicals between 1984 and 1988 that were turned into
. He continued delivering materials even after
the March 1988 gas attack on Halabja.
On December 23, 2005 he was sentenced to fifteen years in prison
for complicity in war crimes
, as the
court argued the charges of genocide could not be substantiated.
His case was also notable because it established that the chemical
bombings in North Iraq constituted genocide according to the
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
Poison gas experiments
On 20 February 2008 it was revealed that the Netherlands had
conducted chemical warfare
experiments with nerve gas
in the early
50's. These experiments were conducted by the TNO
organization, on request of the Defense Department. They consisted
of the use of sarin
and a modified
French gas called Stof X
(Substance X), which was more
poisonous than sarin. The experiments were carried out on animals
in the village of Harskamp and at the
island Vlieland on the Vliehors bombing
1956, there were only experiments conducted jointly with France and
Belgium in the desert of Algeria, which utilized 6 kilogram of Stof
X. The reason behind these experiments was the
fear for an attack by the Soviet Union.
- , Contained in an exchange of letters between Prime Minister
Harold Wilson and Pres Lyndon B.Johnson, declassified 2002, and now
in the UK National Archives, London filed as DEFE 24/691-E28