New Delhi ( ) is the
capital of India.
situated within the metropolis of Delhi and serves
as the seat of the Government of
India and the Government of the National Capital Territory
was planned by Edwin Lutyens, a
leading 20th century British
The city is known for its wide, tree-lined
boulevards and houses numerous national institutions and landmarks.
The total area of the city is 42.7 km2
New Delhi was laid out to the south of the Old City
was constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah
. However, New Delhi overlays the site of
seven ancient cities and hence
includes many historic monuments like the Jantar
Mantar and the Lodhi Gardens.
New Delhi was planned by Edwin
Lutyens, a leading 20th century British architect
and Herbert Baker, and contracted to
Sir Sobha Singh.
Lutyens first visited Delhi in 1912, and construction really began
after World War I
and was completed by
1931, when the city later dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi
" was inaugurated. Lutyens laid
out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to
Britain's imperial aspirations
soon Lutyens started considering other places, and finalized on a
site atop the Raisina
Hill, formerly Raisina Pind a Sikh
village, for the Rashtrapati
Bhawan, then known as Viceroy's House.
reason being that the hill lay directly opposite to the
citadel, which was
also considered the site of Indraprastha
, the oldest Delhi. Subsequently,
the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar
of 1911-1912, where the Coronation
Pillar stood as well, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of
. The Rajpath, also known
as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat
building which houses
various ministries of the Government of India, flanked out of the
Rashtrapati Bhawan, and the Parliament House
, both designed by
, is located at the
Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath .
Calcutta was the
capital of India until December 1911 during the British Raj. However, Delhi had served
as the political and financial centre of several empires of
ancient and medieval India, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1799 to 1849.
the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration
to shift the capital of the Indian Empire from Calcutta to Delhi.
Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India,
Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India
felt that it would
be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta.
December 12, 1911, George
V, the then Emperor of India
along with Queen Mary, during the Delhi
Durbar, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was
to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while
laying the foundation stone for Viceroy's residence in the Coronation
After India gained independence in 1947, a limited autonomy was
conferred to New Delhi and was administered by a Chief Commissioner
appointed by the Government of
. In 1956, Delhi was converted into a union territory
and eventually the Chief
Commissioner was replaced by a Lieutenant Governor. The Constitution Act, 1991
Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital
Territory of Delhi. A system of diarchy
introduced under which the elected Government was given wide
powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central
Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in
Geography and climate
With a total area of 42.7 km2
Delhi forms a small part of the Delhi metropolitan area and is
located in the Indo-Gangetic
because of which there is little difference in the city's
altitude. New Delhi and surrounding areas were once a
part of the Aravalli
Range, but all that is left now is the Delhi ridge. The second feature is
the Yamuna floodplains;
New Delhi lies west of the Yamuna river, although for the most
part, New Delhi is a landlocked city.
East of the river is
the urban area of Shahdara
. New Delhi falls
under the seismic
, making it vulnerable to major earthquakes.
The climate of New Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate
) with high variation between summer
and winter temperatures and precipitation. The temperature varies
from 40 degrees Celsius in summers to around 4 degrees Celsius in
winters.. New Delhi's version of a humid subtropical climate is
noticeably different from many other cities with this climate
classification in that it features long and very hot summers,
relatively dry cool winters, and monsoon
. Summers are long, from
early April to October, with the monsoon
season in between. Winter starts in November and peaks in January.
The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly
mean temperatures range from 14 °C to 33 °C (58 °F
to 92 °F). The average annual rainfall is approximately
714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which is during the
in July and August.
As of 2005, the government structure of the New Delhi Municipal Council
includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly
, two members
nominated by the Chief Minister
of National Capital Territory of Delhi
(NCT) and five members
nominated by the central government. The current Chief Minister of
the NCT is Sheila Dikshit
to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative
assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India,
then the law enacted by the parliament shall prevail over the law
enacted by the assembly.
New Delhi is governed through a municipal
, known as the New Delhi Municipal Council
Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by
the Municipal Corporation
and are hence not considered a part of the capital
city. However, the entire metropolis of Delhi is commonly known as
New Delhi in contrast to Old Delhi
Much of New Delhi was planned by Edwin
, a leading 20th century British architect and has been
dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi". Lutyens laid out the central
administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's
imperial pretensions. New Delhi is structured around two central
promenades called the Rajpath and the
Janpath. The Rajpath, or
King's Way, stretches from the Rashtrapati Bhavan to the India
Gate. The Janpath (Hindi:
"Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught
Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles.
Nineteen (19) foreign embassies are located on the nearby
Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest
diplomatic enclave in India.
heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly
known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop Raisina Hill.
The Secretariat, which houses various
ministries of the Government of India, flanks out of the
Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert
Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the
Rajpath. The Connaught Place is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi,
modeled after the Royal
Crescent in England.
Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer
ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath.
planned city, New Delhi has numerous
arterial roads, some of which have an
iconic status associated with them such as Rajpath, Janpath and Akbar Road.
In 2005, private vehicles accounted for 30%
of total transportation demand for the Delhi metropolitan area.
Road construction and maintenance is primarily the responsibility
of NDMC's Civil Engineering Department. Underground subways
are a common feature across
New Delhi. As of 2008, 15 subways were operational. In 1971, the
administrative responsibility of the Delhi Transport Corporation
(DTC) was transferred from Municipal Corporation of
to Government of India
following which DTC extended its operations to New Delhi. In 2007,
there were 2700 bus stops in New Delhi, of which 200 were built and
maintained by NDMC and the rest by DTC.
The Delhi Metro
, constructed and
operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), connects the
city with the rest of the metropolis of Delhi. Under an agreement
with NDMC, DMRC can acquire land for the construction of metro rail
and stations in New Delhi without any financial implications. NDMC
is also constructing multi-level parking systems in collaboration
with DMRC at various Delhi metro stations across New Delhi to
increase parking space. The New Delhi Railway Station is the main railway station in Delhi serving many
trains to important cities.
New Delhi Station is the second busiest, and one of the largest, in
India. It handles over 300 trains each day, from 18 platforms
connecting New Delhi with the rest of India.
Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is the primary aviation hub of Delhi.
In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million
passengers, making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A
new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 is currently under construction and
will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually by 2010.
Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more
than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020. Safdarjung
Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose.
2001, New Delhi had a population of 302,363 while the National
Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) had a population of 9.81 million.,
making it the second largest metropolitan area
in India after Mumbai
. There are
925 women per 1000 men in NCT, and the literacy rate
is 81.67%. National
Literacy Missions Report
is the religion of 82% of Delhi's
population, of which New Delhi is a part. There are also large
communities of Muslims
(0.9%) in Delhi. Other
minorities include Parsis
is the principal spoken language while
is the principal written
language of the city. The linguistic groups from all over India are
well represented in the city; among them are Punjabi
, roughly in same order.
New Delhi is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and
multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and
political system. The city's capital status has amplified the
importance of national events and holidays. National events such as
, Independence Day
and Gandhi Jayanti
(Gandhi's birthday) are
celebrated with great enthusiasm in New Delhi and the rest of
India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India
addresses the nation from the Red Fort.
Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying
kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade
is a large cultural
and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and
Religious festivals include Divali
festival of light), Guru Nanak
, Durga Puja
, Maha Shivaratri
, Christmas and Mahavir
. The Qutub Festival
cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers
from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as
the chosen backdrop of the event. Other events such as Kite Flying
Festival, International Mango
(the Spring Festival) are held every year in
P. Chidambaram, the Home Minister, said that the people of Delhi
needed an "attitude makeover" so they could "play good hosts" for
the Commonwealth Games
Place, one of northern
India's largest commercial and financial centres, is located in
the heart of New Delhi.
Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba
Road is also a major commercial centre. Government and quasi
government sector was the primary employer in New Delhi. The city's
service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled
English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational
companies. Key service industries include information technology,
telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.
The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi does not
release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi but
publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi
annually. According to the Economic Survey of Delhi
metropolis has a net State
(SDP) of Rs.
(for the year 2004–05) and
a per capita income of Rs. 53,976. The tertiary sector
78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary
sectors with 20.2% and
1.4% contribution respectively.