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New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.It is located at the mouth of the Thames River (pronounced as to rhyme with 'James', unlike the river of the same name in Londonmarker, the capital of England, which pronounces it to rhyme with 'hems') in New London Countymarker, southeastern Connecticut.

The city is home to Connecticut Collegemarker, Mitchell College, the United States Coast Guard Academy, and The Williams School. New London Harbor is home port to the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Chinook and the Coast Guard's tall ship Eagle.

New London had a population of 25,671 at the 2000 census. The Norwichmarker-New London metropolitan area (NECTA [13499]) includes twenty-one towns [13500] and 266,618 people [13501].The population of the city of New London is 26,174 [13502].

History

View of New London in 1854




The area was called Nameaug by the Pequot Indians. John Winthrop, Jr. founded the first English settlement here in 1646, making it about the 13th town settled in Connecticut. Inhabitants informally named it Pequot after the tribe. The Connecticut General Assembly wanted to name the town Faire Harbour, but the citizens protested, declaring that they would prefer it to be called Nameaug. The legislature relented, and on March 10, 1658 the town was officially named after Londonmarker, Englandmarker.

The harbor was considered to be the best deep water harbor on Long Island Soundmarker, and consequently New London became a base of American naval operations during the Revolutionary War. Famous New Londoners during the American Revolution include Nathan Hale, William Coit, Richard Douglass, Thomas & Nathaniel Shaw, Gen.Samuel Parsons, Printer Timothy Green, Reverend Seabury. New London was raided & nearly burned to the ground on September 6, 1781 Battle of Groton Heights, by Norwich Native Benedict Arnold in the attempts to destroy the colonial privateer fleet and storage of goods and naval stores within the city. Often noted that this raid on New London and Groton was to divert General Washington and the French Army under Rochambeau from their march on Yorktownmarker, Virginiamarker. The main defensive fort for New London, Fort Griswold, located across the Thames River in Grotonmarker, was well known by Arnold who sold its secrets to the British fleet so they could avoid its artillery fire. Ft. Griswold was attacked and the British suffered great casualties before eventually storming the fort and slaughtering many of the militia who defended the fort. All told more than 52 British soldiers and 83 militia were killed and more than 142 British and 39 militia were wounded, many mortally. New London suffered more than 6 militia killed and 24 wounded while Arnold and the British and Hessian raiding party suffered an equal amount.

Image:Rail extents.jpg|The Richard Douglass House on Green StreetImage:Park next to The Day newspaper IMG_1029.JPG|Small park next to New London Day newspaperImage:Citizen's Bank in New London, CT IMG_1028.JPG|Citizen's Bank in New LondonImage:Another view of downtown New London, CT IMG_1014.JPG|Another view of downtown New LondonImage: State Street, New London, CT.jpg|State Street (ca. 1920)Image:Eugene O'Neill Street in New London, CT IMG_1030.JPG|Eugene O'Neill Drive in New London

Connecticut's independent legislature, in its January session of 1784, made New London one of the first two cities (along with New Havenmarker) brought from de facto to formalized incorporations.

For several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was the second busiest whaling port after New Bedford, Massachusettsmarker in the world. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture.

The New Haven and New London Railroad connected New London by rail to New Haven and points beyond by the 1850s. The Springfield and New London Railroad connected New London to Springfield, Massachusettsmarker by the 1870s.

The family of Nobel and Pulitzer-Prize playwright Eugene O'Neill, and most of his own first 26 years, were intimately connected to New London. He lived for years there, and as an adult was employed and wrote his first seven or eight plays in the city. (A major O'Neill archive is located at Connecticut Collegemarker there, and a family home there is a museum and Registered National Landmark operated by the O'Neill Theater Center.) Dutch's Tavern on Green Street was a favorite watering hole of Eugene O'Neill and still stands today.

Kelo v. New London, Supreme Court case

On February 22, 2005, the United States Supreme Courtmarker decided in Kelo v.marker City of New Londonmarker, that the city may seize privately owned real property under eminent domain so that it could be used for private economic development, deciding the tax revenue from the private development satisfied the requirement for public interest for eminent domain.

In spite of the city's legal victory, the project never got off the ground. The city's chosen redeveloper was not able to get financing for the project. In spite of an expenditure over eighty million dollars by the city acquiring and demolishing the area where the taken homes once stood, is now a vacant, trash-strewn parcel; that, according to the New London newspaper, The Day, is being taken over by weeds and birds. In November, 2009, Pfizer, which was to be the primary beneficiary of the redevelopment, announced that they instead are closing their facility adjacent to the site and leaving the region.

Towns created from New London

When established, New London originally had a larger land area. Towns set off since include:
  • Grotonmarker in 1705
    • Ledyardmarker (originally North Groton) created from a part of Groton in 1836
  • Montvillemarker in 1786
    • Salemmarker created from parts of Montville, Colchester and Lyme in 1819
  • Waterfordmarker in 1801
    • East Lymemarker created from parts of Waterford and Lyme in 1839


Geography

49% of New London's area is water.
In terms of land area, New London is one of the smallest cities in Connecticut. Of the whole 10.76 square miles (27.9 km²), nearly half is water; 5.54 square miles (14.3 km²) is land ST-7S&-amp;-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_caller=geoselect&-context=gct&-amp;-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1_ST7&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1_ST7&-redoLog=true&-amp;-_lang=en%20U.S.%20Census%20Bureau&-_lang=en&-geo_id=05000US09011&-CONTEXT=gct&-format=CO-2&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-amp;-tree_id=4001&-amp;-geo_id=04000US09&-amp;-context=gct&-amp;-CONTEXT=gct.

The town and city of New London are coextensive. Between 1705 and 1801 sections of the original town were ceded to form newer towns. The towns of Grotonmarker, Ledyardmarker, Montvillemarker, and Waterfordmarker; and portions of Salemmarker and East Lymemarker; now occupy what had earlier been the outlying area of New London [13503].

New London is bounded on the west and north by the town of Waterford, on the east by the Thames River and Groton, and on the south by Long Island Sound.

The geographic coordinates of the state superior courthouse in New London are 41° 21' 20" N, 72° 5' 58" W .



Principal communities



Other minor communities and geographic features are: Bates Woods Park, Fort Trumbull, Glenwood Park, Green's Harbor Beach, Mitchell's Woods, Riverside Park, Town Hill.

Transportation



By land, New London is practically midway between New York Citymarker and Bostonmarker. The major seaboard interstate highway, I-95, passes through the city, and New London's Amtrak stationmarker is on the passenger rail Northeast Corridor. The city of Worcester, Massachusettsmarker is 74 miles (119 km) northward, principally via Interstate 395, and the Connecticut capital, Hartfordmarker, is 53 miles (85 km) to the northwest via a sequence of state highways.

New London is served by local taxi companies, regional Southeast Area Transit buses, interstate Greyhound Lines buses, the Cross Sound Ferry to Long Islandmarker, the Fishers Islandmarker Ferry District, and in summer by the Block Islandmarker Express ferry.

The Groton-New London Airportmarker is located in neighboring Grotonmarker; and two major airports, T.marker F.marker Greenmarker and Tweed-New Haven Regional Airport are within 75 minutes driving time.

Rail freight is by the Providence & Worcester Railroad and the New England Central Railroad. Seagoing cargo at the State Pier is handled by Logistec.

New London is also currently visited by Royal Caribbean Cruise Ships.

Demographics

Population since 1810
Population 1756–1800 [13504]
1756 †‡ 3,171
1774 †‡ 5,888
1782 †‡ 5,688
1800 ‡ 5,150
† Includes area taken to form other towns in 1786 and 1801

‡ Includes area taken to form other towns in 1801


As of the census of 2000, there were 25,671 people, 10,181 households, and 5,385 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,635.5/sq mi (1,789.1/km²). There were 11,560 housing units at an average density of 2,087.4/sq mi (805.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 19.71% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 18.64% African American, 0.88% Native American, 2.12% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.13% from other races, 63.49% White and 5.67% from two or more races. The largest white ethnic origins are Irish (13.9%), Italian (11.7%), English (8.6%), German (7.3%), Polish (4.3%), and French(4.1%). [13505]

There were 10,181 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.4% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 17.6% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,809, and the median income for a family was $38,942. Males had a median income of $31,405 versus $25,426 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,437. About 13.4% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Municipal Building on State Street in New London


Ballot on New London voting machine


New London has a form of government centering on a professional city manager and elected city council. Distinct town and city government structures formerly existed, and technically continue. However, they now govern exactly the same territory, and have elections on the same ballot on Election Day in November, the first Tuesday after the first Monday, of odd-numbered years; the officials of town and city interact essentially as do the officials of a single town or city who have different but related responsibilities and powers.

Notable residents





See also: Connecticut Collegemarker people.

Culture

Literature

Entrance to New London Historic Waterfront District
























Local music

New London from the harbor


It is also home to one of the larger music festivals on the East Coast, I AM Festival which features notable acts from the city's burgeoning independent music scene along with touring national acts. This festival is run by New London Music Festival and booked by Sean Murray and Rich Martin. Past acts include Rye Coalition, Jay Reatard, Girl Talk, Deerhoof, MC Chris, Rainer Maria, Quiet Life, Roadside Attractions and more. The Rock Fix is another popular annual musical showcase sponsored by independent label Cosmodemonic Telegraph and held in conjunction with the annual Hygienic Art show. To keep up on the ever growing New London music and arts scene, locals stay tuned to WailingCity.com, an online zine which promotes, supports, informs and documents New London music & arts. New London has been home to an active and vital original music scene since the 70s.

Eclectic and diverse, New London is home to many musicians. The more well-known include:

Quiet Life, a folk rock band, was formed in New London in 2004 but now resides in Portland, ORmarker.

Other notable acts past and present include: The Reducers, Paisley Jungle, Live Nude Girls, New Johnny 5, The Cartoons, Grand Passion, Fatal Film, The Suicide Dolls, The Brain Police, Swinging Johnsons, Sloth, Eli Treatment, Ringers, Brazen Hussy, Gone for Good, Paul Brockett Roadshow Band, Flesh Hammer, DOT, The Liz Larsons, Low-Beam, Total Bolsheviks, The Hoolios, Quiet Life and many more.

Sites of interest

Downtown New London (2009)
Royal Hotel downtown
Military monument in downtown New London




References

Further reading

View of New London in 1813


















External links







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