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New Haven is the second-largest municipality in Connecticutmarker, after Bridgeportmarker and just ahead of Hartfordmarker, with a core population of about 124,000 people. "New Haven" may also refer to the wider Greater New Haven area, which has nearly 600,000 inhabitants in the immediate area. It is located in New Haven Countymarker, on New Haven Harbormarker, on the northern shore of Long Island Soundmarker.

One year after its founding in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a grid of four streets by four streets creating what is now commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan", which is recognized by the American Institute of Certified Planners as a National Historic Planning Landmark. The central common block is New Haven Greenmarker a square, now a National Historic Landmark and the center of Downtown New Haven.

New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large elms) that gave New Haven the nickname "The Elm City".

The city is the home of Yale Universitymarker. Along with Yale, health care (hospitals, biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, engineering), financial services, and retail trade form the base of the economy. Since the mid-1990s, the city's downtown area has seen extensive revitalization.


Pre-colonial and colonial

Before European arrival, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize. The area was briefly visited by Dutchmarker explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area.

In April 1638, five hundred Puritans who left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and the London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. These settlers were hoping to establish a better theological community than the one they left in Massachusettsmarker and sought to take advantage of the excellent port capabilities of the harbor. The Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection.

By 1640, the town's theocratic government and nine square grid plan were in place, and the town was renamed Newhaven from Quinnipiac. However, the area north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678, when it was renamed Hamdenmarker. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony. At the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony which had been established to the north focusing on Hartfordmarker. One of the principal differences between the two colonies was that the New Haven colony was an intolerant theocracy that did not permit other churches to be established while the Connecticut colony permitted the establishment of other churches.
A sign on New Haven Green that details the city history

Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, however, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of local goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Haven's development in the face of the rising trade power of Bostonmarker and New Amsterdam. In 1660, founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled and Hopkins Schoolmarker was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins.

In 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two judges, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven to seek refuge from the king's forces. John Davenport arranged for these "Regicides" to hide in the West Rockmarker hills northwest of the town. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the other regicides at a later time.

New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony in 1664, when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges (in reality, done in order to strengthen the case for the takeover of nearby New Amsterdam, which was rapidly losing territory to migrants from Connecticut). Some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jerseymarker.

It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrookmarker to New Haven and established New Haven as a center of learning. In 1718, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College in response to a large donation from Welsh merchant Elihu Yale.

For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought alongside British forces, as in the French and Indian War. As the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, which is still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the British. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusettsmarker. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.

British forces under General William Tryon raided the 3,500-person town in July 1779, but did not torch it as they had with Danburymarker in 1777, or Fairfieldmarker and Norwalkmarker a week after the New Haven raid, leaving many of the town's colonial features preserved.

Towns created from the original New Haven Colony
New town Split from Incorporated
Wallingfordmarker New Haven 1670
Cheshiremarker Wallingford 1780
Meridenmarker Wallingford 1806
Branfordmarker New Haven 1685
North Branfordmarker Branford 1831
Woodbridgemarker New Haven and Milfordmarker 1784
Bethanymarker Woodbridge 1832
East Havenmarker New Haven 1785
Hamdenmarker New Haven 1786
North Havenmarker New Haven 1786
Orangemarker New Haven and Milfordmarker 1822
West Havenmarker Orange 1921

Towns in the New Haven area


New Haven was incorporated as a city in 1784, and Roger Sherman, one of the signers of the Constitution and author of the "Connecticut Compromise", became the new city's first mayor.

The city struck fortune in the late 18th century with the inventions and industrial activity of Eli Whitney, a Yale graduate who remained in New Haven to develop the cotton gin and establish a gun-manufacturing factory in the northern part of the city near the Hamdenmarker town line. That area is still known as Whitneyville, and the main road through both towns is known as Whitney Avenue. The factory is now the Eli Whitney Museummarker which has a particular emphasis on activities for children, and exhibits pertaining to the A. C. Gilbert Company. His factory, along with that of Simeon North, and the lively clock-making and brass hardware sectors, contributed to making early Connecticut a powerful manufacturing economy; so many arms manufacturers sprang up that the state became known as 'The Arsenal of America'. It was in Whitney's gun-manufacturing plant that Samuel Colt invented the automatic revolver in 1836.

The Farmington Canal, created in the early 1800s, was a short-lived transporter of goods into the interior regions of Connecticut and Massachusetts, and ran from New Haven to Northampton, Massachusettsmarker.

New Haven was home to one of the important early events in the burgeoning anti-slavery movement when, in 1839, the trial of mutineering Mendi tribe being transported as slaves on the Spanish slaveship Amistad was held in New Haven's United States District Court. There is a statue of Joseph Cinqué, the informal leader of the slaves, beside City Hall. See "Museums" below for more information.

The American Civil War boosted the local economy with wartime purchases of industrial goods. After the war, New Haven's population grew and doubled by the start of the 20th century, most notably due to the influx of immigrants from southern Europe, particularly Italy. Today, roughly half the populations of East Haven, West Haven, and North Haven are Italian-American. Jewish immigration to New Haven has left an enduring mark on the city. Westville was the center of Jewish life in New Haven, though today many have fanned out to suburban communities such as Woodbridge and Cheshire.


New Haven's growth continued during the two World Wars, with most new inhabitants being African Americans from the American South and Puerto Ricans. The city reached its peak population after World War II. The area of New Haven is only , encouraging further development of new housing after 1950 in adjacent, suburban towns. Moreover, as in other U.S. cities in 1950s, New Haven began to suffer from an exodus of middle-class workers.

In 1954, then-mayor Richard C. Lee began some of the earliest major urban renewal projects in the United States. Certain sections of Downtown New Haven were destroyed and rebuilt with new office towers, a hotel, and large shopping complexes. Other parts of the city were affected by the construction of Interstate 95 along the Long Wharf section, Interstate 91 and the Oak Street Connector. The Oak Street Connector (Route 34), running between Interstate 95, downtown and The Hillmarker neighborhood, was originally intended as a highway to the city's western suburbs but was only completed as a highway to the downtown area, with the area to the west becoming a boulevard.

From the 1960s through the early 1990s, central areas of New Haven continued to decline both economically and in terms of population despite attempts to resurrect certain neighborhoods through renewal projects. In the mid-1990s New Haven began to stabilize and grow, though poverty in some central neighborhoods remains a problem. Since 2000, downtown has seen an increasing concentration of new restaurants, nightlife, and small retail stores. National chains such as J. Crew, Urban Outfitters, Ann Taylor, Origins, and Footlocker, share the neighborhood with home-grown stores such as Trailblazer, Savitt Jewelers, and Cutlers Records. Retail is concentrated on Chapel Street, Broadway, College Street, and in the Whitney Avenue/Audobon Street area. Away from downtown, retail corridors exist on lower Whalley Avenue, upper Whalley Avenue in Westvile Center and in the Westvile/Amity areas, on State Street, and along Grand Avenue in Fair Haven.

1970 trial

New Haven in 1970 witnessed the largest trial in Connecticut history. Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale and ten other Party members were tried for murdering an alleged informant. On 1 May 1970, May Day, the pretrial proceedings began for the first of the two New Haven Black Panther trials; it was met with a demonstration by twelve thousand Black Panther supporters, including a large number of college students, who had come to New Haven individually and in organized groups and were housed and fed by community organizations and by Yale students in their dorms.

The demonstrations continued through the Spring. By day protesters assembled on the New Haven Greenmarker across the street from the Courthouse to hear speakers including Jean Genet, Benjamin Spock, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and John Froines; afterwards, many taunted the New Haven police, and in return were tear gassed and retreated to their temporary quarters. The police behind them half-heartedly assaulted the dormitories, as was customary for such demonstrations at the time, but on the whole it was peaceful, with very little injury or property damage and only two minor bombings. The National Guard were kept ready on the highways into the city, but police chief Jim Ahern determined that the city police were controlling the situation adequately, and that the presence of the Guard would only inflame the situation; the events at Kent State Universitymarker a few days later were to prove him prescient.

This coincided with the beginning of the national student strike of May 1970. Yale (and many other colleges) went "on strike" from just before May Day until the end of the term; as at many colleges it was not actually "shut down", but classes were made "voluntarily optional" for the time and students were graded pass/fail for work done up to then.


New Haven is the birthplace of former president George W. Bush, who was born when his father, former president George H. W. Bush, was living in New Haven while a student at Yale. A predominantly Democratic city, New Haven voters overwhelmingly supported Al Gore in the 2000 election and Yale graduate John Kerry in 2004. In addition to being the site of the college educations of both Presidents Bush, New Haven was also a temporary home to former president Bill Clinton and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, who met while they were students at Yale Law School. New Haven was also the residence of conservative thinker William F. Buckley, Jr. in 1951, when he wrote his influential God and Man at Yale.

Since the mid-1950s and spearheaded by its former long-serving mayor, Richard C. Lee, New Haven has undertaken numerous urban redevelopment projects, but with overall mixed results. The downtown area in particular has been the site of sometimes dubious experiments in urban redesign, with new hotels, retail complexes, parking structures, a sports colosseum, and office towers built under a labyrinth of city, state, federal, and private efforts. Of recent note, as each of these pieces of the redevelopment puzzle transform, become obsolete or again redeveloped, New Haven tends to bear the brunt of a fair share of painful analysis in regard to its ongoing rebuilding efforts, mostly in response to the overhyped claims of success that many similar projects touted over a generation ago.

During the 1950s and 60s, New Haven received more urban renewal funding per capita than any city in the U.S. New Haven became the de facto showcase of the new modern redeveloped city and plans for its downtown development were featured on the cover of Time Magazine in the early 1960s. Some projects, such as the brutalist-styled New Haven Coliseummarker (demolished in 2007), drew major crowds but were ultimately considered to be victims of modernist over-design and rapid obsolescence. In 2004, the central structure of the mall was converted to luxury apartments, joining a renovated 4-star Omni hotel and new street-level retail. Other numerous smaller projects have in-fill design qualities and are mixed-use.

Current plans for downtown include developing the sites of the Coliseum and Macy's and Malley's department stores and relocating Gateway Community College, Long Wharf Theatremarker and a mixed-use development there. A major focus has been the "Ninth Square", named from the original nine square layout of New Haven center. This area has experienced an influx of hundreds of new and renovated apartment and condominium units, plus a significant number of upscale restaurants and nightclubs have opened.

John DeStefano, Jr., the current mayor of New Haven, has served eight consecutive terms and was re-elected for a record ninth term in November 2009. Mayor DeStefano has focused his tenure on improving education and public safety, as well as on economic development. Notable initiatives include the Livable City Initiative, begun in 1996, which promotes homeownership and removes blight, and the Citywide Youth Initiative. In 1995, DeStefano launched a 15-year, $1.5 billion School Construction Program, already half finished, to replace or renovate every New Haven public school.

In April 2009 the United States Supreme Courtmarker agreed to hear a suit over reverse discrimination brought by 18 white firefighters against the city. The suit involved the 2003 promotion test for the New Haven Fire Department. After the tests were scored, no blacks scored high enough to qualify for consideration for promotion, so the city announced that no one would be promoted. On 29 June 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the firefighters, agreeing that they were improperly denied promotion because of their race.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.2 square miles (52.4 km²), of which, 18.9 square miles (48.8 km²) is land and 1.4 square miles (3.6 km²) of it (6.91%) is water.

New Haven's best-known geographic features are its large deep harbor, and two reddish basalt trap rocks which rise to the northeast and northwest of the city core. These trap rocks are known respectively as East Rockmarker and West Rockmarker, and both serve as extensive parks. West Rock has been tunneled through to make way for the east-west passage of the Wilbur Cross Parkway (the only highway tunnel through a natural obstacle in Connecticut), and once served as the hideout of the "Regicides" (see: Regicides Trail). Most New Haveners refer to these men as "The Three Judges". East Rock features the prominent Soldiers and Sailors war monument on its peak as well as the "Great/Giant Steps" which run up the rock's cliffside.

The city is drained by three rivers, the Westmarker, Mill, and Quinnipiac, named in order from west to east. The West River discharges into the West Havenmarker Harbor, while the Mill and Quinnipiac Rivers discharge into the New Haven Harbor. Both harbors are embayments of Long Island Soundmarker. In addition, several smaller streams flow through the city's neighborhoods, including Wintergreen Brook, the Beaver Ponds Outlet, Wilmot Brook, Belden Brook, and Prospect Creek. Not all of these small streams have continuous flow year-round.


New Haven experiences a warm summer-type Humid continental climate, typical of southern New Englandmarker. Summers are warm to moderately hot, with high levels of humidity and frequent afternoon thunderstorms. Spring and Fall bring pleasantly cool temperatures with moderate precipitation. Winters are cold and humid, with frequent snowfalls. The weather patterns that affect New Haven result from a primarily offshore direction, thus minimizing the marine influence of the Atlantic Oceanmarker that would otherwise moderate summer and winter temperatures—though, like other marine areas, differences in temperature between areas right along the coastline and areas a mile or two inland can be very significant at times.

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F (°C) 65 (18.3) 69 (20.5) 84 (28.8) 93 (33.9) 95 (35) 98 (36.7) 104 (40) 101 (38.3) 98 (36.7) 90 (32.2) 79 (26.1) 71 (21.7)
Norm High °F (°C) 35 (1.7) 37 (2.8) 46 (7.8) 57 (13.9) 68 (20) 77 (25) 83 (28.3) 81 (27.2) 73 (22.8) 62 (16.7) 50 (10) 39 (3.9)
Norm Low °F (°C) 17 (-8.3) 19 (-7.2) 28 (-2.2) 37 (2.8) 47 (8.3) 56 (13.3) 62 (16.6) 60 (15.5) 52 (11.1) 41 (5) 32 (0) 23 (-5)
Rec Low °F (°C) -17 (-27.2) -24 (-31.1) -11 (-23.9) 11 (-11.7) 26 (-3.3) 32 (0) 38 (3.3) 36 (2.2) 26 (-3.3) 16 (-8.9) 1 (-17.2) -18 (-27.8)
Precip in (mm) 4.59 (116.5) 3.24 (82.3) 4.65 (118.1) 4.53 (115) 4.70 (119.4) 4.44 (112.8) 4.28 (108.7) 4.5 (114.3) 4.65 (118.1) 4.54 (115.3) 4.47 (113.5) 4.03 (102.4)
Source: The Weather Channel


New Haven has a long tradition of urban planning and a purposeful design of the city's layout. The city could be argued to have some of the first preconceived layouts in the country. Upon founding, New Haven was laid out in a grid plan of nine square blocks; the central square was left open, in the tradition of many New England towns, as the city green (a commons area). The city also instituted the first public tree planting program in America. As in other cities, many of the elms that gave New Haven the nickname "Elm City" perished in the mid-20th century due to Dutch Elm disease, although many have since been replanted. The New Haven Greenmarker is currently home to three separate historic churches which speak to the original theocratic nature of the city. The Green remains the social center of the city today. It was named a National Historic Landmark in 1970.

Downtown New Haven, occupied by nearly 7,000 residents, has a more residential character than most downtowns. The downtown area provides about half of the city's jobs and half of its tax base and in recent years has become filled with dozens of new upscale restaurants, several of which have garnered national praise (such as Ibiza, recognized by Esquire and Wine Spectator magazines as well as the New York Times as the best Spanish food in the country), in addition to shops and thousands of apartments and condominium units.


The Dwight Street Historic District, one of several official historic districts in New Haven
The city has many distinct neighborhoods. In addition to Downtown, centered on the central business district and the Greenmarker, are the following neighborhoods: the west central neighborhoods of Dixwell and Dwightmarker; the southern neighborhoods of The Hillmarker, historic water-front City Pointmarker (or Oyster Point), and the harborside district of Long Wharf; the western neighborhoods of Edgewood, West River, Westvillemarker, Amitymarker, and West Rock-Westhills; East Rockmarker, Cedar Hill, Prospect Hillmarker, and Newhallvillemarker in the northern side of town; the east central neighborhoods of Mill River and Wooster Square, an Italian-American neighborhood; Fair Havenmarker, an immigrant community located between the Mill and Quinnipiac rivers; Quinnipiac Meadows and Fair Haven Heights across the Quinnipiac River; and facing the eastern side of the harbor, The Annex and East Shore (or Morris Cove).

Economy and demographics

Data from

New Haven's economy originally was based in manufacturing, but the postwar period brought rapid industrial decline and factories were shuttered; the entire Northeast was affected, and medium-sized cities with large working-class populations, like New Haven, were hit particularly hard. Simultaneously, the growth and expansion of Yale Universitymarker further effected the economic shift. Over half (56%) of the city's economy is now made up of services, in particular education and healthcare; Yale is the city's largest employer, followed by Yale-New Haven Hospital. Other large employers include St. Raphael Hospital, Smilow Cancer Hospital, Southern Connecticut State University, ASSA ABLOY Manufacturing, Knights of Columbus headquarters, Higher One, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, and United Illuminating. Yale and Yale-New Haven are also among the largest employers in the state, and provide more $100,000+-salaried positions than any other employer in Connecticut.

The US Census Bureau estimates a 2006 population of 124,001; the 2000 census lists 47,094 households and 25,854 families within the central municipality, the City of New Haven. The population density is 6,558.4 people per square mile (2,532.2/km²). There are 52,941 housing units at an average density of 2,808.5/sq mi (1,084.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 63.46% White, 37.36% African American, 0.43% Native American, 1.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 10.89% from other races, and 3.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race were 9.39% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites made 75.57% of the population. The city's demography is shifting rapidly: New Haven has always been a city of immigrants and currently the Latino population is growing rapidly. Previous influxes among ethnic groups have been: African-American's in the postwar era, and Irish, Italian and (to a lesser degree) Slavic peoples in the prewar period. The large undocumented population in New Haven is also severely undercounted; estimates place as many as 10,000 illegal immigrants (mostly Hispanics) living within the city.

As of the 2000 census, of the 47,094 households, 29.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.5% include married couples living together, 22.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% are non-families. 36.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.40 and the average family size 3.19.

The ages of New Haven's residents are: 25.4% under the age of 18, 16.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age is 29 years, which is statistically very young. There are 91.8 males per 100 females. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $29,604, and the median income for a family is $35,950. Median income for males is $33,605, compared with $28,424 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,393. About 20.5% of families and 24.4% of the population live below the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over.

As of 2001, the New Haven metropolitan area has the third-highest per capita income in the country, behind San Francisco and Silicon Valley, California. Yet a 2006 analysis of a slightly differently-defined urban area showed New Haven to have the 32nd-highest per capita income; while a significantly lower figure, this still placed New Haven in the top 10% highest per-capita income metropolitan areas in the country.

Today New Haven is a predominantly Roman Catholic city, as the city's Dominican, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Ecuadorian, and Puerto Rican populations are overwhelmingly Catholic. Jews also make up a considerable portion of the population, as do Black Baptists. There is a growing number of (mostly Puerto Rican) Pentacostals as well. Catholic New Haven is part of the Archdiocese of Hartford. There are churches for all major branches of Christianity within the city, several Jewish synagogues, multiple store-front churches, ministries (especially in working-class Latino and Black neighborhoods) and other places of worship; the level of religious diversity in the city is high.


New Haven is governed via the mayor-council system. The city council, called the Board of Aldermen, consists of thirty members, each elected from single member wards. The mayor is elected by the entire city. The first mayor of New Haven was Roger Sherman. The current mayor is John DeStefano, who is the city's longest-serving mayor.

Fire department

The City of New Haven is protected 24/7 by the professional firefighters of the City of New Haven Fire Department. The Department operates out of ten fire stations, located throughout the city, and has a frontline fire apparatus fleet of ten engines, four trucks, two squad engines, one haz-mat. unit, and two ambulances out of two battalions, the East Battalion, and the West Battalion.


Colleges and universities

Yale Universitymarker, at the heart of downtown, is one of the city's best known features and its largest employer. New Haven is also home to other centers of higher education, including Southern Connecticut State Universitymarker and Albertus Magnus Collegemarker. Gateway Community College has a campus in New Haven, located in the Long Wharf district.

There are institutions immediately outside of New Haven, as well. Quinnipiac Universitymarker and the Paier College of Art are located just to the north, in the town of Hamdenmarker. The University of New Havenmarker is located not in New Haven but in neighboring West Havenmarker.

Primary and secondary schools

Wilbur Cross High School and Hillhouse High School are New Haven's two largest public secondary schools. Hopkins Schoolmarker, a private school, was founded in 1660 and is the fifth oldest educational institution in the United States. New Haven is home to a number of other private schools as well as public magnet schools including High School in the Community, Hill Regional Career High School, Co-op High School, ACES Educational Center for the Arts, and the Sound School, all of which draw students from New Haven and suburban towns. New Haven is also home to two Achievement First charter schools, Amistad Academy and Elm City College Prep. It is also home to Common Ground, an environmental charter school.

The school district is called New Haven Public Schools. Almost all have been renovated under a 15-year, $1.5 billion School Construction Program; the immense effort to improve city public schools is slowly erasing the bad reputation that New Haven public schools had acquired in past decades, though it will yet take years to see if the program has truly been a success.

Culture and notable features


A view of the buildings around Yale University in New Haven, with its distinctive architecture.

New Haven has many architectural landmarks dating from every important time period and architectural style in American history. The city has been home to a number of architects and architectural firms that have also left their mark on the city including Ithiel Town and Henry Austin in the 19th century and Cesar Pelli, Warren Platner, Kevin Roche, Herbert Newman and Barry Svigals in the 20th. The Yale School of Architecturemarker has fostered this important component of the city's economy. Cass Gilbert, of the Beaux-Arts school, designed New Haven's Union Stationmarker and the New Haven Free Public Library and was also commissioned for a City Beautiful plan in 1919.Frank Lloyd Wright, Marcel Breuer, Alexander Jackson Davis, Philip C. Johnson, Gordon Bunshaft, Louis Kahn, James Gamble Rogers, Frank Gehry, Charles Moore, Stefan Behnisch, James Polshek, Paul Rudolph, Eero Saarinen and Robert Venturi all have designed buildings in New Haven.

Many of the city's neighborhoods are well-preserved as walkable "museums" of 19th and 20th century American architecture, particularly by the New Haven Greenmarker, Hillhouse Avenuemarker and other residential sections close to Downtown New Haven. Overall, a large proportion of the city's land area is National (NRHP) historic districts. One of the best sources on local architecture is "New Haven: Architecture and Urban Design", by Elizabeth Mills Brown.

The five tallest buildings in New Haven are:

  1. Connecticut Financial Center 383 ft (117 m) 26 Floors
  2. Knights of Columbus Building marker 321 ft (98 m) 23 Floors
  3. Kline Biology Tower 250 ft (76 m) 16 Floors
  4. Crown Towers 233 ft (71 m) 22 Floors
  5. Harkness Towermarker 217 ft (66 m)
Note: 360 State (under construction - 31 Floors - completion, 2010)


New Haven boasts an overwhelming array of restaurants, surprisingly many for a city its size. Though choices are extremely varied, eateries serving pizza, hamburgers, and Southeast Asian foods are especially abundant.

New-Haven-style pizza, called apizza (pronounced ah-BEETS in the local dialect), made its debut in 1925. It is baked in coal- or wood-fired brick ovens, and is notable for its thin crust. Apizza may be Red (with a tomato-based sauce) or White (garlic and olive oil), and pies ordered "plain" are made without the otherwise customary mozzarella cheese (pronounced sca-MOTZ, as it was originally smoked mozzarella, known as "scamorza" in Italian). A white clam pie is a well known specialty of the restaurants on Wooster Street in the Little Italy section of New Haven, including Sally's Apizzamarker and Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletanamarker.

Louis' Lunchmarker, located in a small brick building on Crown Street, has been serving fast food since 1895. Louis' Lunch broils hamburgers, steak sandwiches and hot dogs vertically in original antique 1898 cast iron stoves using gridirons, patented by local resident Luigi Pieragostini in 1939, that hold the meat in place while it cooks. Though fiercely debated, Louis Lassen is credited by the Library of Congressmarker with inventing the hamburger and steak sandwich.

The tradition of immigration in New Haven has continued to a significant extent, particularly in the late 1990s and 2000s, and as a result there are now hundreds of ethnic restaurants and small markets specializing in various foreign foods. Represented cuisines include: Malaysian (Bentara), Ethiopian (Lalibela), Spanish (Barcelona, Ibiza), Latino (Pacifico, Sabor), Thai (Bangkok Gardens, Thai Taste, Rice Pot), Chinese (Chow, Royal Palace), Japanese (Akasaka, Miya's, Miso), Vietnamese (Pot-au-Pho), Korean (Seoul), Indian (Tandoor, Thali, Thali Too, Sitar), Jamaican, Cuban (Soul De Cuba), Peruvian (Macchu Picchu), Syrian/Lebanese, (Mamoun's Falafel), and Turkish (Istanbul Cafe).

There are 61 top Zagat-rated restaurants, more than anywhere in Connecticut save Stamfordmarker, including new additions such as upmarket downtown restaurants Bentara, Foster's, Geronimo, Pacifico, Zinc, and Ibiza. Over 120 restaurants are located within two blocks of the New Haven Greenmarker. Claire's Corner Copia at Chapel and College Streets is one of the oldest vegetarian restaurant in the country having opened in September 1975. Also of note are "The Carts", about 20-something lunch carts from neighborhood restaurants that cater to different student populations throughout the university's campus during weekday lunchtime in three main points: by Yale-New Haven Hospital in the center of the Hospital Green (Cedar and York Streets), by Yale's Trumbull College (Elm and York Streets), and on the intersection of Prospect and Sachem Streets by the Yale School of Managementmarker. Popular Farmers' Markets set up shop weekly in several neighborhoods including Westville/Edgewood Park, Fair Haven, Upper State Street, Wooster Square, and Downtown/New Haven Green.

Theatre and film

The city hosts numerous theatres and production houses including the Yale Repertory Theatremarker, the Long Wharf Theatremarker, and the Shubert Theatremarker. There is also theatre activity from the Yale School of Drama, which works through the Yale University Theatre and the student-run Yale Cabaret. Southern Connecticut State Universitymarker hosts the Lyman Center for the Performing Arts. The shuttered Palace Theatre (oppostite the Shubert Theater) was rumored to being re-opened in 2008, but new development there is on hold. Smaller theaters include the Little Theater on Lincoln Street and the soon to open Co-op High School Theater on College Street.

The Shubert Theater once premiered many major theatrical productions before their Broadway debuts. Productions that premiered at the Shubert include Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, My Fair Lady, The King and I, and The Sound of Music, as well as the Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire.

Bow Tie Cinemas owns and operates the Criterion Cinemas, the first new movie theater to open in New Haven in over 30 years. The Criterion has 7 screens and opened in November, 2004 showing a mix of upscale first run commercial and independent film.


New Haven has a variety of museums, many of them associated with Yale. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Librarymarker features an original copy of the Gutenberg Bible. There is also the Connecticut Children's Museum; the Knights of Columbus museum near that organization's world headquarters; the Peabody Museum of Natural Historymarker; the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments; the Eli Whitney museum (across the town line in Hamden, Connecticutmarker, on Whitney Avenue); the Yale Center for British Artmarker, which houses the largest collection of British art outside the U.K., and the Yale University Art Gallerymarker, the nation's oldest college art museum. New Haven is also home to the New Haven Museum and Historical Societymarker on Whitney Avenue, which also has a library of many primary source treasures dating from Colonial times to the present.

Artspace on Orange Street is one of several contemporary art galleries around the city, showcasing the work of local, national, and international artists. Others include City Gallery, A. Leaf Gallery in the downtown area. Westville galleries include Kehler Liddell, Jennifer Jane Gallery, and The Hungry Eye. The Erector Square complex in the Fair Haven neighborhood houses the Parachute Factory gallery along with numerous artist studios, and the complex serves as an active destination during City-Wide Open Studios held yearly in October.

New Haven is also the home port of a life-size replica of the historical Freedom Schooner Amistad, which is open for tours at Long Wharf pier at certain times during the summer. Also at Long Wharf pier is the Quinnipiack schooner, offering sailing cruises of the harbor area throughout the summer. The Quinnipiack also functions as a floating classroom for hundreds of local students.


The New Haven Green is the site of many free music concerts, especially during the summer months. These have included the New Haven Symphony Orchestra, the July Free Concerts on the Green in July, and the New Haven Jazz Festival in August. The Jazz Festival, which began in 1982, was one of the longest-running free outdoor festivals in the U.S., until it was canceled for 2007. Headliners such as The Breakfast, Dave Brubeck, Ray Charles and Celia Cruz have historically drawn 30,000 to 50,000 fans, filling up the New Haven Green to capacity. The New Haven Jazz Festival has been revived for 2008 and 2009 under the sponsorship of Jazz Haven.[8613]

New Haven is also home to the concert venue Toad's Placemarker. The city has retained an alternative art and music underground that has helped to influence post-punk era music movements such as indie, college rock and underground hip-hop. Other local venues include Cafe Nine, BAR, Firehouse 12, and Rudy's.

The Yale School of Music also contributes to the city's music scene by offering hundreds of free concerts throughout the year at venues in and around the Yale campus.


In the past decade downtown has seen an influx of new restaurants, bars, and nightclubs.Large crowds are drawn to the Crown Street area downtown on weekends where many of the restaurants and bars are located.Crown Street between State and High Streets has dozens of establishments as do nearby Temple and College Streets.Away from downtown, Upper State Street also has a number of restaurants and bars popular with local residents and weekend visitors.

Newspapers and media

New Haven is served by the daily New Haven Register, the weekly "alternative" (which is corporate run by Tribune, the company owning The Hartford Courant) New Haven Advocate, the online daily New Haven Independent, and the monthly Grand News Community Newspaper. The city's Spanish-speaking community is served by Registro, a Spanish-language twice-weekly operated by The New Haven Register's parent company. Downtown New Haven is covered by an in-depth civic news forum, Design New Haven. The Register also backs PLAY magazine, a weekly entertainment publication. It is also served by several student-run papers, including the Yale Daily News, the weekly Yale Herald and a humor tabloid, Rumpus Magazine.

WTNHmarker Channel 8, the ABC affiliate for Connecticut, WCTXmarker Channel 59, the MyNetworkTV affiliate for the state, and Connecticut Public Television station WEDY channel 65, a PBS affiliate, broadcast from New Haven.

Though both WTNH and WCTX are located in New Haven, CT, their Master Control, and Traffic departments are located in Springfield, Massachusettsmarker in a former section of the city called Chicopee.

Sports and athletics

Much like other mid-sized Northeastern industrial cities, New Haven has historically supported its minor league hockey teams enthusiastically, having had a hockey team for 76 years. The New Haven Eagles were founding members of the American Hockey League in 1936, playing at the old New Haven Arena on Grove Street. The New Haven Blades of the Eastern Hockey League played from 1954 to 1972 before being succeeded by the New Haven Nighthawks of the AHL, which played at the then-new New Haven Coliseummarker, a sports and entertainment facility that hosted such performers and others as the U.S. Olympic Hockey Team, Aerosmith, Grateful Dead, Bruce Springsteen, Van Halen, Yes, and the Steve Miller Band before closing in 2002.

The Nighthawks were replaced by the short-lived Senators in 1993. After a hiatus, hockey returned in 1997, with the Beast of New Haven, a team famous for its ugly logo. Playing in a newly refurbished Coliseum, this team lasted only two seasons, ending AHL hockey in New Haven.

The New Haven Knights of the United Hockey League then took up residence in the Coliseum, playing there until the Coliseum closed in 2002. Afterward, fans' allegiance shifted to the Yale University hockey team, which plays at Ingalls Rinkmarker; the Quinnipiac University hockey team; or United Hockey League's Danbury Trashers, owned by James Galante, who attempted to purchase and save the New Haven Coliseum and the New Haven Knights, though the Trashers have been disbanded and Galante is currently incarcerated for alleged mob ties.

New Haven had been known for its blue collar fans who favor rough play, especially the "Crazies" who sat in "The Jungle" — Section 14 at the Coliseum, behind and adjacent to the opposing team's bench. These fans were renowned for being extremely tough on opposing teams, relentlessly screaming obscenities and taunts at opposing players (and sometimes at hometown players), making New Haven an intimidating place to play even though outright physical violence in the stands was rare. Section 14ers maintain a website called "Section 14 Online" which can be found at

New Haven was home to the minor league baseball team the New Haven Ravens, an Eastern League AA unit, from 1994 to 2003. Many of the older Ravens fans fondly recalled their days watching the West Haven Yankees in neighboring West Haven from 1972 to 1979.The Yankees were also the New Haven area's entry in the AA Eastern League. Many future Yankees made their way though West Haven, including Ron Guidry. The Yankees finished 1st five times in their eight years and won the championship four times. In 1980, the New York Yankees moved their farm team else where and the Oakland A's fielded a team for three years in West Haven. They were know as the Whitecaps their first year, then the A's for the last two. They were to give the New Haven area a final championship in 1982 and then the team moved to Albany in 1983. The New Haven area was without professional baseball until the Ravens came to town in 1994.

As was the case for with the prior teams, the Ravens played in neighboring West Haven at Yale Field, just across the town line. Yale Field was renovated for the team, which was very successful in its first few seasons before losing support. The Ravens won the Eastern League championship in 2000, giving New Haven proper its first professional championship since the New Haven Blades' championship in 1956. The Ravens have since moved to Manchester, New Hampshiremarker, becoming the New Hampshire Fisher Cats. The New Haven County Cutters baseball team began play at Yale Field in 2004 in the independent Northeast (now Can-Am) League. They suspended operation after the 2007 season leaving New Haven without baseball for the 2008 season.

New Haven is home to both rugby union and rugby league teams, the New Haven Old Black and the New Haven Warriors, respectively. Both teams play at 'The Boulevard" on route 34. The rugby union team won the US DII National title in 2002. The last few years they have regularly qualified for the Sweet 16 in DI national championships. The rugby league team plays in the top level championship of the USA. They are the regining 2008 champions.

In 1974, a little league team from New Haven placed sixth in the Little League World Series.

In 2002, New Haven had an af2 minor-league arena football franchise, the Ninjas, who were successful but had to leave when the Coliseum was closed the following year

The New York Giants of the NFL played an exhibition game against the Baltimore Colts in 1956 in the Yale Bowl, a pro-football first for the city. The New York Jets played exhibition games in the Bowl through the 1970s, and in 1973 and 1974, the Giants made the Yale Bowlmarker their home field while Giants Stadiummarker in the Meadowlandsmarker in East Rutherford, New Jerseymarker was under construction. As of 2006, the Yale Bowl is the second-largest stadium in New England, and is often full when rivals Yale and Harvardmarker play what has become known as "The Game". The Yale Bowl received a thorough and long-overdue renovation in 2007.

On March 20, 1914, the first United States figure skating championship was held here.

From July 1 – July 9, 1995, the city hosted the 1995 Special Olympics World Summer Games.

The Connecticut Tennis Centermarker hosts the Pilot Pen International, a professional men's and women's tennis event, every August. The 15,000 seat Tennis Center Stadiummarker at the Connecticut Tennis Centermarker is tied as the fourth largest tennis venue in the world by capacity.

The Hartford Whalers played some preseason games in New Haven in their last few years, in a late, overdue, and futile attempt to win support around New Haven.

New Haven has a very large cycling community, represented by the advocacy and community group ElmCityCycling. Group rides are held several times per week.

Five Mile Point Lighthouse (2005)
Five Mile Point Lighthouse (1991)

Points of interest


The Knights of Columbus was founded on October 2, 1881 by Fr. Michael J. McGivney in New Haven.

In 1892, local confectioner George C. Smith of the Bradley Smith Candy Co. invented the first lollipops.

In competition with competing explanations, the Frisbee is said to have originated on the Yale campus, based on the tin pans of the Frisbie Pie Company which were tossed around by students on the New Haven Greenmarker.

New Haven serves as the world headquarters of the Knights of Columbus organization, which maintains its headquarters and nearby museum downtown. The organization was founded in the city in 1882.

New Haven hosted the first Bell PSTN (telephone) switch office. The District Telephone Company of New Haven created the world's first telephone exchange and first telephone directory (1878) and installed the first public phone (1880). The company expanded and became the Connecticut Telephone Company, then the Southern New England Telephone Company (now part of ATT).

The Erector Set, the popular and culturally important construction toy, was invented in New Haven by A.C. Gilbert in 1911, and was manufactured by the A. C. Gilbert Company at the Erector Square factory in New Haven, Connecticut, from 1913 until the company's bankruptcy in 1967.

The first memorial to victims of the Holocaust on public land in America stands in New Haven's Edgewood Park at the corner of Whalley and West Park Avenues; it was built in 1977 with funds collected from the community and is maintained by Greater New Haven Holocaust Memory, Inc. The ashes of victims killed and cremated at Auschwitzmarker are buried under the memorial.

New Haven was the location of one of Jim Morrison's infamous arrests while he fronted the rock group The Doors. The near-riotous concert and arrest in 1967 at the New Haven Arena was commemorated by Morrison in the lyrics to "Peace Frog" which include the line "...blood in the streets in the town of New Haven..." This was also the first time a rock star had ever been arrested in concert.

New Haven serves as the home city of the annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas.

Doonesbury comic-strip creator Garry Trudeau attended Yale University. There he met fellow student and later Green Party candidate for senator Charlie Pillsbury, a long-time New Haven resident for whom Trudeau's comic strip is named. During his college years, Pillsbury was known by the nickname "The Doones".
Harrison Ford and Shia LaBeouf in 2007 filming Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull

New Haven has been depicted in a number of movies. Scenes in the film All About Eve (1950) are set at the Taft Hotelmarker on the corner of College and Chapel Streets. The hotel was since converted into apartments. New Haven was fictionalized in the movie The Skulls, which focused on conspiracy theories surrounding the real-life Skull and Bonesmarker secret society which is located in New Haven. The city was also fictionally portrayed in the movie Amistad concerning the events around the mutiny trial of that ship's rebelling captives.

Several recent movies have been filmed in New Haven, including The Life Before Her Eyes, with Uma Thurman, Mona Lisa Smile, with Julia Roberts, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Harrison Ford, Cate Blanchett and Shia LaBeouf. The TV show Gilmore Girls is set (but not filmed) in New Haven and at Yale University.

In 2008, the country of Ecuadormarker opened a consulate in New Haven to serve the large Ecuadorean immigrant population in the area. It is the first foreign mission to open in New Haven since Italy opened a consulate (now closed) in the city in 1910.


Hospitals and medicine

The New Haven area supports several medical facilities that are considered some of the best hospitals in the country. There are two major medical centers downtown: Yale-New Haven Hospital has four pavilions, including the Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital and the Smilow Cancer Hospital; the Hospital of Saint Raphael is several blocks North, and touts its excellent cardiac emergency care program. Smaller downtown health facilities are the Temple Medical Center located downtown on Temple Street, Connecticut Mental Health Center, across Park Street from Y-NHH, and the Hill Health Center, which serves the working-class Hill Neighborhood. A large Veterans Affairsmarker hospital is located nearby in West Haven. To the west in Milford is Milford Hospital and to the north in Meriden is the MidState Medical Center.

Yale and New Haven are working to build a medical and biotechnology research mecca in the city and Greater New Haven region, and are succeeding to some extent. The city, state and Yale together run Science Park, a large site three blocks north-west of Yale's Science Hillmarker campus area. This multi-block site, approximately bordered by Mansfield Street, Division Street, and Shelton Avenue is the former home of Winchester's and Olin Corporation's 45 large-scale factory buildings. Currently, sections of the site are large-scale parking lots or abandoned structures, but there is also a large remodeled and functioning area of buildings (leased primarily by a private developer) with numerous Yale employees, financial service and biotech companies.

A second biotechnology district is being planned for the median strip on Frontage Road, on land cleared for the never-built Route 34 extension. As of late 2009, a Pfizer drug-testing clinic, a medical laboratory building serving Yale New Haven Hospital, and a mixed-use structure containing parking, housing and office space, have been constructed on this corridor. A former SNET telephone building at 300 George Street is being converted into lab space, and has been so far quite successful in attracting biotechnology and medical firms.


Railroad & Bus

New Haven is connected to New York Citymarker by both commuter rail, regional rail and intercity rail, provided by Metro-North Railroad (commuter rail) and Amtrak (regional and intercity rail) respectively, and some New Haven residents commute to work in New York City (just under two hours away by train). The city's main railroad station is Union Stationmarker, which serves Metro-North trains to New York, Shore Line East commuter trains to New London, and Amtrak trains to New York, Hartfordmarker, Bostonmarker, and Springfield, Massachusettsmarker. An additional station at State Streetmarker provides Shore Line East and a few peak-hour Metro-North passengers easier access to and from Downtown.

Peter Pan and Greyhound Bus lines have scheduled stops at Union Station and connections downtown can be made by the CT Transit Bus Service. All CT Transit Bus lines run downtown and transfers can be made at the New Haven Green.

The start of the New Haven Railroad began in a small area of New Haven called Cedar Hill Area.

A commuter rail line to run along the existing Amtrak line from New Haven through Hartford to Springfield, MA has been proposed by the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) and is currently in the planning phase.

The City of New Haven is in the very early stages of considering restoring streetcar (light-rail) service, which has been absent since the immediate postwar period.

Major highways

New Haven lies at the intersection of Interstate 95 on the coast - which provides access southwards and/or westwards to the western coast of Connecticut and to New York City, and eastwards to the eastern Connecticut shoreline, Rhode Islandmarker, and eastern Massachusettsmarker - and Interstate 91, which leads northward to the interior of Massachusetts and Vermontmarker and the Canadian border. I-95 is infamous for traffic jams increasing with proximity to New York City; on the east side of New Haven it passes over the Quinnipiac River via the Pearl Harbor Memorial, or "Q Bridgemarker", which often presents a major bottleneck to traffic. I-91, however, is relatively less congested, except at the intersection with I-95 during peak travel times.

The Oak Street Connector (Route 34) intersects I-91 at exit 1, just south of the I-95/I-91 interchange, and runs northwest for a few blocks as an expressway spur into downtown before emptying onto surface roads. The Wilbur Cross Parkway (Route 15marker) runs parallel to I-95 west of New Haven, turning northwards as it nears the city and then running northwards parallel to I-91 through the outer rim of New Haven, and Hamdenmarker, offering an alternative to the I-95/I-91 journey (restricted to non-commercial vehicles). Route 15 in New Haven is also the site of the only highway tunnel in the state (officially designated as Heroes' Tunnel), running through West Rockmarker, home to West Rock Parkmarker and the Three Judges Cavemarker.

In addition to these expressways, the city also has several major surface arteries. U.S. Route 1 (Columbus Avenue, Union Avenue, Water Street, Forbes Avenue) runs in an east-west direction south of downtown serving Union Stationmarker and leading out of the city to Milfordmarker, West Havenmarker, East Havenmarker and Branfordmarker. The main road from downtown heading northwest is Whalley Avenue (partly signed as Route 10 and Route 63) leading to Westvillemarker and Woodbridgemarker. Heading north towards Hamdenmarker, there are two major thoroughfares, Dixwell Avenue and Whitney Avenue. To the northeast are Middletown Avenue (Route 17marker), which leads to the Montowese section of North Haven, and Foxon Boulevard (Route 80, which leads to the Foxon section of East Haven and to the town of North Branfordmarker. To the west is Route 34, which leads to the city of Derbymarker. Other major intracity arteries are Ella Grasso Boulevard (Route 10) west of downtown, and College Street, Temple Street, Church Street, Elm Street, and Grove Street in the downtown area.

Traffic safety is a major concern for drivers, pedestrians and cyclists in New Haven. In addition to many traffic-related fatalities in the city each year, since 2005, over a dozen Yalemarker students, staff and faculty have been killed or injured in traffic collisions on or near the campus.


Tweed New Haven Regional Airportmarker, located three miles (5 km) east of the city, provides daily service through US Airways. While CT Transit has bus service from downtown to Tweed, a taxi or car ride takes less than 15 minutes.


New Haven Harbormarker is home to The Port of New Haven, a deep-water seaport with three berths capable of hosting vessels and barges as well as the facilities required to handle break-bulk cargo. The port has the capacity to load 200 trucks a day from the ground or via loading docks. Rail transportation access is available, with a private switch engine for yard movements and private siding for loading and unloading. There is approximately of inside storage and of outside storage available at the site. Five shore cranes with a 250-ton capacity and 26 forklifts, each with a 26-ton capacity, are also available.

Power supply facilities

Electricity for New Haven is generated by 448 MW oil and gas-fired generating station located on the shore at New Haven Harbor. In addition, Pennsylvania Power and Light (PPL) Inc. operates a 220 MW peaking natural gas turbine plant in nearby Wallingford.Near New Haven there is the static inverter plant of the HVDC Cross Sound Cable.

New construction

Current construction includes the 31 story, 500 unit apartment/retail building called 360 State which is rising downtown at Chapel and State streets. The medical district near Route 34 is experiencing a building boom centering on the new Smilow Cancer Center, a 14 story facility scheduled to open in October, 2009, along with several related medical buildings under construction in late, 2009. Foundation and ramp work to widen I-95 to create a new harbor crossing for New Haven, with an extradosed bridge to replace the Q-bridgemarker has started with a completion date as beyond 2012. No work on the bridge structure itself has begun. A new Long Wharf Theatermarker and a new campus for Gateway Community College are planned downtown on the site of the former New Haven Coliseummarker. Other discussed projects include a streetcar connecting New Havens neighborhoods and a major revitalization in New Haven's Long Wharf neighborhood.

Sister cities

Some of these were selected because of historical connection — Freetown because of the Amistad trial. Others, such as Amalfi and Afula-Gilboa, reflect ethnic groups in New Haven.

In 1990, the United Nations named New Haven a "Peace Messenger City".

Notable people

Yale alumni and faculty

Hopkins School alumni


  • Leonard Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses, (New Haven, 1839)
  • C. H. Hoadley (editor), Records of the Colony of New Haven, 1638–1665, (two volumes, Hartford, 1857–58)
  • J. W. Barber, History and Antiquities of New Haven, (third edition, New Haven, 1870)
  • C. H. Levermore, Town and City Government of New Haven, (Baltimore, 1886)
  • C. H. Levermore, Republic of New Haven: A History of Municipal Evolution, (Baltimore, 1886)
  • E. S. Bartlett, Historical Sketches of New Haven, (New Haven, 1897)
  • F. H. Cogswell, "New Haven" in L. P. Powell (editor), Historic Towns of New England, (New York, 1898)
  • H. T. Blake, Chronicles of New Haven Green, (New Haven, 1898)
  • E. E. Atwater, History of the Colony of New Haven, (New edition, New Haven, 1902)
  • Robert A. Dahl, Who Governs? Democracy and Power in An American City (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1961)
  • Douglas W. Rae, City: Urbanism and Its End, (New Haven, 2003)
  • New Haven City Yearbooks
  • Michael Sletcher, New Haven: From Puritanism to the Age of Terrorism, (Charleston, 2004)
  • William Lee Miller, The Fifteenth Ward and the Great Society, (Houghton Mifflin/Riverside, 1966)
  • Preston C. Maynard and Majorey B. Noyes, (editors), "Carriages and Clocks, Corsets and Locks: the Rise and Fall of an Industrial City-New Haven, Connecticut" (University Press of New England, 2005.)

See also


  1. In US Census population estimates between 2000 and 2008, New Haven and Hartford's populations were estimated to have been within 511 of each other. In the American Community Survey 2008, New Haven was significantly larger (124,000 in New Haven versus 118,000 in Hartford). Since such differences are still potentially within the margin of error in these estimates, which is "officially" larger will not be known until the 2010 Census. As of October 2009, the Census population estimate page listed New Haven as having a larger population than Hartford in the 2000 (most recent) Decennial Census.
  2. U.S. Census Bureau - Population in New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs) in Alphabetical Order and Numerical and Percent Change: 1990 and 2000
  3. South Central Regional Council of Governments
  4. New Haven: The Elm City
  5. They’re Putting The “Elm” Back In “Elm City”
  6. 03/15/2004 What's Up Downtown? Business New Haven
  7. Connecticut Register and Manual
  8. Biography of President George W. Bush
  9. Details on the plans for Downtown New Haven's Coliseum Site, May 2008
  10. Williams, Joseph (2009-06-30). Supreme Court rules in favor of Conn. firefighters. The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2009-07-06 from
  11. Average Weather for New Haven, CT - Temperature and Precipitation
  12. The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut
  13. New Haven’s Comprehensive Plan
  14. Comprehensive Report: New Haven pg3
  15. Harrison's illustrated guide to greater New Haven, (H2 Company, New Haven, 1995).
  16. Maps of the New Haven Neighborhoods (PDF) are available from the City of New Haven's City Plan Department. There are also quick traces from the above PDFs in Google Earth/Map Shapes of the New Haven Neighborhoods (KML).
  17. New Haven: Economy - Major Industries and Commercial Activity
  18. New Haven city, Connecticut - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder
  19. New Haven city, Connecticut - DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000
  21. Tribute to Elizabeth Mills Brown, 'Athena' of New Haven Preservation, January 2009
  22. Buildings of New Haven
  23. Price & Lee's New Haven (New Haven County, Conn.) City Directory, 1899, page 375
  24. U.S. Patent #2,148,879
  25. Library of Congress retrieved on 2009-05-04
  26. Local Legacies American Folklife Center retrieved on 2009-05-04
  27. New Haven restaurants by cuisine @ Zagat Survey
  28. Zagat Survey page for CT
  29. Yale University Bulldogs, Official Athletic Site
  30. Elm City Cycling
  32. Connecticut Business News Journal "Dates of Our Lives"
  33. Pushing Boundaries – A History of the Knights of Columbus
  34. Shifre Zamkov on the New Haven Holocaust Memorial
  35. Greater New Haven Holocaust Memory, Inc
  37. [citation forthcoming]
  38. New Haven Independent: A Streetcar Comeback?
  39. New Haven Independent: Where To Catch The Streetcar
  40. TransSystems: New Haven Electric StreetCar A Catalyst for Development
  41. TranSystems/Stone Consulting & Design, "New Haven Streetcar Assessment", April 2008.
  44. The New Haven Harbor Generating Station
  45. I-95 Expansion Project for New Haven, official site

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