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Neuchâtel (literally: New Castle in Old French) is the capital of the Swissmarker canton of Neuchâtelmarker on Lake Neuchâtelmarker.

The city has approximately 32,600 inhabitants (80,000 in the agglomeration), by and large French-speaking, although the city is sometimes referred to historically by the German name , which has the same meaning, since Prussia ruled the area until 1848.

Neuchâtel is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commissionmarker Intercultural cities programme.

Geography

The city is located on the northwestern shore of the Lake of Neuchâtel ("lac de Neuchâtel" in French and "Neuenburgersee" in German), a few kilometers east of Peseux and west of Saint-Blaisemarker. Above Neuchâtel, roads and train tracks rise steeply into the folds and ridges of the Jura range – known within the canton as the Montagnes Neuchâteloises. Like the continuation of the mountains to either side, this is wild and hilly country, not exactly mountainous compared with the high Alps further south but still characterized by remote, windswept settlements and deep, rugged valleys. It is also the heartland of the celebrated Swiss watchmaking industry, centred on the once-famous towns of La Chaux-de-Fondsmarker and Le Loclemarker, which both rely heavily on their horological past to draw in visitors. The River Doubsmarker marks the border with Francemarker, set down in a gorge and forming along its path an impressive waterfall, the Saut du Doubs, and lake, the Lac des Brenets.

History

Neuchâtel in 1645
Map of town centre showing the evolution'shore of the lake
In 1011, Rudolf III of Burgundy presented a new castle ( , in antiquated or Newenburg am See) on the lakeshore to his wife Irmengarde. The first counts of Neuchâtel were named shortly afterwards, and in 1214 their domain was officially dubbed a city. For three centuries, the County of Neuchâtel flourished, and in 1530, the people of Neuchâtel accepted the Reformation, and their city and territory were proclaimed to be indivisible from then on. Future rulers were required to seek investiture from the citizens.

With increasing power and prestige, Neuchâtel was raised to the level of a principality at the beginning of the seventeenth century. On the death in 1707 of Marie d'Orleans-Longueville, Duchess de Nemours and Princess of Neuchâtel, the people had to choose her successor from among fifteen claimants. They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, and also to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV actively promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people passed them over in favour of King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the Houses of Orange and Nassau. With the requisite stability assured, Neuchâtel entered its golden age, with commerce and industry (including watchmaking and lace) and banking undergoing steady expansion.

At the turn of the nineteenth century, the King of Prussia was defeated by Napoleon I and was forced to give up Neuchâtel in order to keep Hanover. Napoleon's marshall, Berthier, became Prince of Neuchâtel, building roads and restoring infrastructure, but never actually setting foot in his domain. After the fall of Napoleon, Frederick William III of Prussia reasserted his rights by proposing that Neuchâtel be linked with the other Swiss cantons (the better to exert influence over the lot of them). On September 12, 1814, Neuchâtel became the 21st canton, but also remained a Prussian principality. It took a bloodless revolution in the decades following for Neuchâtel to shake off its princely past and declare itself, in 1848, a republic within the Swiss Confederation. To this day, the Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel is the only one of the 26 to proudly fly a tricolour – green, white and red, with a minute Swiss cross hanging in the top corner

Economy

Renowned for its watch industry, Neuchâtel has been able to position itself as the heart of micro-technology and high-tech industry. During the last 20 years, the region of Neuchâtel has attracted many leading companies in the high-tech sectors such as medical technology, micro technology, biotechnology, machines & equipments, IT and clean technologies. The Canton developed a worldwide recognized know-how in innovation and R&D.

Le Locle and its geographical twin town La Chaux-de-Fondsmarker, up in the Jura Mountains, have now been recognised as an UNESCO World Heritage Site, for their horological and cultural past!

A local well-educated work force, linguistically gifted as well as competitive conditions contributed to position the region as a leader in high-technology industries. Supported by leading-edge research centres and well-known organizations such as Swiss Centre of electronics and micro techniques (CSEM) http://www.csem.ch/, Micro technology Institute of the University IMT http://www2.unine.ch/imt, Engineer’s School of Arc Jurassien EIAJ http://www.he-arc.ch/hearc/fr/ingenierie/index_new.html, Neode (scientific and technological park)http://www.neode.ch/, Neuchâtel has been continuously improving its competitive position in the development of an innovative region. This trend will be pursued and reinforced with particular focus and support for local start-up companies and attractive conditions exogenous companies.

Transportation

  • Neuchâtel has local public transport provided by Les Transports Publics du Littoral Neuchâtelois (TN), which operates an extensive Trolleybus network, a Funicular, and an Interurban light rail line to Boudrymarker. The total length of the TN network is 81.2km. It serves 78 400 people (more than half using it on a daily basis) and in 2007 transported 17 670 000 travellers.


  • The city is linked to the TGV (High Speed Train). Direct trains link Neuchâtel to Parismarker in four hours.


  • Neuchatel's airport is about 6 km (4 mi) away from the center of the city and it takes 9 minutes to get into town with the direct tramway. It is a small airport that does not offer commercial flights. Neuchâtel is also linked to four international airports: Bern, Geneva, Basel and Zurich which are respectively 58 km (36 mi), 122 km (76 mi), 131 km (81 mi) and 153 km (95 mi) away by car. Geneva and Zurich airports both have direct trains to Neuchatel, connecting the cities respectively in 1h 17min and 1h 49min.


  • The Société de Navigation sur les Lacs de Neuchâtel et Morat SA is the boat company which serves 17 towns on Lake Neuchâtelmarker, 6 towns on Lake Murtenmarker and 7 towns on Lake Biennemarker from 6:30am to 9pm. Some boats offer free wireless internet connections.


Main sights

Architecture

Buildings on the main avenue
Hotel Beau-rivage near the lake
Port of Neuchâtel


Neuchâtel’s atmospheric Old Town is extremely attractive, and random wanderings through its steep alleys are as good a way as any to appreciate the golden beauty of the architecture, as well as the 140-odd street fountains, a handful of which date from the sixteenth century. From the rather anonymous Place Pury – hub of buses and shoppers alike – with the main artery of Rue du Seyon leading northwards, alleys to the west bring you to Place des Halles, perpetually filled with talkers and drinkers spilling out of a handful of cafés. The square itself is overlooked by fine Louis XIV architecture – shuttered facades and the turreted orioles of the sixteenth-century Maison des Halles. You’ll find informal lunchtime boules sessions on the nearby Rue du Coq d’Inde, a broad, tranquil courtyard away from the bustle. A two-minute walk east, on Rue de l’Hôpital, is the grand 1790 Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall), designed by Louis XVI’s chief architect Pierre-Adrien Paris.

The highlights of the Old Town are poised on the very top of the hill, accessed by the steeply winding Rue du Château. The Collégiale church, begun in 1185 and consecrated in 1276, is a graceful example of early Gothic. Stairs from Rue du Château bring you up to the east end of the church, with its three Norman apses. The main entrance (daily 8am–6pm), to the west, is crowned by a giant rose window of stained glass. Within the vaulted interior, the nave draws you along to the glowing transept, lit by a lantern tower, and the unique Cenotaph of the Counts of Neuchâtel on the north wall of the choir (shielded for renovations since 1997, and due for re-display in 2000). Begun in 1372, and the only artwork of its kind to survive north of the Alps, the monument comprises fifteen near-life-size painted statues of various knights and ladies from Neuchâtel’s past, framed by fifteenth-century arches and gables. Beside the church is the imposing Château, begun in the twelfth century and still in use as the offices of the cantonal government: entry is only on guided tours, which start from the signposted Door no. 1 (on the hour: April–Sept Mon–Fri 10am–noon & 2–4pm, Sat 10am, 11am & 2–4pm, Sun 2–4pm; free). The nearby turreted Tour des Prisons (daily 8am–6pm; 50c), remains of a medieval bastion, has panoramic views over the town, along with interesting models of Neuchâtel in different eras.

Museums

Neuchâtel has several excellent museums, including the Laténiummarker, an archeology museum focusing on the prehistorical times in the region of Neuchâtel and Hauterive, particularly the La Tène culturemarker; the MEN, an ethnography museum; The flagship Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Esplanade Léopold-Robert (Tues–Sun 10am–5pm, Thurs until 9pm; Fr.7, free on Thurs; SMP), and its star attractions, the astonishing Automates Jaquet-Droz (Jaquet-Droz Mechanical Figurines) are also notable.

The ground floor is devoted to the historical collections, with absorbing rooms on the history of Neuchâtel aided by an excellent self-start slide show (in English). Upstairs are the rooms devoted to fine art, which have been organized radically differently from most other museums. Instead of displaying works by period, or artist, or genre, the collection is grouped by theme, with the various rooms labelled Nature, Civilization, The Sacred, and so on. In an inspired piece of creative design harking back to earlier centuries, the curators have crammed each room with art from floor to ceiling, with medieval still lifes, contemporary abstractions, Impressionistic indulgences and more all mounted higgledy-piggledy, thereby inducing you to make dynamic connections between utterly distinct works. In each room you can climb podia – each one hung all round with paintings – in order to get a better view of the works hung high on the four walls.

But the most extraordinary exhibits are kept in a room at the rear of the ground floor: the Automates Jaquet-Droz, three mechanical figurines built to the most exacting technical standards by a Neuchâtelois watchmaker in the 1770s and still in perfect working order today. The three – the Draughtsman, the Writer and the Musician – are displayed static behind glass, with a fascinating accompanying slide-show in English by way of explanation, but if you can you should really time your visit for the first Sunday of the month, when they are brought to life for a demonstration (2pm, 3pm & 4pm only). The Draughtsman is a child sitting at a mahogany desk and holding a piece of paper with his left hand; his right hand, holding a pencil, performs extraordinarily complex motions to produce intricate little pictures of a dog, the god Eros in a chariot pulled by a butterfly, or a noble profile of Louis XV. The Writer, a chubby-cheeked little boy, also sits at a mahogany desk, with a goose quill in his right hand and a tiny pot of ink nearby for dipping. He writes in a florid and chunky style, and staggeringly enough, can even be programmed to produce any text of up to forty characters. While he writes, his eyes follow the words across the page. But perhaps the most charming of the three is the Musician, a gracious young girl with slender and dextrous fingers who plays a small organ – a real instrument, not a disguised musical-box. As her fingers strike the keys to produce the notes and her eyes, head and body move subtly from side to side in time, her chest rises and falls delicately in an imitation of rhythmic breathing. Her melodies were composed in the early 1770s by Henri-Louis Jaquet-Droz, a fleeting and unique auditory time capsule from pre-Revolutionary Europe.

Pierre Jaquet-Droz (1721–90) was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds into a venerable and wealthy local family. After studying theology at university, he returned to Neuchâtel – by then already a centre for clock and watchmaking – and worked to combine his interest in mathematics with the skills of applied mechanics used by the artisans of the watch industry. By the age of 26, Jaquet-Droz had gained a reputation for technical brilliance, and in 1758 he and his father-in-law, a craftsman named Abram Sandoz, travelled to Madrid to show off the skill of Neuchâtelois clockmakers at the Spanish court (Jaquet-Droz’s so-called “Shepherd’s Clock” is still on display in one of the King of Spain’s palace museums).

Jaquet-Droz was by now wealthy enough to retreat from business life and concentrate on problems of applied mathematics, exemplified in his construction of incredibly complex mechanical figurines – the earliest of computers – designed to do particular tasks. He trained his son, Henri-Louis, and a colleague, Jean-Frédéric Leschot, to work with him; together, they produced the Writer, the Draughtsman and the Musician, and presented all three for the first time to the public in La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1774. Writers of the day reported that people flocked from all over the country to see such extraordinary works of whimsy and technical skill. The same year, the three craftsmen showed their figurines in drawing rooms and royal palaces all across Europe, from London to Russia and Paris to Madrid, receiving high acclaim wherever they went. Perhaps aware of impending revolutionary violence in France and Switzerland, Jaquet-Droz sold the figurines to a collector in Spain in 1778. After the conflicts, in 1812, they reappeared in Paris and began touring again. Some twenty years later, they became the centrepiece of Martin and Bourquin’s “Museum of Illusions”, which toured Central Europe until the turn of the century. In 1906, helped by a grant from the Swiss federal government, Neuchâtel bought the figurines back, and they have been on display in the town’s museum ever since, in virtually the same condition as when they were first made, almost 230 years ago.

Culture

National Exposition of 2002
During the summer of 2002, Neuchâtel was one of five sites which held Expo.02, the sixth Swiss national exhibition, which was subject to financial controversy.The festival of the Fête des Vendanges, representing the wine harvest, is held traditionally in early Fall.

Notable people

Jean Piaget, Robert Miles, and Marcel Junod were all born in Neuchâtel. Friedrich Dürrenmatt lived in Neuchâtel the last 30 years of his life. Canadian illustrator John Howe, well-known for his illustrations of J.R.R. Tolkien's work and his participation in Peter Jackson's The Lord Of The Rings trilogy as chief conceptual designer, also lives in the Swiss city.Roger Schutz, founder of the Taize Community in France, was born on 12 May 1915 at the village of Provence near Neuchatel. He was stabbed to death on 16 August 2005 by a mentally deranged woman during a prayer meeting in Taize's Church of Reconciliation. Blaise Roulet, the founder of the Roulet Family, the claimants to the Ducal throne of Alsace, was born and lived in the Neuchâtel area.It is also the current residence of French tennis sensations: Richard Gasquet,Gilles Simon and Florent Serra.

Coat of arms

The blazon of the town's coat-of-arms is: "Or, an Eagle displayed Sable beaked, langued and membered Gules, escutcheon Or, on a pale Gules three Chevrons Argent".

Weather

Gallery

Image:Lac de Neuchatel depuis la Neuchatel (ville suisse) dscn0660.jpg|Lake Neuchâtelmarker, seen from the castleImage:Neuchatel (ville suisse) statue dscn0647.jpg|The statue of the justice fountainImage:Collégiale Neuchâtel Vue Ouest 03.02.06.jpg|The collegiale by nightImage:Collégiale Neuchâtel Vue Nord 03.03.06 .JPG|The collegiale by night, north viewImage:Littorail in Neuchatel.jpg|Littorail train at NeuchâtelImage:Neuchatel2009-sm.jpg|Aerial view of Neuchâtel and Lake Neuchâtel, looking to the north-east.

See also



External links



References

  1. http://www.tnneuchatel.ch/entreprise.asp/2-0-180-5507-6-5-0/
  2. http://www.neuchatel-airport.ch/
  3. http://www.navig.ch/navigation.php?id=9&page=accueil&lang=fr



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