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New York ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United Statesmarker and is the nation's third most populous. The state is bordered by New Jerseymarker and Pennsylvaniamarker to the south, and Connecticutmarker, Massachusettsmarker and Vermontmarker to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Islandmarker east of Long Islandmarker, as well as an international border with the Canadianmarker provinces of Ontariomarker to the west, and Quebecmarker to the north. New York is often referred to as New York State to distinguish it from New York Citymarker.

New York City, which is geographically the largest city in the state and most populous in the United States, is known for its history as a gateway for immigrationmarker to the United States and its status as a financial, cultural, transportation, and manufacturing center. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, it is also a destination of choice for many foreign visitors. Both state and city were named for the 17th century Duke of York, James Stuart, future James II and VII of Englandmarker and Scotlandmarker.

New York was inhabited by the Algonquin, Iroquois, and Lenape Native American groups at the time Dutch and French nationals moved into the region in the early 17th century. First claimed by Henry Hudson in 1609, the region came to have Dutch forts at Fort Orangemarker, near the site of the present-day capital of Albanymarker in 1614, and was colonized by the Dutch in 1624 at both Albany and Manhattanmarker; it later fell to Britishmarker annexation in 1664.

The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were roughly similar to those of the present-day state. About one third of all of the battles of the Revolutionary War took place in New York. New York became an independent state on July 9, 1776 and enacted its constitution in 1777. The state ratified the United States Constitution on July 26, 1788 to become the 11th state.

Geography

New York covers and ranks as the 27th largest state by size. The Great Appalachian Valley dominates eastern New York, while Lake Champlainmarker is the chief northern feature of the valley, which also includes the Hudson River flowing southward to the Atlantic Oceanmarker. The rugged Adirondack Mountains, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the valley. Most of the southern part of the state is on the Allegheny Plateau, which rises from the southeast to the Catskill Mountains. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware systems. The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system. The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcymarker in the Adirondacks.

New York's borders touch (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes (Eriemarker and Ontariomarker, which are connected by the Niagara Rivermarker); the provinces of Ontariomarker and Quebecmarker in Canada; Lake Champlainmarker; three New Englandmarker states (Vermontmarker, Massachusettsmarker, and Connecticutmarker); the Atlantic Oceanmarker, and two Mid-Atlantic States, New Jerseymarker and Pennsylvaniamarker. In addition, Rhode Islandmarker shares a water border with New York.

Contrasting with New York Citymarker's urban atmosphere, the vast majority of the state is dominated by farms, forests, rivers, mountains, and lakes. New York's Adirondack Park is the largest state park in the United States. It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier and Olympic National Parks combined. New York established the first state park in the United States at Niagara Falls in 1885. Niagara Fallsmarker, on the Niagara River as it flows from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, is a popular attraction. The Hudson River begins with Lake Tear of the Cloudsmarker and flows south through the eastern part of the state without draining Lakes Georgemarker or Champlainmarker. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu and then the St. Lawrencemarker Rivers. Four of New York City's five boroughs are on the three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River: Manhattan Islandmarker, Staten Islandmarker, and Brooklynmarker and Queensmarker on Long Islandmarker.

Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York state. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention. Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania. and the North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canadian border to everything north of the Mohawk River.

Climate

In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate. Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest.

The winters are long and cold in the Plateau Divisions of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands (Southern Plateau).

The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills and higher elevations of the Southern Plateau. The New York City area and lower portions of the Hudson Valley have rather warm summers by comparison, with some periods of high, uncomfortable humidity. The remainder of New York State enjoys pleasantly warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions. Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upper 70s to mid 80s °F (25 to 30 °C), over much of the state.

New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This efficiency is primarily due to the state's higher rate of mass transit use.

State parks



New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermontmarker and the largest state park in the United States, was established in 1892 and given state constitutional protection in 1894. The thinking that led to the creation of the Park first appeared in George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature, published in 1864. Marsh argued that deforestation could lead to desertification; referring to the clearing of once-lush lands surrounding the Mediterranean, he asserted "the operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the moon."

The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885, which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of of land, the park is a habitat for bobcats, minks and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region. The state operates numerous campgrounds and there are over of multi-use trails in the Park.

The Montauk Point State Parkmarker boasts the famous Montauk Lighthousemarker, commissioned by President George Washington, which is a major tourist attraction and is located in the township of East Hamptonmarker, Suffolk Countymarker. Hither Hillsmarker park offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

History



17th century

During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois and other indigenous peoples expanded into the colony of New Netherlands. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albanymarker); Fort Orangemarker (1624, on the Hudson River just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck (1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdammarker (1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam which is present-day New York Citymarker); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingstonmarker). The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyckmarker (1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid 19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony.

American Revolution

The British captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and governed it as the Province of New York. Agitation for independence, during the 1770s, brought the American Revolution.

New York endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776. The New York state constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains, New Yorkmarker on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, terminated its labors at Kingston, New Yorkmarker on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution drafted by John Jay was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston.

The Capture of Fort Ticonderogamarker provided the cannon and gunpowdermarker necessary to force a Britishmarker withdrawal from the Siege of Bostonmarker in 1775.

The first major battle of the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared – and the largest battle of the entire war – was fought in New York at the Battle of Long Island (a.k.a Battle of Brooklyn) in 1776). British victory made New York City their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the center of attention for General George Washington's intelligence network. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratogamarker in 1777, influencing France to ally with the revolutionaries.

The notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay saw more American combatants die of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war, combined. Four of the Iroquois nations fought on the side of the British; only the Onondagas were allies of the colonists. Many Iroquois were defeated in the Sullivan Expedition of 1779. As Loyalist allies of the losing British, the Iroquois were pushed to Canada after the war. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases are the subject of modern-day claims by the individual tribes. More than 5 million acres of former Iroquois territory was put up for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in upstate New York. As per the Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies – their troops in New York City – departed in 1783, which was long afterwards celebrated as Evacuation Day.

New York state was one of the original thirteen colonies that became the United States. It was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.

19th century

Transportation in western New York was difficult before canals were built in the early part of the nineteenth century. The Hudson and Mohawk Rivers could be navigated only as far as Central New York. While the St. Lawrence Rivermarker could be navigated to Lake Ontariomarker, the way westward to the other Great Lakesmarker was blocked by Niagara Fallsmarker, and so the only route to western New York was over land.

Governor DeWitt Clinton strongly advocated building a canal to connect the Hudson River with Lake Eriemarker, and thus all the Great Lakesmarker. Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal was finished in 1825. It was considered an engineering marvel. Packet boats traveled up and down the canal with sightseers and visitors on board. The canal opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalomarker and Rochestermarker to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York.

Ellis Island



Ellis Island was the main facility for immigrants, entering the United Statesmarker in the late 19th Century to the mid 20th Century. The facility operated from January 1, 1892, until November 12, 1954. It is owned by the Federal government and is now part of the Statue of Liberty National Monumentmarker, under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. It is situated in New York Harbor, between two states and cities, Jersey Citymarker, New Jerseymarker and New York Citymarker, New York.

More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Islandmarker, between 1892 and 1954. After 1924, when the National Origins Act was passed, the only immigrants to pass through there were displaced persons or war refugees. Today, over 100 million Americans can trace their ancestry to the immigrants, who first arrived in America through the island, before dispersing to points all over the country. Ellis Island was the subject of a border dispute between New York State and New Jersey.

Statue of Liberty



The Statue of Liberty was a gift from France to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence. The idea of giving a colossal representation of republican virtues to a "sister" republic, across the sea, served as a focus for the republican cause against other politicians. The Statue of Liberty was dedicated in New York Harbor on October 28, 1886.

Liberty Islandmarker closed on September 11, 2001; the island reopened in December, the monument reopened on August 3, 2004, but the statue remained closed until the summer of 2009. The National Park Service claims that the statue is not shut because of a terrorist threat, but principally because of a long list of fire regulation contraventions, including inadequate evacuation procedures. The museum and ten-story pedestal are open for visitors, but are only accessible if visitors have a "Monument Access Pass", which is a reservation that visitors must make in advance of their visit and pick up before boarding the ferry. There are a maximum of 3000 passes available each day, with a total of 15,000 visitors to the island daily. The interior of the statue remains closed, although a glass ceiling in the pedestal allows for views of Gustave Eiffel's iron framework of Lady Liberty.

Demographics







Population

New York population density map


As of 2006, New York was the third largest state in population after California and Texas, with an estimated population of 19,490,297 as of July 1, 2008. This represents an increase of 513,481, or 2.7%, since the last census in 2000. It includes a natural increase since the last census of 803,680 people (that is 2,072,765 births minus 1,269,085 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 698,895 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 876,969 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 1,575,864 people.

In spite of the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area.

New York is a slow growing state with a large rate of domestic migration to other states. In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another. However, New York state is one of the leading destinations for international immigration and thus has the second largest immigrant population in the country (after California) at 4.2 million as of 2008. Although Upstate New York receives considerable immigration, most of the state's immigrants settle in and around New York City, due to its more vibrant economy and cosmopolitan culture.

The center of population of New York is located in Orange Countymarker, in the town of Deerpark. New York City and its eight suburban counties (excluding those in New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania) have a combined population of 13,209,006 people, or 68.42% of the state's population.

Racial and ancestral makeup

New York population ethnicity map
The major ancestry groups in New York state are African Americanmarker (15.8%), Italian (14.4%), Irish (12.9%), and German (11.1%). According to a 2004 estimate, 20.4% of the population is foreign-born.

New York is home to the largest African American population and the second largest Asian American population in the United States. In addition it is home to the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican and Jamaican American populations in the United States. The New York City neighborhood of Harlemmarker has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford Stuyvesantmarker is the largest such population in the United States.

Queensmarker, also in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population, and is also the most diverse county in the United States. The second concentration of Asian-Americans is in Manhattan's Chinatown.

In the 2000 Census, Italian Americans made up the largest ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and southeast-central New York also have populations with many of Irish-American and Italian-American descent. In Buffalo and western New York, German Americans are the largest group; in the northern tip of the state, French Canadians are. New York State has a higher number of Italian Americans than any other U.S. state.

6.5% of New York's population were under 5 years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.8% of the population.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 13.61% of the population aged 5 and over speak Spanish at home, while 2.04% speak Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.65% Italian, and 1.23% Russian.

Religion

Catholics comprise more than 40% of the population in New York. Protestants are 30% of the population, Jews 8.4%, Muslims 3.5%, Buddhists 1%, and 13% claim no religious affiliation. The largest Protestant denominations are the United Methodist Church with 403,362; the American Baptist Churches USA with 203,297; and the Episcopal Church with 201,797 adherents.

Cities and towns

For lists of cities, towns, and counties in New York, see List of cities in New York, List of towns in New York, List of villages in New York, List of counties in New York, List of census-designated places in New York and Administrative divisions of New York.


The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York Citymarker, which comprises five counties, the Bronx, New York (Manhattan), Queens, Kings (Brooklyn), and Richmond (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population.

The ten largest cities are:

  1. New York Citymarker (8,274,527)
  2. Buffalomarker (279,745)
  3. Rochestermarker (211,091)
  4. Yonkersmarker (196,425)
  5. Syracusemarker (141,683)
  6. Albanymarker (93,523)
  7. New Rochellemarker (72,967)
  8. Mount Vernonmarker (67,924)
  9. Schenectadymarker (61,280)
  10. Uticamarker (59,336)


The location of these cities within the state stays remarkably true to the major transportation and trade routes in the early nineteenth century, primarily the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. Today, Interstate 90 acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes.

Grouped by metropolitan statistical area, the twelve largest population centers in the state are:

  1. New York Citymarker (18,815,988 in NY/NJmarker/PAmarker, 12,381,586 in NY)
  2. Buffalo-Niagara Falls (1,128,183)
  3. Rochester (1,030,495)
  4. Albany and the Capital Districtmarker (853,358)
  5. Poughkeepsie and the Hudson Valley (669,915)
  6. Syracuse (645,293)
  7. Utica-Rome (294,862)
  8. Binghamton (246,426)
  9. Kingstonmarker (181,860)
  10. Glens Falls (128,886)
  11. Ithacamarker (101,055)
  12. Elmiramarker (88,015)


The smallest city is Sherrill, New Yorkmarker, located just west of the Town of Vernon in Oneida Countymarker. Albanymarker is the state capital, and the Town of Hempsteadmarker is the civil township with the largest population. If it were a city, it would be the second largest in the state with over 700,000 residents.

The southern tip of New York State—New York City, its suburbs including Long Islandmarker, the southern portion of the Hudson Valley, and most of northern New Jerseymarker—can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis", a super-city stretching from the northern suburbs of Bostonmarker south to the Virginiamarker suburbs of Washington D.C.marker.

Economy



New York's gross state product in 2007 was $1.1 trillion, ranking third in size behind the larger states of California and Texas. If New York were an independent nation, it would rank as the 16th largest economy in the world behind Turkeymarker. Its 2007 per capita personal income was $46,364, placing it sixth in the nation behind Maryland, and eighth in the world behind Irelandmarker. New York's agricultural outputs are dairy products, cattle and other livestock, vegetables, nursery stock, and apples. Its industrial outputs are printing and publishing, scientific instruments, electric equipment, machinery, chemical products, and tourism.

A recent review by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities found 13 states, including several of the nation's largest, face budget shortfalls for FY2009. New York faces a deficit that could be as large as $4.3 billion.

New York exports a wide variety of goods such as foodstuffs, commodities, minerals, computers and electronics, cut diamonds, and automobile parts. In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1 billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada ($15 billion), United Kingdom ($6 billion), Switzerland ($5.9 billion), Israel ($4.9 billion), and Hong Kong ($3.4 billion). New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber.

Canada is a very important economic partner for the state. 21% of the state's total worldwide exports went to Canada in 2007. Tourism from the north is also a large part of the economy. Canadians spent US$487 million in 2004 while visiting the state.

New York City is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the United States and is the location of the New York Stock Exchangemarker, the largest stock exchange in the world by dollar volume. Many of the world's largest corporations are based in the city.

The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments, furs, railroad equipment and bus line vehicles. Many of these industries are concentrated in upstate regions. Albany and the Hudson Valley are major centers of nanotechnology and microchip manufacturing, while the Rochestermarker area is important in photographic equipment and imaging.

New York is a major agricultural producer, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products such as dairy, apples, cherries, cabbage, potatoes, onions, maple syrup and many others. The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced US$3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain.

New York is the nation's third-largest grape-producing state, behind California, and second-largest wine producer by volume. The south shore of Lake Erie and the southern Finger Lakesmarker hillsides have many vineyards. In addition, the North Fork of Long Islandmarker developed vineyards, production and visitors' facilities in the last three decades of the 20th century. In 2004, New York's wine and grape industry brought US$6 billion into the state economy.

The state has of vineyards, 212 wineries, and produced 200 million bottles of wine in 2004. A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishery is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder. These areas of the economy have been increasing as environmental protection has led to an increase in ocean wildlife.

Transportation

New York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering difficulties because of the terrain of the state and the unique issues of the city brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome since the state was young. Population expansion of the state generally followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River and then the Erie Canal. Today, railroad lines and the New York State Thruway follow the same general route. The New York State Department of Transportationmarker is often criticized for how they maintain the roads of the state in certain areas and for the fact that the tolls collected along the roadway have long passed their original purpose. Until 2006, tolls were collected on the Thruway within The City of Buffalomarker. They were dropped late in 2006 during the campaign for Governor (both candidates called for their removal).

In addition to New York City's famous mass transit subway, four suburban commuter railroad systems enter and leave the city: the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, Port Authority Trans-Hudsonmarker, and five of New Jersey Transit's rail lines. Many other cities have urban and regional public transportation. In Buffalo, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority runs the Buffalo Metro Rail light-rail system; in Rochester, the Rochester Subway operated from 1927 until 1956 but has fallen into disuse.

Portions of the transportation system are intermodal, allowing travelers to easily switch from one mode of transportation to another. One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK which allows rail passengers to travel directly to terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airportmarker.

In May 2009 the New York City Department of Transportation under the control of Transportation Commissioner Janette Sadik-Khan banned cars from Times Square. The move designed to reduce pollution and pedestrian accidents looks likely to be implemented permantly, and will last at least until the end of the year.

Politics and government



Under its present constitution (adopted in 1938), New York is governed by three branches: the executive branch, consisting of the Governor of New York and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch, consisting of the bicameral New York State Legislature; and the judicial branch, consisting of the state's highest court, the New York Court of Appealsmarker, and lower courts.

New York's capital is Albanymarker. The state's subordinate political units are its 62 counties. Other officially incorporated governmental units are towns, cities, and villages. New York has more than 4,200 local governments that take one of these forms. About 52% of all revenue raised by local governments in the state is raised solely by the government of New York City, which is the largest municipal government in the United States, whereas New York City houses only 42% of the state population.

The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. New York State receives 82 cents in services for every $1 it sends in taxes to the federal government in Washington. The state ranks near the bottom, in 42nd place, in federal spending per tax dollar.

Many of New York's public services are carried out by public benefit corporations, frequently called authorities or development corporations. Well known public benefit corporations in New York include the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which oversees New York City's public transportation system, and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, a bi-state transportation infrastructure agency.

New York's legal system is explicitly based on English common Law.

Federal representation

As of the 2000 census and the redistricting for the 2002 elections, the state has 29 members in the United States House of Representatives, and two U.S. senators. New York has 31 electoral votes in national presidential elections (a drop from its 47 votes during the 1940s).

Capital punishment

Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the Pataki administration but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appealsmarker ruled in People v. LaValle that it violated the state constitution. The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in People v. John Taylor, and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor Paterson. No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. Legislative efforts to reinstate the death penalty have failed.

Politics



In the last few decades, New York State has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama won New York State by 25 percentage points in 2008, a bigger margin than John Kerry in 2004. New York Citymarker is a major Democratic stronghold with liberal politics. Many of the state's other urban areas, such as Albanymarker, Buffalomarker, Rochestermarker, and Syracusemarker are also Democratic. Rural upstate New York, however, is generally more conservative than the cities and tends to favor Republicans. Heavily populated Suburban areas such as Westchester Countymarker and Long Islandmarker have swung between the major parties over the past 25 years, but more often than not support Democrats.

New York City is the most important source of political fund-raising in the United States for both major parties. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Sidemarker, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and Al Gore.

New York is represented by Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in the United States Senate and has 29 representatives to the United States House of Representatives, behind Californiamarker's 53 congressional districts and Texasmarker' 32 congressional districts.

Education

The University of the State of New York oversees all public primary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York City Department of Education manages the public school system in New York City.

At the college level, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York (SUNY). The City University of New York (CUNY) is the public university system of New York City. The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges and universities. The four university centers are University at Albanymarker, Binghamton Universitymarker, University at Buffalo and SUNY Stony Brookmarker.

In addition there are many notable private universities, including the oldest Catholic institution in the northeast, Fordham Universitymarker. New York is home to both Columbia University and Cornell Universitymarker, making it the only state to contain more than one Ivy League school. West Pointmarker, the service academy of the U.S. Army is located just south of Newburgh, NY on the banks of the Hudson River.

Sports

New York hosted the 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placidmarker, the Games known for the USA-USSR hockey game dubbed the "Miracle on Ice" in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily-favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal.Lake Placid also hosted the 1932 Winter Olympics. Along with St. Moritz, Switzerlandmarker and Innsbruck, Austriamarker, it is one of the three places to have twice hosted the Winter Olympic Games.

New York is the home of one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, (based in the suburb of Orchard Parkmarker). Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent the New York metropolitan areamarker, they play in Giants Stadiummarker, which is located in East Rutherfordmarker, New Jerseymarker.There has been much controversy over the building of several building proposals for a new New York Jets football stadiummarker, the owners of the New York Jets were willing to split the $1.5 billion cost of building a new football stadium over Manhattan's West Side rail yards however the proposal never came to fruition.

New York also has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in The Bronxmarker), and the New York Mets (based in New York City borough Queensmarker). Brooklyn and Queens are City Counties on the westernmost part of Long Islandmarker. New York is home to three National Hockey League franchises (the New York Rangers in Manhattanmarker, the New York Islanders on Long Islandmarker and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo, New Yorkmarker). New York has a National Basketball Association team, the New York Knicks in Manhattanmarker.The former New York Nets from 1968 to 1977 is now titled as a New Jersey team however plans to relocate to New York City are in the works. There a variety of minor league teams that can be found all through the State of New York such as the Long Island Ducks.

Club Sport League
Buffalo Bills Football National Football League
New York Red Bulls Soccer Major League Soccer
New York Knicks Basketball National Basketball Association
New York Liberty Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Rochester Raging Rhinos Soccer USL First Division
Buffalo Sabres Ice hockey National Hockey League
New York Islanders Ice Hockey National Hockey League
New York Rangers Ice Hockey National Hockey League
Adirondack Phantoms Ice Hockey American Hockey League
Albany River Rats Ice Hockey American Hockey League
Binghamton Senators Ice Hockey American Hockey League
Elmira Jackals Ice Hockey ECHL
Rochester Americans Ice Hockey American Hockey League
Syracuse Crunch Ice Hockey American Hockey League
New York Mets Baseball Major League Baseball
New York Yankees Baseball Major League Baseball
Brooklyn Cyclones Baseball New York - Penn League
Staten Island Yankees Baseball New York – Penn League
Jamestown Jammers Baseball New York – Penn League
Batavia Muckdogs Baseball New York – Penn League
Auburn Doubledays Baseball New York – Penn League
Oneonta Tigers Baseball New York – Penn League
Tri-City Valley Cats Baseball New York – Penn League
Hudson Valley Renegades Baseball New York – Penn League
Binghamton Mets Baseball Eastern League
Buffalo Bisons Baseball International League
Rochester Red Wings Baseball International League
Syracuse Chiefs Baseball International League
Long Island Ducks Baseball Atlantic League of Professional Baseball
New York Dragons Arena football Arena Football League
Albany Conquest Arena football af2
Long Island Lizards Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse
Rochester Rattlers Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse
Buffalo Bandits Lacrosse National Lacrosse League
Rochester Knighthawks Lacrosse National Lacrosse League
New York Titans Lacrosse National Lacrosse League
Brooklyn Wonders Basketball American Basketball Association
Buffalo Silverbacks Basketball American Basketball Association
Rochester Razorsharks Basketball American Basketball Association
Strong Island Sound Basketball American Basketball Association
Albany Patroons Basketball Continental Basketball Association
New York Gaelic football Gaelic Athletic Association
New York hurling Gaelic Athletic Association


Navy vessel namesakes

There have been at least six United States Navy ships named USS New York in honor of the state. The keel was laid for the USS New York on September 10, 2004 and she will be the seventh US Navy ship to be named for the state. The New York's motto will be "Never Forget."

According to Naval records, several other ships have carried the name the USS New York. This new ship was given the name the USS New York when former New York governor George Pataki wrote to Secretary of the Navy Gordon England and requested that the Navy use the name to honor the victims of September 11 and to give it to a surface ship that would be used to fight the War on Terror. This is an exception to the current use of state names for submarines only.

The first ship to carry the name USS New York was an armed gondola built by Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold in 1776. She was burned to avoid capture later in the Revolutionary War.

The second ship named USS New York was a 36-gun frigate built in New York and commissioned in 1800. She saw service in the Mediterraneanmarker in the war against the Barbary Pirates. She was burned by the British in 1814 while she was in the Washington Navy Yardmarker.

The third USS New York was one of nine built to discourage a future war with Britain after the war of 1812. The threat abated, so she was never launched. Union forces later burned the 74-gun ship of the line to avoid her capture at the start of the American Civil War.

Beginning in 1863, a screw sloop was being built that would have carried the name USS New York, but it also never got launched, being sold in 1888.

The fifth USS New York was an armored cruiser commissioned in 1893. She was used in the Spanish-American War and was the flagship of Rear Admiral William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba (July 3, 1898), which destroyed the Spanish fleet. She was later renamed the USS Saratoga in 1911 and then renamed again as the USS Rochester in 1917.

The sixth was the battleship USS New York , commissioned in 1914. She saw service in both World War I and World War II. She participated in atomic testing off the Bikini Islandsmarker surviving both an atmospheric explosion and an underwater detonation. She was used as a target ship in 1948 and was sunk off Pearl Harbormarker, Hawaiimarker.

Finally, the Los Angeles-class nuclear attack submarine USS New York City was in service from 1979 until 1997.

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