New Hampshire ( ) is a
state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of
The state was named after the southern
. It borders Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west,
Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the
New Hampshire ranks 44th in land area, 46th in total
area of the 50 states, and 41st in population
. It became the first post-colonial sovereign nation in the Americas when it broke off from Great
Britain in January 1776, and was one of the original
thirteen states that founded the United
States of America six months later.
In June 1788, it became
the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution
bringing that document into effect. New Hampshire was the first
U.S. state to have its own state constitution
, and is the only state with
neither a general sales
nor a personal income tax
either the state or local level. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state.
It is known internationally for the New Hampshire primary
, the first
in the quadrennial
U.S. presidential election cycle.
Its license plates carry the state motto
: "Live Free or Die
." The state nickname
is "The Granite
State", in reference to its geology and its
tradition of self-sufficiency. To accentuate this, many state agencies and
New Hampshire license plates carry the image of the Old Man of the
Mountain, a former granite stone face in the White
Several other official nicknames exist but
are rarely used.
Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father
, Senator Daniel Webster
, editor Horace Greeley
, founder of the Christian Science
religion Mary Baker Eddy
, poet Robert Frost
, and author Dan Brown
. New Hampshire has produced one
president, Franklin Pierce
Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing,
snowmobiling and other winter sports, hiking and mountaineering,
observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and
the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire
Motor Speedway, and Motorcycle
Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs
Beach near Laconia in June. The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the
Appalachian Trail, and boasts the
Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of
6,288 ft Mount Washington.
Hampshire is part of the New England region. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada to
the north and northwest; Maine and the
Ocean to the east; Massachusetts to the south; and Vermont to the
west. New Hampshire's major regions are the
Great North Woods, the White
Mountains, the Lakes
Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack
Valley, the Monadnock
Region, and the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
- See List of
counties in New Hampshire, mountains, lakes, and rivers
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean
coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of .
New Hampshire, showing roads,
rivers and major cities
Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of
, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch
, until the formation fell apart in May 2003.
Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of
the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U.S., and other
mountains like Mount
Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it.
With hurricane-force winds
every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among
visitors, and conspicuous krumholtz
(dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet of bonsai
trees), the upper reaches of Mount Washington
claim the title of "worst weather on earth." A non-profit weather
observatory is on the peak.
flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount
Monadnock has given
its name to a class of earth-forms—a monadnock—signifying, in geomorphology, any
isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded
rivers include the Merrimack River,
which bisects the lower half of the state north-south and ends up
Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook
River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The Connecticut
River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to
Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont.
border is not in the center of that river, as usually the case, but
at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; so New
Hampshire owns the entire river where it runs adjacent to
Only one town - Pittsburg - shares a land border
with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the
Connecticut also define the Canadian border with New
Piscataqua River and its several
tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they
flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth. The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of
the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the
subject of a border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New
Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarily
Island) that include the Portsmouth
Naval Shipyard. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of
the island with Maine.
largest of New
Hampshire's lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers in the east-central part of New
Hampshire. Lake Umbagog along the Maine border, approximately , is a
Beach is a popular local summer destination.
offshore are the Isles of
Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New
Hampshire) known as the site of a 19th century art colony founded
by poet Celia Thaxter, as well as the
alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate
It is the
second most forested state in the country, after Maine, in
percentage of land covered by woods.
This change was caused
by the abandonment of farms during the 20th century as many farmers
took wage jobs in urban areas or moved to more productive areas.
The return of woodlands from open fields forms the subject of many
poems by Robert Frost
The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the
"north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White
that channel traffic.
It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers
relatively high poverty, and is losing population as the logging
and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in
particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to ski
and mountain bike
has helped offset economic losses from mill closures.
New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate
in southern areas and Dfb
in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and
uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern
portion is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively
milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions
experience cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold
and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the
northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from
to over across the state.
Average daytime highs are in the mid 70s°F to low 80s°F (around
24-28 °C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the
mid 50s°F to low 60s°F (13-15 °C). January temperatures range from
an average high of on the coast to overnight lows below in the far
north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is
roughly with some variation occurring in the White
Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual
Extreme snow is often associated with a nor'easter
, such as the Blizzard of '78
and the Blizzard of 1993
, when several feet
accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours.
Lighter snowfall of several inches occur frequently throughout
winter, often associated with an Alberta
Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by hurricanes and tropical storms although by
the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the
England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore
in the Gulf of
Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than
20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of 2 tornadoes
occur annually statewide.
The National Arbor Day
plant hardiness zone
map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state and
indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate
as one travels southward across New Hampshire.
) tribes inhabited the area prior to
European settlement. English and French explorers visited New
Hampshire in 1600–1605, and English fishermen settled at Odiorne's
Point in present-day Rye in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at
Hilton's Point (present-day Dover). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised
modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal
New Hampshire was one of the thirteen
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
. By the time of the
American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The
economic and social life of the Seacoast revolved around sawmills,
shipyards, merchant's warehouses, and established village and town
centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them
with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and
land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there
developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured
servants, and even slaves. It was the first state to declare its
independence , but the only battle fought there was the raid on
and Mary, December 14, 1774 in Portsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable
quantities of gunpowder, small arms, and cannon (General Sullivan, leader of the raid,
described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms,
bayonets, and cartouch-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance
stores") over the course of two nights.
This raid was
preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by
on December 13, 1774 that
the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston.
According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at
the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who
was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in
their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in
New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent Franklin Pierce
to the White House in the
election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous
textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of immigrants
from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and Ireland. The northern
parts of the state produced lumber and the mountains provided
tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed,
but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and a
Since 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international
attention for its presidential
held early in every presidential election year. It
immediately became the most important testing grounds for
candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media
gave New Hampshire (and Iowa) about half of all the attention paid
to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's
decision powers (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state
politicians to change the rules.)
As of 2005, New Hampshire has an estimated population of 1,309,940,
which is an increase of 10,771, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an
increase of 74,154, or 6.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a
natural increase since the last census of 23,872 people (that is
75,060 births minus 51,188 deaths) and an increase due to net
migration of 51,968 people into the state. Immigration from outside
the United States resulted in a net increase of 11,107 people, and
migration within the country produced a net increase of 40,861
center of population of New
Hampshire is located in Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke.
The center of population has moved
south since 1950, a reflection of the fact that the fastest growth
in the state has been along its southern border, which is within
commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.
New Hampshire Population Density
As of 2004, the population includes 64,000 residents born outside
the United States (4.9%).
In 2006, New Hampshire had the lowest birth rate in the
The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are:
The large Irish American
populations are descended
largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill
towns, like Manchester. New Hampshire has the highest percentage of
residents of French/French-Canadian ancestry of any U.S.
According to the 2000 U.S. Census
, 3.41% of the population aged 5 and
older speak French
at home, while
1.60% speak Spanish
Percentage of New Hampshire residents by religion (from
- Christian – 72%
- Jewish – 1%
- Other – 2%
- No religion – 17%
- Less than 0.5% each –
- Mormon/Latter Day
Saints, Churches of Christ,
Jehovah's Witnesses, Assemblies of God, Muslim/Islamic, Buddhist,
Evangelical, Church of God, and Seventh-Day
A survey suggests that people in New Hampshire and Vermont are less
likely than other Americans to attend weekly services and only 54%
say that they are "absolutely certain there is a God" compared to
71% in the rest of the nation. New Hampshire and Vermont are also
at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About
23% percent of the respondents attend religious service at least
once a week (39% nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is
very important to them (56% nationally). According to the ARDA
single Protestant denominations are the United Church of Christ
and the United Methodist
with 18,927 members. The Catholic Church
had 431,259 members.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that New Hampshire's total
in 2008 was $60 billion, tenth lowest in the
United States. Median household
in 2008 was $49,467, seventh highest in the country. Its
agricultural outputs are dairy products, nursery stock, cattle,
apples and eggs. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electric
equipment, rubber and plastic products and tourism.
New Hampshire experienced a significant shift in its economic base
during the last century. Historically, the base was composed of the
traditional New England manufactures of textiles, shoe-making, and
small machining shops drawing upon low-wage labor from nearby small
farms and from parts of Quebec.
Today, these sectors contribute only 2% for textiles, 2% for
leather goods, and 9% for machining of the state's total
manufacturing dollar value (Source: U.S. Economic Census for 1997,
Manufacturing, New Hampshire). They experienced a sharp decline due
to obsolete plants and the lure of cheaper wages in the South
The state's budget
in FY2008 was $5.11
billion, including $1.48 billion in federal funds. The issue of
taxation is controversial in New Hampshire, which has a property tax
(subject to municipal control) but
no broad sales tax
or income tax. The
state does have narrower taxes on meals, lodging, vehicles,
business and investment income, and tolls on state roads.
According to the Energy Information
, New Hampshire's energy consumption and per
capita energy consumption are among the lowest in the country.
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power
Plant, located near Portsmouth, is the largest nuclear
reactor in New England and provides about 30 percent of New
Two natural gas-fired plants and
some fossil-fuel powered plant, including the coal-fired Merrimack
Station plant in Bow, provide most of the rest.
New Hampshire’s residential electricity use is low compared with
the national average, in part because demand for air-conditioning
is low during the generally mild summer months and because few
households use electricity as their primary energy source for home
heating. Over half of New Hampshire households use fuel oil
for winter heating. New Hampshire has
potential for renewable energies like wind
The state has no general sales tax and no personal state income tax
(the state does tax, at a
5 percent rate, income from dividends and interest) and the
legislature has exercised fiscal restraint. Efforts to diversify
the state's general economy have been ongoing.
Additionally, New Hampshire's lack of a broad-based tax system
(aside from the controversial state-wide property tax) has resulted
in the state's local communities having some of the nation's
highest property taxes. Overall, New Hampshire remains ranked 49th
among states in combined average state and local tax burden.
Law and government
The Governor of New Hampshire is John Lynch
Hampshire's two U.S. senators are Judd
(Republican) and Jeanne
(Democrat). New Hampshire's two U.S. representatives
are Carol Shea-Porter
and Paul Hodes
New Hampshire is an alcoholic beverage control
, and through the State Liquor Commission
takes in $100 million from the sale and distribution of
The LGBT rights in New
are mostly the same as non-LGBT residents persons in
New Hampshire. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in New Hampshire,
and the state has offered civil unions since 1 January, 2008, and
same-sex marriage in
will become legal on January 1, 2010.
The New Hampshire State
of 1783 is the supreme law of the state, followed
by the New
Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated
and the New Hampshire Code of
. These are roughly analogous to the
Federal United States
, United States
and Code of Federal
The attributes of New Hampshire law, as they pertain to victimless
, and civil unions
, are described in
the article on Government of New
Branches of government
New Hampshire has a bifurcated executive branch, consisting of the
governor and a five-member executive council
votes on state contracts worth more than $5,000 and "advises and
consents" to the governor's nominations to major state positions
such as department heads and all judgeships and pardon
requests. New Hampshire does not have a
; the Senate
president serves as "acting governor" whenever the governor is
unable to perform the duties.
The legislature is called the General Court
. It consists of
the House of
and the Senate
. There are 400 representatives,
making it one of the largest elected bodies in the English-speaking
world, and 24 senators. Most are effectively volunteers, nearly
half of which are retirees
. (For details,
see the article on Government of New
state's sole appellate court is the New
Hampshire Supreme Court.
The Superior Court
is the court of
general jurisdiction and the only court which provides for jury
trials in civil
cases. The other state courts are the
, District Court
, and the
New Hampshire is a "Dillon Rule"
state, meaning that the state retains all powers not specifically
granted to municipalities. Even so, the legislature strongly favors
local control, particularly with regard to land use regulations.
Except for slightly more than a dozen communities incorporated as
cities, local government in New Hampshire centers on town meetings
municipalities make final budgetary decisions by secret ballot at
the same election where they vote for municipal officials.
and the Democratic Party
only official parties. A majority of voters are registered
independent, and can choose either ballot in the primary, and then
regain their independent status after voting. The Libertarian Party
official party status from 1990 to 1994.
New Hampshire primary
New Hampshire is internationally famous for the New Hampshire primary
, the first
in the quadrennial
American presidential election cycle. State law requires that the
Secretary of State schedule this election at least one week before
any "similar event." However, the Iowa
has preceded the New Hampshire primary. This primary, as
the nation's first contest that uses the same procedure as the
general election, draws more attention than those in other states,
and has often been decisive in shaping the national contest.
Notch in Coos County and Hart's
Location in Carroll, the polls open at midnight on Election Day.
State law permits a town where all registered citizens have voted
to close early and announce its results. These are traditionally
the first towns in both New Hampshire and the U.S. to vote in
presidential primaries and elections.
Nominations for all other partisan offices are decided in a
separate primary election
Presidential election cycles, this is the second primary election
held in New Hampshire.
In the past, New Hampshire has often voted Republican. Some sources trace
the founding of the Republican Party to the
town of Exeter in 1853.
Prior to 1992, New Hampshire had
only strayed from the Republican Party for three presidential
, Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Lyndon B. Johnson
Beginning in 1992, New Hampshire became a swing state
in both national and local
elections. The state supported Democrats Bill Clinton
in 1992 and 1996, John Kerry
in 2004, and Barack Obama
in 2008. It was the only U.S.
state to support Republican George W.
in the 2000 election
not in the 2004 election
which Democrat John Kerry
won the state.
This is most likely due to the fact that John Kerry was a well
known Senator from a neighboring state. The small size and close
proximity of the New England states may have also played a factor
in making him a familiar choice to New Hampshire voters.
The Democrats dominated elections in New Hampshire as they did
nationally in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, Democrats won both
Congressional seats (electing Carol
in the 1st district and Paul
in the 2nd district), re-elected Governor John Lynch
, and gained a majority
on the Executive Council and in both houses of the legislature for
the first time since 1911. Democrats had not held both the
legislature and the governorship since 1874. Neither U.S. Senate
seat was up for a vote in 2006. In 2008, Democrats retained their
majorities, governorship, and Congressional seats; and former
governor Jeanne Shaheen
incumbent Republican John E. Sununu
for the U.S. Senate in a rematch of
the 2002 contest.
The 2008 elections resulted in women holding a majority, 13 of the
24 seats, in the New Hampshire Senate, a first for any legislative
body in the United States.
Free State Project
The Free State Project
proposal to have 20,000 individuals move to New Hampshire, with the
intent of reducing the size and scope of government at the local,
state, and federal levels. The Free State Project holds the annual
New Hampshire Liberty
and the annual Porcupine Freedom Festival, also known as
New Hampshire has a well-maintained, well-signed network of
highways, and state highways. Major routes include:
highway markers still depict the Old Man of the Mountain despite that rock formation's demise in
Several route numbers align with the same route
numbers in neighboring states. State highway numbering does not
indicate the highway's direction.
- New Hampshire Route 16 is a major
north-south highway in the eastern part of the state that generally
parallels the border with Maine, eventually
entering Maine as Maine Route 16. The southernmost portion of NH 16
is a four lane freeway, co-signed with U.S. Route 4.
- New Hampshire Route 101 is a major
east-west highway in the southern part of the state that connects
Keene with Manchester and the Seacoast region. East of Manchester,
NH 101 is a four-lane, limited access freeway that runs to Hampton
Beach and I-95.
New Hampshire has 25 public-use airports, four of which have
scheduled commercial passenger service. By far the busiest
airport in the state is Manchester-Boston Regional
Airport in the south, which serves the Greater Boston metropolitan
Long-distance intercity passenger rail service is provided by
As of 2009, Boston-centered MBTA
services reach only as far as northern
Massachusetts. The New Hampshire Rail Transit
Authority is working to extend "Capital Corridor" service from
Massachusetts to Nashua, Concord, and Manchester, including
Airport; and "Coastal Corridor" service from Haverhill,
Massachusetts to Plaistow, New Hampshire.
Eleven public transit authorities operate local and regional bus
services around the state, and eight private carriers operate
express bus services which link with the national intercity bus
network. The New Hampshire
Department of Transportation
operates a statewide ride-sharing
match service, in addition to independent ride matching and
guaranteed ride home programs.
Tourist railroads include the Conway
Scenic Railroad, Hobo-Winnipesaukee Railroad, and
Washington Cog Railway.
Freight railways in New Hampshire include Pan Am Railways
, the New England Central Railroad
the St. Lawrence and
, and New Hampshire Northcoast
The first high schools in the state were the Boys' High School and
the Girls' High School of Portsmouth, established either in 1827 or
1830 depending on the source.
New Hampshire has more than 150 public high schools, many of which
serve more than one town. The largest is Pinkerton Academy in Derry, which is owned by a private non-profit
organization and serves as the public high school of a number of
There are at least 30 private high
schools in the state.
In 2008 the state tied with Massachusetts as having the highest
scores on the SAT and ACT standardized tests given to high school
Colleges and universities
- See List
of radio stations in New Hampshire.
Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete
against Vermont in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs. New
Hampshire also has an amateur roller
league called the New Hampshire Roller Derby
In the spring, New Hampshire's many sap
hold sugaring-off open houses. In summer, New
Hampshire is home to many county fair, the
largest being the Hopkinton State
Fair, in Contoocook. New Hampshire's lake region is home to many
summer camps, especially around Lake Winnipesaukee, and is a popular tourist destination.
Peterborough Players have performed every summer in Peterborough, New Hampshire since 1933.
In the fall New Hampshire is
host to the New Hampshire Highland
. New Hampshire has also registered an
official tartan with the proper authorities
in Scotland, used to make kilts worn by the Lincoln Police Department while its officers serve during
The fall foliage
peaks in mid October. In the winter,
New Hampshire's ski areas
trails attract visitors from a wide
area. After the lakes freeze over they become dotted with ice fishing
ice houses, known locally as
- Film and television
Notable residents or natives
See article List
of people from New Hampshire.
Granite State firsts
January 5, 1776 at Exeter, the Provincial Congress of New Hampshire
ratified the first independent constitution in
the Americas, free of British rule.
- On June 12, 1800, Fernald's Island in the Piscataqua River became the first
government-sanctioned US Navy shipyard.
- Started in 1822, Dublin's Juvenile Library was the first free public
1828, the first women's strike in the nation took place at Dover's Cocheco Mills.
- Founded in 1833, the Peterborough Town Library was the first public library,
supported with public funds, in the world.
1845, the machine shop of Nashuan John H. Gage was considered the first shop
devoted to the manufacture of machinists' tools.
August 29, 1866, Sylvester Marsh demonstrated the first
mountain-climbing "cog" railway.
- Finished on June 27, 1874, the first
trans-Atlantic telecommunications cable between Europe and America
stretched from Balinskelligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye
Beach, New Hampshire.
- On February 6, 1901, a group of nine conservationists founded
the Society for
the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, the first forest
conservation advocacy group in the US.
1908, Monsignor Pierre Hevey
organized the nation's first credit
union, in Manchester, to help mill workers save and borrow
- In 1933 the League
of New Hampshire Craftsmen held the first crafts fair in the
1934, the current record for the highest recorded surface wind gust
(231 mph) was set on Mount
1937 the Belknap Recreation Area installed the first chairlift for skiing in the
1938 Earl Tupper, of Berlin, invented Tupperware and
founded Tupper Plastics
July 1944, the Bretton Woods Agreement, the first fully-negotiated system intended to
govern monetary relations among independent nation-states, was
signed at the Mount Washington Hotel.
May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard of Derry rode a Mercury spacecraft and became the first
American in space.
- In 1963, New Hampshire's legislature approved the nation's
first modern state lottery,
which began play in 1964.
- In 1966, Ralph Baer of Sanders Associates, Inc., Nashua,
recruited engineers to develop the first home video game.
McAuliffe of Concord became the first private citizen selected to
venture into space. She perished with her six space shuttle
Challenger crewmates on January 28, 1986.
- On May 17, 1996 New Hampshire became the first state in the
country to install a green LED
traffic light. NH was selected because
they were the first to start installing the red and yellow ones
- On May 31, 2007 New Hampshire became "...the first state to
embrace same-sex unions
without a court order or the threat of one."
- NH has a room and meals sales tax and a business profits income
tax. Alaska does not have a statewide sales or income tax, but many
Alaska towns have a sales tax.
- NH Department of Resources and Economic Development
- State Facts
- American Community Survey
- MLA Language Map Data Center
- which were polled jointly
- 86% in Alabama and South Carolina
- Burlingtonfreepress.com retrieved July 29,
- The Tax Foundation - New Hampshire's State and
Local Tax Burden, 1970–2006
- State of New Hampshire Department of Administrative
Services - Monthly Revenue Focus (FY 2005)
- "House Fast Fact", New Hampshire House of
- Independents Become Largest Voting Bloc in New
Hampshire retrieved 29 December 2008
- Senate President Sylvia Larsen, quoted in "Women make up
majority in state Senate," the Manchester Union-Leader,
November 6, 2008.
- Liberty Forum
- Susan Morse, "Last of the Yankees", Portsmouth
Herald, July 4, 2004.
- The Peterborough Town Library
- League of New Hampshire Craftsmen's Fair Accessed
November 9, 2007
- The Story of the World Record Wind
- Sending a bright signal, Concord Monitor pg B-6, May 18,
- Wang, Beverley. (April 26, 2007) State Senate approves civil unions for same-sex
couples Concord Monitor. Accessed April 26, 2007.
- NH Firsts & Bests Accessed November 9, 2007
- Land Use in Cornish, N.H., a 2006
documentary presentation by James M. Patterson of the Valley News, depicts various aspects of the
societal and cultural environment of Northern New Hampshire
- State Government
- U.S. Government