New Jersey ( ) is a state in
the Mid-Atlantic region of the
States. It is bordered on the north by New York, and to the
east by the Hudson River, Upper New York
Bay, the Kill Van Kull, Newark
Bay, the Arthur
Bay, Sandy Hook
Bay, Westchester County, New York
Island, and the Atlantic Ocean. On the west, it is bordered by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. New Jersey lies largely within the sprawling
metropolitan areas of New
York and Philadelphia.
It is the most densely
populated state in the United States.
Americans for more than 2,800 years, the first European
settlements in the area were established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 1600s.
The English later seized
control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey
, which was
granted to Sir George Carteret
Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton
as a colony.
time, the name was taken from the largest of the British Channel Islands, Jersey.
Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War
19th century, factories in cities such as Paterson and Trenton helped to drive the Industrial Revolution.
Jersey's position at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between
Boston, New York
City, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C., fueled its rapid growth through the suburban boom of the 1950s and beyond.
Jersey has the highest population
density and the second highest median
income of any state in the United States. Only Maryland has a higher median income.
Governor-Elect of New Jersey is Republican Chris Christie
Jersey is bordered on the north and northeast by New York; on the
east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the south and southwest by Delaware across Delaware Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvania across the Delaware
New Jersey can be thought of as five regions
based on natural geography and population. Northeastern New
Jersey, the Gateway Region, lies
within the New York metropolitan area, and some residents commute into the city to
Northwestern New Jersey, or the "Skylands
", is, compared to the northeast,
more wooded, rural, and mountainous, but still a popular place to
live. The "Shore
", along the Atlantic
Coast in the central-east and southeast, has its own natural,
residence, and lifestyle characteristics owing to the ocean.
central-west and southwest are within metropolitan Philadelphia, and are included in the Delaware Valley. The fifth region is
Barrens in the interior of the southern part and is covered
rather extensively by mixed pine and oak forest, and as such has a
much lower population density than much of the rest of the
New Jersey also can be broadly divided into three
, Central Jersey
. Some people do not
consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but many believe
it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and
The federal Office of
Management and Budget
divides New Jersey's counties into
seven Metropolitan Statistical
, including sixteen counties in the New York City or
Philadelphia metro areas. Four counties have independent metro
areas, and Warren County joins another Pennsylvania-based metro
area. (See Metropolitan
Statistical Areas of New Jersey
It is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis
Additionally, the New Jersey Commerce, Economic Growth, &
Tourism Commission divides the state into six distinct
to facilitate the state's tourism industry. The
Point, in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the highest elevation, at . The Palisades are a line of steep cliffs on the lower west side
of the Hudson River.
rivers include the
Hudson, Delaware, Raritan, Passaic,
Hackensack, Rahway, Musconetcong, Mullica, Rancocas, Manasquan, Maurice, and Toms
Hook, along the eastern coast, is a popular
recreational beach. It is a barrier spit and an extension of the Barnegat
Peninsula along the state's Atlantic Ocean
Region, encompassing Middlesex County, Union County, Essex County, Hudson County, Bergen County, and Passaic County.
Region, encompassing Sussex County, Morris County, Warren County, Hunterdon County, and Somerset County.
- Shore Region,
encompassing Monmouth County and Ocean County.
River Region, encompassing Mercer County, Burlington County, Camden County, Gloucester County, and Salem County.
- Greater Atlantic City Region,
encompassing Atlantic County.
Shore Region, encompassing Cumberland
County and Cape May County.
Long Beach Island ("LBI"), a barrier island along the eastern
coast, has popular recreational beaches. The primary access point
to the island is by a single bridge connection to the mainland.
Barnegat Lighthouse is on the northern tip.
Areas managed by the National Park
Prominent geographic features include:
As with many other geographic features, New Jersey's climate
divides into regions
; the south, central, and
northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate
the northwest has a humid
, with slightly cooler temperatures due to
Summers are typically hot and humid, with statewide average high
temperatures of and lows of ; however, temperatures exceed on
average –25 days each summer, though rarely exceed . Winters are
usually cold, with average high temperatures of and lows of for
most of the state, but temperatures could, for brief interludes, be
as low as and sometimes rise to . Northwestern parts of the state
have slightly colder winters with average temperatures just below
freezing. Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature
variations, ranging from chilly to warm, although they are usually
mild with lower humidity than summer.
Average annual precipitation ranges from , uniformly spread through
the year. Average snowfall per winter season range from in the
south and near the seacoast, in the northeast and central part of
the state, to about in the northwestern highlands, but this varies
from year to year. Precipitation falls on an average of 120 days a
year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the
During winter and early spring, New Jersey can in some years
are capable of causing blizzards or flooding throughout the
northeastern United States. New Jersey may also experience drought
and rain-free period for weeks. Hurricanes
and tropical storms
(such as Hurricane Floyd
in 1999), tornadoes
and low temperatures in various cities of New Jersey
Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period
, New Jersey bordered
. The pressure of the
collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age
resulted in glaciers
that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left
behind Lake Passaic
, as well as
many rivers, swamps, and gorges.
New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans
being dominant at the time
Europeans arrived. The Lenape were loosely organized groups
that practiced small-scale agriculture (mainly based on corn) in order to increase their largely mobile
hunter-gatherer society in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island
The Lenape society was divided into
clans that were based upon
common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three
identified by their
animal sign: Turtle
, and Wolf
first encountered the Dutch in the early 1600s, and their primary
relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade
Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by
ethnic and religious diversity. New England Congregationalists
and Dutch Reformed
migrants from New York. While
the majority of residents lived in towns with individual
landholdings of , a few rich proprietors owned vast estates.
owned large landholdings. New Jersey
remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and
commercial farming only developed sporadically. Some townships,
though, like Burlington and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports
for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile
lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New
Jersey boasted a population of 120,000 by 1775.
New Jersey was claimed by the Dutch.
Dutch colony of New Netherland
consisted of parts of modern New York (New Amsterdam) and New
Jersey. Although the European principle of land
ownership was not recognized by the Lenape,
Dutch policy required formal purchase of all land settled upon, and
the first such purchase was of Manhattan, by Peter
The entire region became a territory of England
in 1664, when an English fleet
under the command of Colonel Richard
sailed into what is today New York Harbor
and took over the colony,
against extremely low resistance.
the English Civil War the Channel Island of Jersey remained
loyal to the Crown and gave sanctuary to the King.
from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England
proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father,
. The North American
lands were divided by Charles
II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II), the region between
England and Maryland as a proprietary colony (as opposed to a royal
James then granted the land between the Hudson River
and the Delaware River
(the land that would become
New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the
English Civil War
: Sir George Carteret
and Lord Berkeley of
. The area was named the Province of New Jersey
Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule was in the
region and came primarily
from New England. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the
colony to Quakers
England (with William Penn
trustee for a time), who settled the Delaware Valley region as a
Quaker colony. New Jersey was governed very briefly as two distinct
provinces, East and West Jersey, for 28 years between 1674 and
1702. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal,
rather than a proprietary, governor. Edward
, Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as
a royal colony. Lord Cornbury was an ineffective and corrupt ruler,
taking bribes and speculating on land, so in 1708 he was recalled
to England. New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York,
but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those
governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris
led the case for
a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II
Revolutionary War era
New Jersey was one of the Thirteen
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
. The New Jersey
Constitution of 1776 was passed July 2, 1776, just two days
before the Second
Continental Congress declared American Independence from
It was an act of the Provincial
Congress, which made itself into the state Legislature. To reassure
neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jersey
reached reconciliation with Great Britain.
New Jersey representatives Richard
, John Witherspoon
, John Hart
, and Abraham
were among those who signed the United States
Declaration of Independence
During the American
, British and American armies crossed New
Jersey numerous times and several pivotal battles took place in the
state. Because of this, New Jersey today is often referred to as
"The Crossroads of the Revolution." The winter quarters of the revolutionary
army were established there twice by General George Washington in Morristown, which was called the military capital of the
December 25, 1776, the Continental
Army under George Washington
crossed the Delaware River, which was
depicted in the famous
painting by Emanuel Leutze
showing Washington crossing the Delaware River at the head of a
After the crossing, he surprised and defeated the
unprepared Hessian troops
Battle of Trenton
. Slightly more than a
week after victory at Trenton, on January 3, 1777, the American forces gained an
important victory by stopping General
Cornwallis's charges at the Second Battle of Trenton.
evading Cornwallis's army, Washington made a surprise attack on
Princeton, and successfully defeated the British forces
Later, American forces under Washington met the forces under
General Henry Clinton
at the Battle of Monmouth
indecisive engagement. Washington attempted to take the British
column by surprise; when the British army attempted to flank the
Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. The ranks were
later reorganized and withstood the British charges.
summer of 1783, the Continental
Congress met in Nassau
Hall at Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months.
there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the
Treaty of Paris
, which ended
On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify
the United States
, which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey,
as it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging and keeping
tariffs on goods imported from Europe. On November 20, 1789, the
state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the
Bill of Rights
The 1776 New Jersey State
gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a
certain level of wealth. This included women and blacks, but not
married women, because they could not own property. Both sides, in
several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified
women vote, and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors"
(entitled to vote or not); on the other hand, both parties passed
Voting Rights Acts. In 1807, the legislature passed a bill
interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male
suffrage, excluding paupers. (This was less revolutionary than it
sounds: the "constitution" was itself only an act of the
On February 15, 1804, New Jersey became the last northern state to
abolish new slavery
and enacted legislation
that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual
scale-down of the slave population, but by the close of the
about a dozen
African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen
. New Jersey initially refused to ratify
the Constitutional Amendments banning slavery and granting rights
to America's Black population.
In 1844, the second state
was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby
became districts for the State Senate, and some realignment of
boundaries (including the creation of Mercer
County) immediately followed. This provision was
retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the
Supreme Court of the United
States in 1962 by the decision Baker v. Carr
. While the Governorship was stronger than
under the 1776 constitution, the constitution of 1844 created many
offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it
gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself.
Unlike the Revolutionary War, no Civil War battles took place
within the state. However, throughout the course of the Civil War,
over 80,000 from New Jersey enlisted in the Northern army to defeat
the Southern Confederacy
New Jersey was one of the few states to reject President Abraham Lincoln
twice in national elections,
and sided with Stephen Douglas
(1860) and George B. McClellan
(1864) during their campaigns.
McClellan later became governor (1878-81). During the Civil War,
the state was led first by Republican Governor Charles Smith Olden
, then by Democrat
Industrial Revolution, cities
like Paterson grew and prospered.
Previously, the economy
had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to
crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more
industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such
Inventor Thomas Edison
also became an important figure
of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1,093 patents,
many of which for inventions he developed while working in New
Jersey. Edison's facilities, first at Menlo Park,
NJ and then in West Orange, NJ, are considered perhaps the first research centers in the U.S.
Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to
have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as
were introduced to New Jersey.
mining was also a leading industry
during the middle to late 1800s. Bog iron
pit New Jersey were among the first sources of iron for the new
such as Mt. Hope, Mine Hill and
the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry, which
spawned new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need
for the Morris Canal
. Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the
Through both World Wars, New Jersey was a center for war
production, especially in naval construction. Battleships,
cruisers, and destroyers were all made in this state. In addition, Fort
Dix (1917) (originally called "Camp Dix"), Camp
Merritt (1917) and Camp Kilmer
(1941) were all constructed to house and train American soldiers
through both World Wars.
New Jersey also became a principal
location for defense in the Cold War
Nike Missile stations were constructed,
especially for the defense of New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. PT-109
, a motor torpedo boat
commanded by Lt. (j.g.) John F.
in World War II, was built at the Elco Boatworks in
Bayonne. The aircraft carrier USS
was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in
Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Kearney to be
scrapped.In 1962, the world's first nuclear-powered cargo ship, the
, was launched at
New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties
. The first Miss America Pageant was held in 1921 in
Atlantic City, the first drive-in movie was shown in 1933 in
Camden, and the Holland
Tunnel opened in 1927. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the state
offered begging licenses to unemployed residents, the zeppelin
airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst, and the SS Morro
Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames
while at sea.
In 1951, the New Jersey Turnpike opened, permitting fast travel by
car and truck between North Jersey (and metropolitan New York) and
South Jersey (and metropolitan Philadelphia).
In the 1960s, race riots
erupted in many
of the industrial cities of North Jersey. The first race riots
in New Jersey occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964.
Several others ensued
in 1967, in Newark
. Other riots followed the
assassination of Dr. Martin
Luther King, Jr.
in April 1968, just as in the rest of the
country. A riot occurred in Camden in 1971.
Residents of New Jersey are most commonly referred to as "New
Jerseyans" or "New Jerseyites". The United States Census Bureau
of July 1, 2008, estimated New Jersey's population at 8,682,661,
which represents an increase of 268,301, or 3.2%, since the last
census in 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last
census of 343,965 people (that is, 933,185 births minus 589,220
deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 53,930 people out of
the state. Immigration
the United States resulted in a net increase of 384,687 people, and
migration within the country produced a net loss of 438,617 people.
As of 2005, there were 1.6 million foreign-born living in the state
(accounting for 19.2% of the population).
As of 2006, New Jersey is the eleventh-most populous state in the
United States, and the most densely populated, at 1,174 residents
per square mile (453 per km2
), although the density
varies widely across the state, with most of the population of the
state in the counties surrounding New York City and along the shore
areas. The southern and northern counties are very rural, with
population being very scarce. It is also the second wealthiest
state according to the U.S. Census Bureau.
center of population for New
Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in the town of Milltown, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike (see map of location).
New Jersey is home to more scientists and engineers per square
than anywhere else in the world.
Racial group, ethnicity, and ancestry
New Jersey is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse
states in the country. It has the second
largest Jewish population by
percentage (after New York); the second largest Muslim population by percent
(after Michigan); The largest population of people from Costa Rica in the United States; the largest population of
Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percent; the third
highest Italian population by
percent according to the 2000
Census; and a majority of the population is Caucasian. African Americans
, Hispanics and Latinos
are also high in number. It has
the third highest Indian
of any state by absolute numbers.Also, it has the third largest
population, fourth largest
population, and fifth
largest ethnic groups are: Italian
Newark is the fourth poorest city in America, but New
Jersey as a whole has the second highest median household
income. This is largely because so much of New
Jersey consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City
New Jersey is also the most densely
populated state, and the only state that has had every one of its
counties deemed "urban" as defined by the Census Bureau
's Combined Statistical Area
The state has very sizable enclaves of different non-English
-speaking communities. Some of these
include (by ranking):
- Spanish — spoken throughout the
state, including many Hudson County towns, especially Union
- Portuguese — spoken throughout the
state, especially in the Ironbound section of Newark.
- Italian — spoken throughout the
state, especially in Hudson and Essex counties.
New Jersey population
Each county's largest ethnic group, according to the 2000 Census,
- Italian — Passaic, Bergen, Union, Hudson, Morris,
Somerset, Middlesex, Mercer, Monmouth, Ocean, Atlantic,
- Irish — Sussex, Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Cape
- German — Warren, Hunterdon, Salem
6.7% of its population was reported as under age 5, 24.8% under 18,
and 13.2% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.5% of
According to the 2000 U.S. Census
, 12.31% of the population aged 5 and
over speak Spanish at home, while 1.48% speak Italian.
Distributions of religions in New Jersey (2001)
|Refused to identify
(no denomination stated)
(by religion only)
|Assemblies of God
|Church of Christ
|Church of God
|Seventh Day Adventist
*Less than 0.5%
The Bureau of Economic
estimates that New Jersey's total state product in
2006 was $434 billion.
Capita personal income
in 2007 was $49,511, 2nd in the U.S. and
above the national average of $38,615. Its median household income
is the highest in the nation with $67,142. The state also has the
highest percentage of millionaire households. It is ranked 2nd in
the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above
national average with 76.4%. Nine of New Jersey's counties are in
the wealthiest 100 of the country.
New Jersey faces a deficit
that could be as
large as 3 billion for the fiscal year that starts July 1,
New Jersey has seven tax brackets for determining income tax
rates. The rates range from 1.4 to
8.97%. The standard sales tax
rate is 7%,
applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law.
Exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation,
medicines, clothing (except fur items), footwear, and disposable
paper products for use in the home. Approximately 30 New Jersey
municipalities are designated as Urban Enterprise Zones
are charged a 3½% tax rate, half of the rate charged outside the
UEZs. Sections of Elizabeth and Jersey City are examples of communities that are subject to
the lower sales tax rate.
located in the state is subject to property tax
unless specifically exempted by
statute. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property
tax, but it does impose an inheritance
New Jersey's economy is centered on the pharmaceutical industry,
chemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric
equipment, printing and publishing, and tourism. New Jersey's
agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits
and nuts, seafood, and dairy products.
Although New Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries,
its energy consumption is only 2.7% of the U.S. total, and its
carbon dioxide emissions are only 0.8% of the U.S. total. Its
comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to
nuclear power. According to the Energy Information
, nuclear power dominates New Jersey’s
electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of State
generation. New Jersey has three nuclear power plants,
including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating
Station, which came online in 1969 and is the oldest
operating nuclear plant in the country.
New Jersey has a strong scientific economy. New Jersey is home to
major pharmaceutical firms such as Johnson and Johnson, Sanofi-Aventis,
Hoffman-LaRoche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Schering-Plough.
New Jersey is home
to major telecommunications firms such as Verizon Wireless
and AT&T Communications
Furthermore, New Jersey draws upon its large and well-educated
labor pool which also supports the myriad of industries that exist
New Jersey is the ultimate bedroom
since the state is right next to New York City and
Philadelphia. Thus, there is a strong service economy in New Jersey
serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia. Some
of these industries include retail sales, education and real
Liberty International Airport is ranked seventh among the nation's busiest
airports and among the top 20 busiest airports in the
Shipping is a strong industry in New Jersey because of the state's
strategic location. The Port
Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and is one
of the world's largest container ports.
New Jersey also has
a strong presence in chemical development, refining and food
New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including
twenty-four Fortune 500
Paramus is noted for having one of the highest retail
sales per person ratios in the nation.
New Jersey counties such as Somerset (7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), Monmouth (42) counties are ranked among the highest-income
counties in the United States.
Four others are also in
the top 100.
Federal taxation disparity
New Jersey has the highest disparity of any state in the United
States between what it gives to the federal government and what it
receives. In fiscal year 2005, New Jersey taxpayers gave the
federal government $77 billion, while only receiving $55 billion.
This difference is higher than any other state and means that for
every $1 New Jersey taxpayers send to Washington, the state only
receives $0.61 in return. This calculation is applied correctly
after making the federal government deficit neutral, as sometimes
the federal government spends more than it receives. As of 2005,
New Jersey has never been above 48th in rank for per capita
federal spending (with a rank of 50th
for the majority of that time) since 1982, while being second or
third in per capita federal taxes paid to Washington.
New Jersey runs into deficits frequently and has one of the highest
tax burdens in the nation. Factors for this include the large
federal tax liability which is not adjusted for New Jersey's higher
cost of living and Medicaid funding formulas. As shown by the
study, incomes tend to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in
higher tax brackets especially vulnerable to the alternative minimum tax
such higher salaries are negated by the high taxes when the large
property and state/local income taxes, as well as the low rate of
return by the federal government (which may cause those high taxes)
New Jersey's greatest natural resource is its location, which has
made the state a crossroads of commerce. Other commercial
advantages include its extensive transportation system, which puts
one quarter of all United States consumers within overnight
delivery range. Lake and seaside resorts such as Atlantic City have
contributed to New Jersey's rank of fifth among the states in
revenues from tourism.
Almost half of New Jersey is wooded. The chief tree of the northern
forests is the oak. A large part of the southern section is in
pine. Jersey oak has been used extensively in shipbuilding.
The mineral resources in New Jersey are small. The state, however,
does rank high in smelting and refining minerals from other states.
Some mining activity does still take place in the area in and
around the Franklin Furnace
was long a center of zinc
New Jersey Zinc
Map of New Jersey showing major
transportation networks and cities
The New Jersey Turnpike
of the best-known and most-trafficked roadways in the United
States. This toll road
carries interstate traffic between Delaware and New York, and the East Coast in general.
Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its
numerous rest-areas named after prominent New Jerseyans as diverse
as inventor Thomas Edison
; United States Secretary
of the Treasury Alexander
States Presidents Grover
and Woodrow Wilson
writers James Fenimore Cooper
, and Walt Whitman
; patriot Molly Pitcher
; Red Cross advocate Clara Barton
; and football coach Vince Lombardi
Garden State Parkway, or simply
"the Parkway," carries more in-state traffic and runs from the town
of Montvale along New Jersey's northern border to its
southernmost tip at Cape May for .
It is the trunk that connects the New
York metropolitan area to Atlantic City and it is consistently one
of the safest roads in the nation.
New Jersey is connected to New York City via various bridges and
tunnels. The George Washington Bridge carries one of the heaviest loads of traffic in the
world from New Jersey to the Washington
Heights neighborhood in Upper
Manhattan in New York City. The Lincoln Tunnel connects to Midtown Manhattan and the Holland
Tunnel connects to Lower
These are the three major Hudson River
crossings that see heavy vehicular traffic. New Jersey is also
connected to Staten
Island by three bridges. From the southernmost
to northernmost; the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. The Goethals Bridge also provides a route from New Jersey to Brooklyn, New York.
Other expressways in New Jersey include the Atlantic City Expressway
, Interstate 76
, Interstate 80
, Interstate 95
, Interstate 195
, Interstate 280
, Interstate 287
, and Interstate
. Other major roadways include U.S. 1
, U.S. 9
, U.S. Route 1/9
Non-major roadways include Interstate
and U.S. Route 46
New Jersey has interstate
with all three neighboring states. The Port Authority of New
York and New Jersey
, the Delaware River Port Authority
(with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River and Bay
(with Delaware) operate most of the major
transportation routes into and out of New Jersey. Bridge tolls are
collected in one direction only — it is free to cross into New
Jersey, but motorists must pay when exiting the state. Exceptions to this
are the Dingman's Ferry
Bridge and the Delaware River – Turnpike Toll
Bridge where tolls are charged both ways.
Washington Crossing and Scudders Falls bridges near Trenton, as well as Trenton's Calhoun
Street and Bridge
Street bridges, are toll-free. In addition, *
Riverton-Belvidere Bridge, Northampton Street Bridge, Riegelsville Bridge, and Upper Black Eddy-Milford
Bridge are free Delaware River bridges into and out of
Jersey is one of only two states (along with Oregon) where self-service filling of
gasoline is prohibited.
New Jersey's Highway Maintenance Program was rated "Extremely Poor"
by Reason Foundation
Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems."
Liberty International Airport is one of the busiest airports in the United
States. Operated by the Port Authority of New
York and New Jersey, which runs the other two major airports in the New York
metropolitan area (John F. Kennedy International
Airport and LaGuardia Airport), it is one of the main airports serving the New
York City area. Continental
is the facility's largest tenant, operating an entire
terminal at Newark, which it uses as one of its primary hubs
. FedEx Express
operates a large cargo hub. The adjacent Newark Airport railroad
station provides access to the trains of Amtrak and New Jersey
Transit along the Northeast
smaller commercial airports, Atlantic
City International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airport, also operate in other parts of New Jersey.
Airport, in Bergen County, is a general
aviation airport popular with private and corporate aircraft,
due to its proximity to New York City. Millville
Municipal Airport, in Cumberland County, is a general
aviation airport popular with private and corporate aircraft,
due to its proximity to the shore.
Rail and bus
The New Jersey Transit
Corporation (NJ Transit) operates extensive rail and bus service
throughout the state. NJ Transit is a state-run corporation that
began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in
North Jersey. In the early 1980s, it acquired the commuter train
operations of Conrail
that connect towns in
northern and central New Jersey to New York City. NJ Transit has
eleven lines that run throughout different parts of the state.
the trains start at various points in the state and most end at
either Pennsylvania Station, in New York City, or Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken. NJ Transit began service between Atlantic
City and Lindenwold in 1989 and extended it to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the 1990s.
NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state.
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail
connects Bayonne to North Bergen, with planned expansion into Bergen
The Newark Light Rail
is the only subway
system entirely in the state, but it is
only partially underground. Its Main Line connects Newark
Penn Station in Downtown
Newark with outer parts of the city, ending at Grove Street
station in Bloomfield. The Broad Street Line of the subway, the
first component of the Newark-Elizabeth Rail Link,
connects Newark Broad Street Station to Newark Penn Station. The last of the three light rail lines is
the River Line which connects Trenton and Camden.
PATH is a subway and above-ground railway which
links Hoboken, Jersey City, Harrison and Newark with New York City.
The PATH operates
four lines that connect various points in North Jersey and New
York. The lines all terminate in Hudson
County, Essex County or Manhattan in New York City.
Speedline links Camden County and Philadelphia. PATCO operates a single elevated and subway
line that runs from Lindenwold to Center City Philadelphia. PATCO operates
stations in Lindenwold, Voorhees, Cherry Hill, Haddonfield, Haddon Township, Collingswood, and Camden, along with four stations in
also operates numerous long-distance
passenger trains in New Jersey to and from neighboring states and
around the country. In addition to the Newark Airport
connection, other major Amtrak railway stations include Trenton
Rail Station, Metropark, and the grand historic Newark
also has two lines that operate into New Jersey. The R7 lines terminates at the Trenton Rail Station,
and the R3 lines terminates at the
Trenton Rail Station in Ewing.
is a monorail
connecting the Amtrak/NJ Transit station on the Northeast Corridor
to the airport's
terminals and parking lots.
Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these
carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state
owned buses are provided to these carriers of which Coach USA
companies make up the bulk. Other carriers
include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers
from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic
There are many ferry services that operate in New Jersey.
Bay, the Delaware River and Bay
Authority operates the Cape May-Lewes Ferry. The Delaware River and Bay Authority also
operates ferries between Fort Mott in New
Jersey and Fort
Delaware and Fort
DuPont in Delaware. The Delaware River Port Authority
operates the RiverLink Ferry between
the Camden waterfront and Penn's Landing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Hudson River, New York Waterway has numerous ferry terminals
in Belford, Jersey
City, Hoboken and Weehawken. The stops are at Port Liberte, Liberty Harbor, Colgate/Exchange Place in Jersey City,
Belford, Port Imperial and Lincoln Harbor in Weehawken, Hoboken Terminal (Hoboken South) and 14th Street (Hoboken North) in
Hoboken. These ferries run to one or several of the
Manhattan stops at Wall
Street, the World Financial Center or Midtown at 39th St. Liberty Landing in Jersey City has ferries from Portside in Paulus Hook and Liberty Landing in Liberty
The Hornblower Cruises ferry has service
from Liberty State Park to Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty.
Although there is a bridge from Ellis Island to Jersey City, it was
built for renovations on the building on the island and is
considered unsafe for public use. SeaStreak
offers services from the Raritan
Bayshore to Manhattan and during the
Met's season Shea
Stadium. The ferries on the Bayshore leave from
Atlantic Highlands and two terminals in Highlands. New York
also has seasonal service from Paulus Hook to Wall
Street. Ferry service from Keyport and Perth
Amboy have been proposed and ferry service from Elizabeth has been discussed with a proposed light rail
connection to Newark Airport and Downtown Elizabeth.
Private bus carriers
Several private bus lines provide transportation service in the
state of New Jersey. Below is a list of major carriers and their
areas of operation:
Law and government
) is the Governor
. The Governor of New Jersey
is considered one of the most powerful governorships in the nation,
as it is the only state-wide elected office in the state and
appoints many government officials. Formerly, an Acting Governor
was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of
the New Jersey State Senate
thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive
process. In 2002 and 2007, President of the State Senate Richard Codey
held the position of Acting
Governor for a short time, and from 2004 to 2006 Codey became a
long-term Acting Governor due to Jim
's resignation. A 2005 amendment to the state
Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming Acting
Governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without
giving up her or his seat in the state Senate.
governor's mansion is Drumthwacket, located in Princeton Township.
New Jersey is one of the few states that has no lieutenant governor
was elected the first Lieutenant Governor of New
and will take office in January 2010. She was elected as
part of the republican ticket along with Governor-Elect Chris Christie
in the November 2009 NJ
gubernatorial election. The position was created as the result of a
the New Jersey State
passed by the voters on November 8, 2005 and
effective as of January 17, 2006.
The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution
was adopted in 1947. It provides for a bicameral New
, consisting of an upper house Senate
of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly
of 80 members.
Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and
two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year
term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the
years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year
New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state
officials in odd-numbered years. (The others are Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia.) New Jersey holds elections for these offices
every 4 years, in the year following each federal Presidential
Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a
Governor was 2005; the next gubernatorial election will occur in
2009, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in 2013,
2017, 2021, etc.
Jersey Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate
All are appointed by the Governor with the
advice and consent
of a majority
of the membership of the State Senate. Justices serve an initial
seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until
Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out
in the Municipal Courts
, where simple traffic
tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are
More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the
for each county. All Superior Court
judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent
of a majority of the
membership of the State Senate. Each judge serves an initial
seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve
until age 70.
Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts
of law and equity, like its neighbor
Delaware but unlike most other U.S. states.
New Jersey Superior Court
is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial
The Superior Court also has an Appellate Division
which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court
. Superior Court judges are
assigned to the Appellate Division by the Chief Justice.
There is also a Tax Court
, which is a court of
limited jurisdiction. Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax
decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals
on decisions made by the Director of the Division of Taxation on
such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and
homestead rebates. Appeals from Tax Court decisions are heard in
the Appellate Division of Superior Court. Tax Court judges are
appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, and
upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the
mandatory retirement age of 70. There are 12 Tax Court
New Jersey is broken up into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial
Jersey was completely divided into counties by 1692; the present
counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently
County in 1857.
New Jersey is the only state in the
nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders,"
governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders
number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum,
and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members.
Depending on the county, the executive
functions may be performed by the
Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of
government. In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen
Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a
commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for
a department or group of departments. In the other 5
counties (Atlantic, Bergen, Essex, Hudson and Mercer), there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive
functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a
legislative and oversight role.
In counties without an
Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired
to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.
Jersey has 566 municipalities; the
number was 567 before Pahaquarry Township was absorbed by Hardwick
Township in 1997.
Unlike states in the west and
south, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality. In 2008,
Governor Jon Corzine
state aid to all towns under 10,000 people, to encourage mergers to
reduce administrative costs. In May 2009, the Local Unit Alignment
Reorganization and Consolidation Commission (LUARC) began a study
of about 40 small communities in South Jersey to decide which ones
might be good candidates for consolidation.
Types of government
When the types of government were devised in the nineteenth
century, the intention was that cities
would be large built-up areas, with
progressively smaller boroughs
, and villages
; the rural areas in between
would be relatively large townships
. This is still often
true, although Shrewsbury Township has been divided over the years; today it is less
than a square mile, consisting only of a single housing
development. Some townships — notably Brick, Hamilton, Middletown, and Toms River — have, without changing their boundaries,
become large stretches of suburbia, as
populous as cities, often focused around shopping centers and
highways rather than traditional downtowns and main
Short Hills, Murray Hill, and many other locations in New Jersey
are not municipalities but rather neighborhoods, with no exact
boundaries. Often the cluster of houses, the traditional
neighborhood, the postal district, and the Census designated place
government has often failed to understand that a New Jersey
township is just another municipality, and some municipalities have
changed forms to become the Township of Borough of
Verona or the Township of South Orange
Village to receive more federal aid.
Forms of government
The five types of municipality differ mostly in name. Originally,
each type had its own form of government but more modern forms are
available to any municipality, even though the original type is
retained in its formal name. Only boroughs can (but are not
required to) have the "borough form" of government.
Starting in the 1900s, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a
series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This
began with the Walsh Act
enacted in 1911 by the New Jersey
, which provided for a 3- or 5-member commission
elected on a non-partisan basis. This was followed by the 1923 Municipal Manager Law
offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected
by and from the members of the council, and introduced Council-Manager government
an (ideally apolitical) appointed manager responsible for
day-to-day administration of municipal affairs.
The Faulkner Act
originally enacted in 1950 and substantially amended in 1981,
offers four basic plans: Mayor-Council
, Small Municipality
The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for
a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs
and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select
the characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the
Council; seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a
combination of both; staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a
mayor chosen by the Council or elected directly by voters. Most
large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are
governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters.
Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of
government and operate under a Special Charter
approval of the New Jersey
While municipalities retain their names derived from types of
government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of
government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional
forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling
to the general public. For example, though there are three
municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch
Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of
government. The other two villages—Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Act form) and Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner Act Council-Manager
charter)—have all migrated to other non-village forms.
New Jersey was once a Republican
bastion in past
federal elections but recently has become a Democratic
the election of Chris Christie
however, some consider the state to be a purple one that leans
blue. Currently, New Jersey Democrats
hold the Governorship
majority control of both houses of the Legislature
(Senate: 22-18 &
Assembly: 48-32), while federal Democrats hold both U.S. Senate
seats and also 8 out of 13 of
the state's delegation to the United States House of
. The state had a Republican governor from 1994
to 2002, as Christie Todd
won twice with vote percentages of 47 and 49 percent.
In the 2009 elections, Republican Chris
defeated incumbent Democrat John Corzine
for the New Jersey Governorship.
Therefore starting in 2010, the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and
Attorney General will all be members of the Republican Party.
In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the national
It was, however, a Republican stronghold for years in the past,
having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican
candidate in the close elections of 1948
, and 1976
. New Jersey
was a crucial swing state
elections of 1960
, and 1992
. The last
elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from New Jersey was
Clifford P. Case
in 1979. (Nicholas F. Brady
was appointed a U.S. Senator by
Governor Thomas Kean
in 1982 after
Harrison A. Williams
resigned the Senate seat
following the Abscam
state's Democratic strongholds include Mercer
County around Trenton and Princeton; Essex County and Hudson County, the state's two most urban counties, around the
state's two largest cities, Newark and Jersey City; Camden County and most of the other urban communities just
outside of Philadelphia and New York; and more suburban northern
counties in New York's orbit, such as Union
County and Middlesex County.
suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are
reliably Republican: Republicans have backing along the coast in
County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the
state, especially Sussex County, Morris County, and Warren County. Other suburban counties, especially
County and Bergen County had the majority of votes go to the Democrat Party.
the 2008 General Election, President Barack
won New Jersey with approximately fifty-eight percent of
the vote compared to McCain's
percent. Independent candidate Ralph
garnered less than one percent of the total vote.
About one-third of the counties in New Jersey, however, are
considered swing counties, but some go more one way than others.
County, which leans Republican in the northern half of the
county, is mostly Democratic in the more populated southern parts,
causing it to usually vote slightly Republican. The same is true
County, with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south
and a rural, Republican north). Other "swing"
counties like Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population
in conservative areas.
To be eligible to vote in a U.S. election, all New Jerseyans are
required to start their residency in the state 30 days prior to an
election and register 29 days prior.
Social attitudes and issues
Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states
in the nation. Polls indicate that 60% of the population are
self-described as pro-choice
, although a
majority are opposed to late trimester and Partial Birth Abortion
funding of Abortion
. In a 2009 Quinnipiac University poll
plurality supported same-sex
49% to 43% opposed.
In April 2004, New Jersey enacted a domestic partnership
, which is available to both same-sex and opposite-sex
couples aged 62 and over. During 2006, the New Jersey Supreme Court
voted 4 to 3 that state lawmakers must provide the rights and
benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples. Moreover,
effective February 19, 2007, New Jersey became the third state in
the U.S. (the other two being Connecticut
) to offer civil unions
to same-sex couples, conferring
over 850 rights, privileges and responsibilities of marriage;
legislators declined, however, to use the term "marriage" for
same-sex unions. Thus, three separate government-recognized
relationships are now in effect in the Garden State: domestic
partnerships, civil unions, and marriage.
New Jersey also has some of the most stringent gun-control laws in
the U.S. These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose
bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded
less than a felony. BB guns
and black powder
guns are all treated as modern firearms. Visitors to the state
should beware of bringing any firearms into the state. New Jersey
does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively
enforces its own gun laws.
New Jersey has a severe city/urban litter reputational problem, as
noted in the report, "New Jersey: America's Ugly Urban/City Litter
(Trash) State." The state still has no statewide anti-litter slogan
and its 1986 Clean Communities Act has been controversial in
failing to help abate litter and debris on public streets, roadways
On December 17, 2007, Governor Corzine signed into law a bill that
would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jersey is the
first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and
executions in 1965.
There are only a handful of people on
in New Jersey. Corzine also
recently signed a bill that would downgrade the Death Row
prisoners' sentences from "Death" to "Life in Prison with No
Prominent cities and towns
Large cities (100,000 or greater)
Jersey City by night
For its overall population and nation-leading density, New Jersey
has a relative paucity of classic large cities. As of the United States 2000 Census
four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000. With the
2004 Census estimate, Woodbridge briefly surpassed Edison in
population, as both joined the 100,000 club. The 2006 Census
estimate states that both Edison and Woodbridge Township have
dropped below the 100,000 mark (with Edison surpassing Woodbridge).
- Newark, Essex County: 273,546 (Census Estimate 2006:
- Jersey City, Hudson County: 240,055 (Census Estimate 2006:
- Paterson, Passaic County: 149,222 (Census Estimate 2006:
- Elizabeth, Union County: 120,568 (Census Estimate 2006:
- Edison, Middlesex County 97,687 (Census Estimate 2006:
- Woodbridge Township, Middlesex
County: 97,203 (Census Estimate 2006:
Towns and small cities (60,000 up to 100,000)
- Toms River Township, Ocean
County: 89,706 (Census Estimate 2006: 94,660)
- Hamilton Township : 87,109 (Census Estimate 2006: 90,559)
- Trenton, Mercer County: 85,403
- Camden: 79,904
- Clifton: 78,672
- Brick Township: 76,119
- Cherry Hill Township: 69,965
- East Orange: 69,824
- Passaic: 67,861
- Union City: 67,088
- Middletown Township: 66,327
- Gloucester Township: 64,350
- Bayonne: 61,842
- Irvington: 60,695
- Old Bridge Township 60,456
- Lakewood Township 60,352
Wealth of municipalities
Wealth of municipalities and communities by per capita income
Mantoloking, New Jersey $114,017
2 Saddle River, New Jersey $85,934
3 Far Hills, New Jersey $81,535
4 Essex Fells, New Jersey $77,434
5 Alpine, New Jersey $76,995
Hanover Township, New Jersey $12,140
699 Lakewood CDP, New Jersey $11,802
700 Bridgeton, New Jersey $10,917
701 Fort Dix, New Jersey $10,543
702 Camden, New Jersey $9,815
Although some problems exist in certain inner city neighborhoods,
New Jersey overall is considered to have one of the best public
education systems in the United States. 54% of high school
graduates continue on to college, which is tied with Massachusetts for the second highest rate in the nation
Dakota holds first place at 59%).
also has the highest average scores for advanced placement testing
in public schools in the nation. Secretary of Education Rick
Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon
, has created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI)
to increase College admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high
school students, decrease dropout rates by 15%, and increase the
amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. Rosenberg was since
forced to retract this plan when publicly criticized for taking the
money out of healthcare to fund this initiative. New Jersey is
ranked first in the nation in funding K-12 education but is ranked
last in higher-education funding. The state spent over $20,000
average, per student in 2007-2008.
Recreation and entertainment
Camping and hiking
Along the boardwalk in Ocean
The Tropicana along the Atlantic City
Redeveloped shops along the Asbury
Wildwoods Convention Center
Professional sports teams
New Jersey currently has five teams from major professional sports
playing in the state, although the Major League Soccer
team and two
National Football League
teams identify as being from New York.
the state's four major professional sports teams play at the
Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford. The Nets play in the Izod Center, and the Giants and Jets play in Giants
The Meadowlands and its sports venues
are widely considered to be outdated by today's professional sports
standards. This led to the Devils move away from the
Meadowlands to the new Prudential Center in Newark at the start of the 2007-08 seasons.
also have plans to leave the Meadowlands for Brooklyn as soon as the Barclays Center is completed for them.
The Giants and
Jets though announced in 2005 that they will be staying in the
Meadowlands, and a new stadium for both teams should be ready by
the 2010 season. The new stadium is part of the Xanadu
Project taking shape at the sports complex.
Xanadu Project, when completed in 2008, will be the largest retail
and entertainment complex in New Jersey.
sports complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack one of three major horse racing tracks in the state.
Meadowlands Racetrack along with Freehold Raceway in Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North
America. Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport, is also a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and
It hosted the Breeders' Cup
in 2007, and its turf course was
renovated in preparation.
Collegiate sports teams
Jersey's collegiate allegiances are more or less split among the
major Division I programs in the
state — the Rutgers University (New Jersey's largest state university)
Scarlet Knights, the
Hall University (which is the state's largest Roman Catholic university) Pirates, and the Princeton
University (the state's Ivy
League university) Tigers.
Both Rutgers and Seton Hall
compete in the Big East
, and the rivalry between the two teams has always
been an intense one. Rutgers and Princeton have an intense rivalry
stemming from the first
intercollegiate football game
in 1869, though the two schools
have not met on the football field since 1980. They continue to
play each other annually in all other sports offered by the two
Rutgers, which fields 24 teams from various sports, is nationally
known for its excellent football and women's basketball programs.
university is planning a large expansion to the on-campus Rutgers
Stadium to accommodate the rising number of fans, and
the teams play in Piscataway, which is adjacent to the New Brunswick
The university also fields rising basketball and
baseball programs. Rutgers' fan base is mostly derived from
the western parts of the state and Middlesex
County, not to mention its alumni base, which is the
largest in the state.
Seton Hall, unlike Rutgers, does not field a football team.
its basketball team has been one of the most storied programs in
the Big East, and it plays its home games at the state-of-the-art
Prudential Center, located in downtown Newark.
The Pirates, while lacking as large an
alumni base as the state university, have a large well of support
in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of
the state and the Jersey Shore
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, also has campuses in
Camden and Newark (in addition to its main campus in New
Brunswick). The Rutgers-Camden athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raptors.
Rutgers-Newark athletic teams are called the Scarlet Raiders.
Raiders and the Scarlet Raptors both compete within NCAA Division III
the New Jersey legislature approved casino gambling in Atlantic
At that time, Las Vegas
was the only
mega-casino resort. By 1978, Atlantic City was in decline. It was
no longer the seaside resort that it once was. With the institution
of casino gambling, Atlantic City has come back as a resort city.
There are numerous famous casinos, with its main contributor being
. Many lie along the
Atlantic City Boardwalk, the longest boardwalk throughout the
There are many major New Jersey newspapers, including:
The state's college newspapers include:
- Bergen Community College: The Torch
- Camden County College: Campus Press
- The College of New Jersey: The Signal
- Drew University: The Acorn
- Fairleigh Dickinson University: The Equinox
- Kean University: The Tower
- Montclair State: The Montclarion
- NJ Institute of Tech: The Vector Online
- Princeton: Nassau Weekly
- Princeton: The Daily
- Princeton: The Princeton Spectator
- Rider University: The Rider News
- Rowan University: The Whit
- Rutgers: The Daily
- Rutgers: Rutgers
- Rutgers: The Observer
- Seton Hall: The Setonian
- Stevens Institute of Technology: The Stute
- Union County College: The Scroll
- William Paterson University: Pioneer Times
- See: List
of radio stations in New Jersey
Television and film
- Motion picture technology was
invented in New Jersey, by Thomas
Edison. The early work was done at his West Orange laboratory.
His "Black Maria" was the first
motion picture studio.
- Almost all of Kevin Smith's movies take place in
New Jersey (though not all of them are filmed there), as Smith grew
up in Red
1979 film The Amityville
Horror was filmed in Toms River and the scene in the church was filmed in Point
original Friday the 13th
horror movie was filmed in Blairstown as the setting for Camp Crystal Lake.
- The Family
Man, starring Nicolas Cage,
was filmed in Teaneck in 2000.
NoBeBoSco in Blairstown was the location of the original Friday the 13th movie (some
believe the series of films to be set in New Jersey, although this
is never confirmed onscreen), which was partially based on real
murders that have occurred near the campground, in the state's
rural northwest. Such horror stories were the inspiration
behind the now nationally famous Weird
NJ magazine and website.
the 1996 science fiction film Independence Day the scene in
which Jeff Goldblum and Judd Hirsch are playing chess was filmed in
- The popular character The Toxic
Avenger is often touted as the first superhero from New
- In the 2005 film adaptation of War of the Worlds, the
beginning of the movie is set in New Jersey, an homage to the
film World Trade
Center, starring Nicolas Cage,
had numerous scenes shot in Glen Rock, New Jersey
- The 2004 film Garden State
was set and filmed in New Jersey. It was written, directed and
starred in by Zach Braff, who grew up in
New Jersey. The film's title refers to New Jersey's nickname, the
- Cable network CNBC
originates most of its in-studio programming from Englewood Cliffs. Sister news network MSNBC broadcast from studios in Secaucus from 1997 until late 2007, when the network
moved to Rockefeller Center's GE
Building in a
cost-cutting measure by parent company NBC
flagship station WWOR-TV (Channel 9) is licensed to and broadcasts from
Secaucus; former owner RKO General moved
the New York-based station across the Hudson in 1983 in an
unsuccessful attempt to retain the station's license.
- Cartoon Network's Adult Swim cartoon
Aqua Teen Hunger
Force and Toonami cartoon
Megas XLR are both set in New
opening of the popular NBC comedy Ed was filmed in Hillsdale and Westfield, New Jersey.
- In the animated television comedy Futurama, New Jersey is slandered many times
by the characters. In one episode, Fry finds a seemingly ideal
apartment while house hunting, but later comments, upon finding out
that the home is located in New Jersey, that he found "not one
place even remotely liveable". In another, when discussing the
global garbage problem, a television ad states that
"... landfills were full ... New Jersey was full ...",
implying a lack of places to store garbage. Additionally, Robot Hell is located in Atlantic
popular Fox television show
House is set in a fictional hospital
located in the Princeton-Plainsboro area. (The exterior shots of the "hospital"
are actually shots of the exterior of Princeton
University's Frist Campus Center.)
- The Fox show Point
Pleasant was based on a fictional version of the town.
not shot on location within the actual
town of the same name.)
Bravo TV series Real
Housewives of New Jersey is a reality show based on the
daily lives of five New Jersey women living in Franklin
- The popular television drama The
Sopranos depicts the life of a New Jersey organized crime family and is filmed on
location at various places throughout the state. Series creator and
writer-director David Chase grew up in
Clifton and North Caldwell.
New Jersey has long been an important area for both rock
music. Some prominent musicians from or with significant
connections to New Jersey are:
- Singer Frank
Sinatra was born in Hoboken. He sang with a neighborhood vocal group,
the Hoboken Four, and appeared in neighborhood theater amateur
shows before he became an entertainment legend as an Academy Award winning actor and one of the
most famous male vocalists of all time.
Springsteen, who has sung of New Jersey life on most of his
albums, hails from Freehold and is the most popular rock musician to ever
come out of the state. Some of his songs that represent New
Jersey life are "Born to Run,"
"Spirit In The Night," "Rosalita ," "Thunder Road," "Atlantic City," and "Jungleland."
- The Jonas Brothers all reside in
Wyckoff, New Jersey, where the eldest brother of the group, Kevin
Jonas was born, as well as the youngest Jonas, Frankie.
- Irvington's Queen Latifah
was the first female rapper to succeed in music, film, and
- Lauryn Hill is
Orange, New Jersey. Her 1998 debut solo album, The
Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, sold 10 million copies
internationally. She also sold millions with The Fugees second album The
(Reggie Noble) was born, raised, and resides in Newark. He is the most successful
African-American solo hip-hop artist out of New Jersey.
members of The Sugarhill Gang
were born in Englewood.
Records rap producer Just Blaze hails
- Jon Bon Jovi,
who hails from Sayreville, reached fame in the 1980s with hard rock
outfit Bon Jovi. The band has also
written many songs about life in New Jersey including "Livin' On A
Prayer" and even named one of his albums after the state. (see
- Singer Dionne
Warwick was born in East Orange.
- Singer Whitney
Houston (who is Dionne Warwick's cousin) was born in Newark, and grew up in neighboring East
- Legendary jazz pianist
and bandleader Count Basie was born in Red
Bank in 1904. In the 1960s, he collaborated
on several albums with fellow New Jersey native Frank Sinatra. The Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank is named in his honor.
- Parliament-Funkadelic, the pioneering
funk music collective, was formed in Plainfield by George Clinton.
- Asbury Park is home of The Stone Pony, which Bruce
Springsteen and Bon Jovi frequented
early in their careers and is still considered by many to be a
"Mecca" for up-and-coming Jersey Shore
- Hip-hop pioneers
Naughty By Nature hail from
1964, the Isley Brothers founded
the record label T-Neck Records,
named after Teaneck, their home at the time.
"Jersey Boys" is based on the lives of
the members of the Four
Seasons, three of whose members were born in New Jersey
(Tommy DeVito, Frankie Valli, and Nick
- Jazz pianist
Bill Evans was born in Plainfield in 1929.
band Thursday were formed in
Brunswick, NJ. Numerous songs reference the city.
- Horror punk band The Misfits hail from Lodi, as well as their founder Glenn Danzig.
rock poet Patti Smith is from Mantua.
- Acclaimed indie rock veterans Yo La Tengo are based in Hoboken. They also have a song called "The Night
Falls on Hoboken".
- New Jersey was the East Coast hub for ska music in the 90's.
the most popular ska bands, such as Catch 22 and Streetlight Manifesto, come from
- Black Label Society's and Ozzy Osbourne's
famed guitarist Zakk Wylde was born in
Bayonne and raised in Jackson
- The Bouncing
Souls original four members grew up in Basking
Ridge and formed in New
Brunswick in the late 1980s.
- My Chemical
Romance's Frank Iero, Gerard Way, Mikey Way,
and Ray Toro all hail from Belleville, New Jersey.
- Cobra Starship frontman Gabe
Saporta is from New Jersey
New Jersey is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio
, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery
, the light bulb
, and the electric train. Other New
Jersey creations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated
, cranberry sauce
, the postcard, the boardwalk
, the zipper
, saltwater taffy
, the dirigible, the seedless watermelon
, the first use
of a submarine
in warfare, and the ice cream cone.
are common in New Jersey. The state is
home to many diner manufacturers and has more diners than any other
state: over 600. There are more diners in the state of New Jersey
than any other place in the world.
The world's highest quality fluorescent minerals and the most
number of minerals found in any one location is located in Franklin Furnace
. There are mineral museums
in Franklin and Ogdensburg.
New Jersey is the only state without a state song. "I'm From New
Jersey" is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New
Jersey State Song, but wasn't even a contender when in 1996 the
New Jersey Arts Council
submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature
Legends and ghosts
long-circulated legend says a creature, the Jersey Devil or the Leeds Devil, terrorizes the
population of the Pine Barrens.
The New Jersey
are named for this mythical creature. New Jersey is also
home to several other legends, such as the ghost of Annie's Road in Totowa and the haunted and demon-possessed Clinton
Road in West Milford. Cooper Road in Middletown is said to be haunted by strange, ghostly
people who jump out from behind trees at cars traveling down the
unpaved portion of the road.
The unpaved section has no
street lights and thus is very dangerous as it has sharp turns
where the ghostly people are said to jump in front of the cars from
behind trees, causing them to crash. There is also the Atco Ghost
— the ghost of a little boy who runs
across the street late at night in Atco
. It is also rumored that Jimmy Hoffa, the late leader of the Teamsters Union, is buried beneath Giants
Stadium or the New
However, on the popular television show
, the myth of Jimmy
Hoffa being buried under Giants Stadium was debunked using ground penetrating radar
The magazine Weird NJ
creators of which later started Weird
) was started to catalog and explore the ghosts,
legends, and prevalence of otherwise "weird" things in the
- NJ History Outline
- Geological History by Great Swamp Watershed
Association, retrieved December 22, 2005.
- Streissguth pg 30-36
- Klinghoffer and Elkis ("The Petticoat Electors: Women’s
Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776-1807." Journal of the Early
Republic 12, no. 2 (1992): 159-193.)
- Our History
- Camp Merritt
- Camp Kilmer
- Gerdes, Louise I. The 1930s, Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000.
- The richest (and poorest) places in the U.S.:
- Delaware / Hudson Valley Hot Spot for
- The Foreign Born from India in the United
States, dated December 1, 2003
- Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity
- Md. is ranked as richest state
- Metropolitan Areas and Components, 1999, with FIPS
- Census 2000 Brief
- Modern Language Association
- "New Jersey has most millionaires in country,"
Associated Press, January 10, 2008.
- New Jersey Real Estate Report » NJ facing $3b
budget deficit.. No new taxes?
- link Chart of State to Federal government
spend/receive ratios, Tax Foundation
- link Tax Burdens in New Jersey
- George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge
flag, cake part of celebration, Times
Herald-Record, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will
be small in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New
York and New Jersey organized for 5,000 people to open the bridge
to traffic in 1931. And it won't even be on what is now the world's
busiest bridge for fear of snarling traffic."
- Supreme Court of New Jersey
- Small Towns in N.J. Told to Merge or Face
- "N.J. town mergers could start in 18 months" by
Jan Hefler, The Philadelphia Inquirer,
May 29, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-05-29
- SurveyUSA Pro-Life vs. Pro Choice Sorted by
- Poll: NJ voters support gay marriage
- Google.com Hester Jr., Tom (2007) N.J. Bans
Death Penalty for Associated Press
- Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 7A, "In schools,
money not the answer", Cal Thomas
New Jersey Advertising
- The New
Jersey Herald: Top Stories
- NorthJersey.com: providing local news, sports &
classifieds for Northern New Jersey!
- New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame
- 50states.com: New Jersey Facts and Trivia
- The History of the New Jersey State Song?
- State of New Jersey - FAQs
- State Government
- U.S. Government