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The Mayor of the City of New York is elected in early November every four years and takes office at the beginning of the following year. The citymarker which elects the Mayor as its chief executive consists of the Five Boroughs (Manhattanmarker, The Bronxmarker, Brooklynmarker, Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker) which consolidated to form "Greater" New York on January 1, 1898.

The consolidated city's first mayor, Robert A. Van Wyck, was elected with other municipal officers in November 1897. Mayoral elections had previously been held since 1834 by the City of Brooklyn and the smaller, unconsolidated City of New York (Manhattan, later expanded into the Bronx).

The current mayor, now completing his second term, is Michael R. Bloomberg (elected in 2001 and 2005). He was reelected on November 3, 2009, for a third term beginning on January 1, 2010.

Overview

Scope of this article

The vast bulk of this page's contents is statistical: the main results, city-wide and by borough, of each of the 31 elections to the Mayoralty of the City of New York since Greater New York was consolidated from The Five Boroughs in 1897-1898.

For many years, but not all, there are also results for minor candidates and for the different parties nominating the same major candidate. (Because minor parties' votes are not uniformly available, totals and thus percentages can be slightly inconsistent, either between different elections or between individual boroughs and the whole City in the same election.)

There are brief comments about some of the elections, and separate articles have been written for those of 1917, 1977, 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2009. Different elections are compared in many of the individual notes, in two summary tables and in one specialized table.

New York City's Mayoral elections have been marked by an interplay of factors that are magnified by the sheer size of the population. There was a history of a large socialist vote, there is a history of tension between 'regular' and 'reform' politicians, and there is the factor, not seen in most of the United States, of electoral fusion with the resulting plethora of smaller, yet influential, third parties.

Terms and term limits (since 1834)

Direct elections to the mayoralty of the unconsolidated City of New York began in 1834 for a term of one year, extended to two years after 1849. The 1897 Charter of the consolidated City doubled the term to four years which could not be renewed. In 1901, the term limit was removed, but the term halved to two years. In 1905, the four-year term, without limit, was restored. (Mayors Fiorello La Guardia, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. and Ed Koch were later able to serve for twelve years each.) In 1993, the voters approved a two-term (eight-year) limit, and reconfirmed this limit when the issue was submitted to referendum in 1996. In 2008, the New York City Council voted to extend the two-term limit to three terms (without submitting the issue to the voters). Legal challenges to the Council's action were rejected by Federal courts in January and April, 2009..
1834 1 year (no limit) (unlimited) all from Cornelius Van Wyck Lawrence to Caleb S. Woodhull
1849 2 years (no limit) (unlimited) all from Ambrose Kingsland to William L. Strong 2
1897 4 years Robert A. Van Wyck
1901 2 years (no limit) (unlimited) Seth Low and George B. McClellan, Jr.3
1905 4 years (no limit) (unlimited) all from George B. McClellan, Jr.3 to David Dinkins 4
1993 4 years Rudolph Giuliani 5
2008 4 years Michael Bloomberg 6 and his successors
Principal source: The Encyclopedia of New York City (see Sources below), entries for "charter" and "mayoralty".
  1. See List of mayors of New York City.
  2. Mayor Strong, elected in 1894, served an extra year because no municipal election was held in 1896, in anticipation of the consolidated City's switch to odd-year elections.
  3. George B. McClellan, Jr. was elected to one two-year term (1904-1905) and one four-year term (1906-1909)
  4. David Dinkins was not affected by the term limit enacted in 1993 because he had served only one term by 1993 and failed to win re-election.
  5. The aerial assaults upon Manhattan of September 11th, 2001, coincided with the primary elections for a successor to Mayor Giuliani, who was completing his second and final term of office. Many were so impressed by both the urgency of the situation and Giuliani's response that they wanted keep him in office beyond December 31, 2001, either by removing the term limit or by extending his service for a few months. However, neither happened, the primary elections (with the same candidates) were re-run on September 25, the general election was held as scheduled on November 6, and Michael Bloomberg took office on the regularly-appointed date of January 1, 2002.
  6. On October 2, 2008, Michael Bloomberg announced that he would ask the City Council to extend the limit for Mayor, Council and other officers from two terms to three, and that, should such an extended limit prevail, he himself would seek re-election as Mayor. On October 23, the New York City Council voted 29-22 to extend the two-term limit to three terms. (A proposed amendment to submit the vote to a public referendum had failed earlier the same day by a vote of 22-28 with one abstention.)


Interrupted terms

Mayors John T. Hoffman (1866-68, elected Governor 1868), William Havemeyer (1845-46, 1848-49 & 1873-74), William Jay Gaynor (1910-13), Jimmy Walker (1926-32) and William O'Dwyer (1946-50) failed to complete the final terms to which they were elected. The uncompleted mayoral terms of Hoffman, Walker and O'Dwyer were added to the other offices elected in (respectively) 1868, 1932 and 1950.

Dec.1868 (special) A. Oakey Hall (D)
Nov. 1874 (regular) William H. Wickham (D)
Nov. 1913 (regular) John P. Mitchel (Fusion)
Nov. 1932 (special) John P. O'Brien (D)
Nov. 1950 (special) Vincent Impellitteri (Experience)


† Became Acting Mayor as the President of the Board of Aldermen or (in 1950) City Council.

(D) = (Democratic)

(R) = (Republican)

  • Mayor Havemeyer was a Democrat who ran as a Republican against the Democratic Tweed Ring in 1872.
  • Acting Mayors Coman, Vance and Kline did not seek election as Mayor.
  • Acting Mayors McKee and Impellitteri were Democrats who lost the Democratic primary to succeed themselves, but still ran in the general election as independents.
  • Elected Mayor Oakey Hall won re-election, while Mayor Wickham did not seek it. Mayors Mitchel and O'Brien lost attempts at re-election, while Mayor Impellitteri did not run for a full term in the 1953 regular general election after losing the Democratic primary.


Summary tables

Principal candidates' City-wide vote since 1897

This chart has several purposes. One is to provide ordinary readers with simple, basic information from a very detailed page. Another is to provide a handy index for those looking for a particular candidate or campaign. (Just click on the year, the candidate's name, or the party name or abbreviation for more details.)

A slightly more sophisticated purpose is to sketch out on one screen the flow of votes across parties and candidates, as affected by fusion, splitting, cross-endorsement and the emergence of new movements or personalities.

Votes in thousands for principal candidates only, generally those winning more than 4.0% (1/25) of the total vote. (Therefore, low votes may not be shown in a particular year for an otherwise significant party, such as Socialist or Conservative. For some of the lesser left-wing candidates before 1945, see #Collapse of the Socialist Party vote below.) Total vote includes that for all candidates and parties, major and minor.

Winner in bold-face in a colored box. Sitting mayor (elected or acting) at the time of the election in italics.

To determine the meaning of abbreviations, click the link or check the list below this table. (Different first names, initials and nicknames may be used for the same person purely to fit the available space.)

year Total
'000
Democratic '000 Fusion, Liberal, Independent, etc. '000 Republican '000 other major candidates '000
1897 532 Robert A. Van Wyck Seth Low, Citizens Union Benjamin F. Tracy Henry George, Jeff'n D
1901 562 Edward Shepard Seth Low, Fusion
1903 595 Geo. B. McClellan, Jr Seth Low, Fusion
1905 606 George B. McClellan, Jr. Wm Randolph Hearst, Municipal Ownership League William M. Ivins (Senior)
1909 604 William Jay Gaynor Wm R. Hearst, Civic All'ce Otto Bannard, R-Fusion
1913 627 Edward E. McCall John P. Mitchel, Fusion Chas E. Russell, Soc
1917 692 John Francis Hylan John P. Mitchel, Fusion William M. Bennett Morris Hillquit, Soc.
1921 1,196 John Francis Hylan Henry Curran, R-Coalition Jacob Panken, Soc.
1925 1,161 Jimmy Walker Frank D. Waterman Norman Thomas, Soc
1929 1,465 Jimmy Walker Fiorello H. La Guardia Norman Thomas, Soc
1932 2,254 John P. O'Brien 1,054 Joseph McKee, Ind write-in Lewis H. Pounds Morris Hillquit, Soc.
1933 2,205 John P. O'Brien Jos.V. McKee, Recovery F.H. La Guardia, R-Fusion Chas Solomon, Soc.
1937 2,300 Jeremiah Mahoney, D-Trades Union-Anticommunist Fiorello H. La Guardia, R-ALP-Fusion-Progressive 1,345
1941 2,294 William O'Dwyer 1,054 Fiorello H. La Guardia, R-ALP-Fusion-United City 1,187
1945 2,037 William O'Dwyer, D-ALP 1,125 Newbold Morris, No Deal Jonah Goldstein, R-Lib.-Fus.
1949 2,663 William O'Dwyer 1,267 Newbold Morris, R-Lib.-Fusion Vito Marcantonio ALP
1950 2,697 Ferdinand Pecora, D-Lib. Vincent Impellitteri, Exp 1,161 Edward Corsi Paul Ross, ALP
1953 2,224 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 1,023 Rudolph Halley, Lib.-Ind. Harold Riegelman
1957 2,224 Robt Wagner, D-Lib-Fus 1,509 Robert Christenberry
1961 2,467 Robert F. Wagner, Jr., D-Liberal-Brotherhood 1,237 Lawrence Gerosa, Ind.- Citizens Party Louis Lefkowitz, R-Nonpartisan-Civic Action
1965 2,652 Abraham Beame, D-Civil Service Fusion 1,046 John V. Lindsay, R-Liberal-Independent Citizens 1,149 Wm F. Buckley, Jr, Conservative
1969 2,458 Mario Procaccino, D-Nonpartisan-Civil Service Ind John V. Lindsay, Liberal 1,013 John Marchi, R-Conservative
1973 1,701 Abraham Beame Albert Blumenthal, Lib. John Marchi Mario Biaggi, Cons.
1977 1,370 Edward Koch Mario Cuomo, Liberal Roy M. Goodman Barry Farber, Cons.
1981 1,223 Edward Koch, D-R Frank Barbaro, Unity
1985 1,107 Edward Koch, D-Ind. Carol Bellamy, Liberal Diane McGrath, R-Cons.
1989 1,900 David Dinkins Rudolph Giuliani, R-L.-Ind Fu.
1993 1,889 David Dinkins Rudolph Giuliani, R-Lib.
1997 1,117 Ruth Messinger Rudolph Giuliani, R-Lib.
2001 1,481 Mark Green,
D-Working Families
Michael Bloomberg, R-Independence Party
2005 1,290 Fernando Ferrer Michael Bloomberg, R/LiberalIndependence Party
2009   Bill Thompson,
D-Working Families
Michael Bloomberg, ind.- R-Independence Party


Abbreviations used in this table: Fu. or Fus = Fusion, Ind. = Independent, Ind Fu. = Independent Fusion (1989), Independence = Independence Party of New York, L or Lib. = Liberal Party of New York, Cons. = Conservative Party of New York, ALP = American Labor Party, Soc. = Socialist Party of America, Jeff'n D = The Democracy of Thomas Jefferson (Henry George, 1897), Civic All'ce = Civic Alliance (Hearst 1909), Exp = Experience party (Impellitteri's label for his independent campaign in 1950)

How the Boroughs voted

See the table above for more information about the candidates and parties involved. Blue indicates a candidate endorsed by the Democratic Party; pink one endorsed by the Republicans; and buff (or beige) one endorsed by neither party. (Darker shades indicate where a borough voted for a candidate who lost the city-wide vote.) In 1981, Edward Koch ran on the tickets of both the Democrats and the Republicans.

Click a year to see the table or tables for that particular election (# indicates a link devoted to one specific election rather than to a set of two to six.)

Although separate boroughs since 1898, The Bronxmarker and Manhattanmarker shared New York County and reported elections together until the separate Bronx County was formed in April 1912 and started her separate existence on January 1, 1914. The Borough of Richmond changed her name to the Borough of Staten Islandmarker in 1975, although the co-extensive Richmond County still retains that name.

borough Manhattan and The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond [S.I.] City of New York
county  
1897 Van Wyck 48% Van Wyck 40% Van Wyck 41% Van Wyck 44% Van Wyck 45%
1901 Low 49% Low 55% Shepard 49% Low 52% Low 51%
1903 McClellan 56% McClellan 49% McClellan 56% Low 48% McClellan 53%
1905 McClellan 42% Hearst 39% Hearst 39% McClellan 44% McClellan 38%
1909 Gaynor 43% Gaynor 42% Gaynor 38% Gaynor 47% Gaynor 42%
borough Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond [S.I.] City of New York
county  
1913 Mitchel Mitchel Mitchel 60% Mitchel 60% Mitchel 54% Mitchel 57%
#1917 Hylan 46% Hylan 43% Hylan 47% Hylan 52% Hylan 58% Hylan 47%
#1921 Hylan 63% Hylan 68% Hylan 62% Hylan 69% Hylan 71% Hylan 64%
#1925 Walker 70% Walker 72% Walker 61% Walker 63% Walker 67% Walker 66%
#1929 Walker 64% Walker 63% Walker 58% Walker 62% Walker 58% Walker 61%
#1932 O'Brien 61% O'Brien 52% O'Brien 51% O'Brien 48% O'Brien 54% O'Brien 53%
#1933 La Guardia 38% La Guardia 39% La Guardia 44% La Guardia 39% La Guardia 44% La Guardia 40%
#1937 La Guardia 58% La Guardia 62% La Guardia 63% La Guardia 55% La Guardia 56% La Guardia 60%
#1941 La Guardia 56% La Guardia 58% La Guardia 55% O'Dwyer 60% O'Dwyer 60% La Guardia 52%
#1945 O'Dwyer 56% O'Dwyer 55% O'Dwyer 57% O'Dwyer 61% O'Dwyer 66% O'Dwyer 55%
#1949 O'Dwyer 45% O'Dwyer 49% O'Dwyer 49% O'Dwyer 53% O'Dwyer 65% O'Dwyer 48%
#1950 Impellitteri 40% Pecora 42% Pecora 41% Impellitteri 55% Impellitteri 60% Impellitteri 44%
#1953 Wagner 48% Wagner 46% Wagner 47% Wagner 41% Wagner 52% Wagner 46%
#1957 Wagner 74% Wagner 77% Wagner 75% Wagner 64% Wagner 65% Wagner 68%
#1961 Wagner 56% Wagner 56% Wagner 53% Wagner 46% Lefkowitz 42% Wagner 50.1%
#1965 Lindsay 56% Beame 47% Beame 47% Lindsay 47% Lindsay 46% Lindsay 43%
#1969 Lindsay 67% Procaccino 41% Procaccino 42% Lindsay 36% Marchi 62% Lindsay 41%
#1973 Beame 49% Beame 57% Beame 63% Beame 57% Beame 47% Beame 57%
borough Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island City of New York
county  
#1977 Koch Koch Koch Cuomo Cuomo Koch 52%
#1981 Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch 75%
#1985 Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch 78%
#1989 Dinkins Dinkins Dinkins Giuliani Giuliani Dinkins 48%
#1993 Dinkins Dinkins Dinkins Giuliani Giuliani Giuliani 49%
#1997 Giuliani Messinger Giuliani Giuliani Giuliani Giuliani 55%
#2001 Green 52% Green 55% Green 52% Bloomberg 55% Bloomberg 77% Bloomberg 50%
#2005 Bloomberg 60% Ferrer 60% Bloomberg 58% Bloomberg 64% Bloomberg 77% Bloomberg 58%
Although it was not uncommon for a candidate to carry all five boroughs in the same election, one can see some interesting variations. Since they started reporting separate returns in 1913, The Bronxmarker has supported only one Republican (Fiorello La Guardia) and Manhattanmarker has opposed only two successful candidates (Giuliani in 1993 and Bloomberg in 2001). On the other hand, in the last ten elections contested between Democratic and Republican candidates (i.e. excluding 1981, when Ed Koch was endorsed by both parties), Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker have voted for only two Democratic candidates, Abe Beame in 1973 and Koch in 1985. The City as a whole elected four of the Democratic candidates in those same ten elections, from 1965 to 2005. The Bronx supported all ten, Brooklynmarker eight, and Manhattanmarker six.

Recent elections

2009

The principal candidates were Mayor Michael Bloomberg, an independent running for the third time on the Republican and Independence Party lines, and New York City Comptroller Bill Thompson, running for the Democratic and Working Families Parties. Bloomberg had enjoyed pluralities of about 9% to 16% in most independent published pre-election polls and on Tuesday, November 3, he won his third term with 50.7% of votes over Thompson's 46%.

Other candidates included:



General election, Tuesday, November 3, 2009

2009 General election party Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total %
change in Bloomberg's margin of victory, 2001-2005 + 98,973 – 19,634 + 97,622 + 48,125 – 10,705 + 214,381 + 17.0%
change in Bloomberg's margin of victory, 2005-2009 – 35,010 + 6,268 – 91,392 – 59,742 – 19,397 – 199,273 – 15.0%
net change in Bloomberg's margin, 2001-2009 + 63,963 – 13,366 + 6,230 – 11,617 – 30,102 + 15,108 + 2.0%
Bloomberg's margin over Mark Green (2001) – 22,777 – 21,683 – 28,182 + 46,904 + 61,227 + 35,489 + 2.4%
Bloomberg's margin over Fernando Ferrer (2005) + 76,196 – 41,317 + 69,440 + 95,029 + 50,522 + 249,870 + 19.4%
Bloomberg's margin over Bill Thompson (2009) + 41,186 – 35,049 – 21,952 + 35,287 + 31,125 + 50,597 + 4.4%
Michael R. Bloomberg Republican 102,903 42,066 117,706 126,569 46,149 435,393 37.7%
35.9% 29.0% 34.6% 42.3% 55.4%
Independence/Jobs & Education 56,934 11,730 36,033 36,364 9,012 150,073 13.0%
19.9% 8.1% 10.6% 12.2% 10.8%
Total 159,837 53,796 153,739 162,933 55,161 585,466 50.7%
55.8% 37.0% 45.1% 54.5% 66.2%
William C. Thompson, Jr. Democratic 110,975 86,899 163,230 122,935 22,956 506,995 43.9%
38.7% 59.8% 47.9% 41.1% 27.5%
Working Families Party 7,676 1,946 12,461 4,711 1,080 27,874 2.4%
2.7% 1.3% 3.7% 1.6% 1.3%
Total 118,651 88,845 175,691 127,646 24,036 534,869 46.3%
41.4% 61.2% 51.6% 42.7% 28.8%
Stephen Christopher Conservative 2,217 1,480 5,690 5,267 3,359 18,013 1.6%
0.8% 1.0% 1.7% 1.8% 4.0%
Billy Talen Green 3,083 434 3,338 1,680 367 8,902 0.8%
1.1% 0.3% 1.0% 0.6% 0.4%
Jimmy McMillan Rent Is Too High 823 217 764 404 124 2,332 0.2%
Francisca Villar Socialism & Liberation 674 253 577 420 72 1,996 0.2%
Joseph Dobrian Libertarian 556 104 413 388 155 1,616 0.1%
Dan Fein Socialist Workers 493 120 376 263 59 1,311 0.1%
Write-ins † 100 30 77 60 30 297 .03%
Total recorded votes 286,434 145,279 340,665 299,061 83,363 1,154,802 100.00%
unrecorded ballots 5,172 3,659 6,645 6,254 1,525 23,255  
Total ballots cast 291,606 148,938 347,310 305,315 84,888 1,178,057
The three candidates who received more than 7 write-in votes each were C. Montgomery Burns (Homer Simpson's fictional boss), 27;
City Councilman Tony Avella (who lost the Democratic mayoral primary), 13; and former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani (Republican), 11.
Source: Board of Elections in the City of New York, November 24, 2009 (retrieved on November 27, 2009)


Democratic primary, Tuesday, September 15, 2009

From the Board of Elections in the City of New York, September 26, 2009

2009 Democratic primary Manhattanmarker The Bronxmarker Brooklynmarker Queensmarker Staten Islandmarker Total %
William C. Thompson, Jr. 70,881 31,950 75,519 49,063 7,484 234,897 71.0%
73.7% 73.5% 73.9% 63.2% 67.0%
Tony Avella 18,213 7,754 17,945 22,903 2,959 69,774 21.1%
18.9% 17.8% 17.6% 29.5% 26.5%
Roland Rogers 6,975 3,751 8,612 5,553 700 25,591 7.7%
7.3% 8.6% 8.4% 7.2% 6.3%
all Write-In votes 127 10 153 81 26 397 0.1%
0.1% 0.02% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2%
T O T A L 96,196 43,465 102,229 77,600 11,169 330,659  


Tony Avella represents a Queens district on the New York City Council. Out of the nearly 400 write-in votes, almost half or 184 (representing about one Democratic voter in 2,000) were some form or spelling of Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

2005

In 2005, Mayor Bloomberg won every borough but The Bronxmarker (of which his Democratic opponent was the former Borough President) against a Democratic Party split by a divisive primary, in contrast to his first victory in 2001, when Bloomberg carried only Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker.

2005 party Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total %
change in Bloomberg's margin of victory, 2001-2005 + 98,973 – 19,634 + 97,622 + 48,125 – 10,705 + 214,381 + 17.0%
Bloomberg's margin over Mark Green (2001) – 22,777 – 21,683 – 28,182 + 46,904 + 61,227 + 35,489 + 2.4%
Bloomberg's margin over Ferrer (2005) + 76,196 – 41,317 + 69,440 + 95,029 + 50,522 + 249,870 + 19.4%
Michael R. Bloomberg Republican\Liberal 171,593 69,577 189,581 184,426 63,267 678,444 52.6%
52.6% 35.3% 52.7% 57.9% 71.5%
Independence 25,416 6,840 20,141 17,689 4,559 74,645 5.8%
7.8% 3.5% 5.6% 5.6% 5.2%
Total 197,010 76,417 209,723 202,116 67,827 753,089 58.4%
60.4% 38.8% 58.2% 63.5% 76.7%
Fernando Ferrer Democratic 120,813 117,734 140,282 107,086 17,304 503,219 39.0%
37.0% 59.8% 39.0% 33.6% 19.6%
Thomas V. Ognibene Conservative 1,729 1,185 3,573 5,645 2,498 14,630 1.1%
Anthony Gronowicz Green 3,195 466 3,112 1,285 239 8,297 0.6%
Jimmy McMillan Rent Is Too Damn High 1,369 474 1,293 799 176 4,111 0.3%
Audrey Silk Libertarian 991 234 841 617 205 2,888 0.2%
Martin Koppel Socialist Workers 758 231 766 384 117 2,256 0.2%
Seth A Blum Education 322 131 382 264 77 1,176 0.1%
Write-ins 109 1 90 57 12 269 .02%
T O T A L 326,295 196,873 360,061 318,252 88,454 1,289,935
Source: Board of Elections in the City of New York http://www.vote.nyc.ny.us/results.html

2001

The 2001 mayoral election was held on Tuesday, November 6.

Republican incumbent Rudy Giuliani could not run again due to term limits. As Democrats outnumber Republicans by 5 to 1 in the city, it was widely believed that a Democrat would succeed him in City Hall. However, billionaire Michael Bloomberg, a lifelong Democrat, changed his party affiliation a few months before the election in order to avoid a crowded primary, and ran as a Republican. The Democratic primary was meant to be held on September 11 but was postponed due to the September 11 attacks; it was instead held on September 25. The primary opened the way to a bitter run-off between the Bronx-born Puerto Rican Fernando Ferrer, and Mark J. Green, a non-Hispanic who attacked Ferrer's close ties to Rev. Al Sharpton, leaving the party divided along racial lines.

Bloomberg spent $74 million on his election campaign, which was a record amount at the time for a non-presidential election (Bloomberg would break his own record in 2005). [92392] Thanks also in part to active support from Giuliani, whose approval ratings shot up after the September 11 attacks, Bloomberg won a very close general election.

2001 General Election party Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total %
Bloomberg's margin over Green – 22,777 – 21,683 – 28,182 + 46,904 + 61,227 + 35,489 + 2.4%
Michael R. Bloomberg Republican 162,096 72,551 174,053 196,241 80,725 685,666 46.3%
Independence 17,701 8,046 14,987 14,191 4,166 59,091 4.0%
Total 179,797 80,597 189,040 210,432 84,891 744,757 50.3%
46.1% 43.1% 45.7% 55.3% 77.1%
Mark Green Democratic 193,372 97,087 206,005 157,897 22,356 676,717 45.7%
Working Families 9,202 5,193 11,217 5,631 1,308 32,551 2.2%
Total 202,574 102,280 217,222 163,528 23,664 709,268 47.9%
52.0% 54.7% 52.5% 43.0% 21.5%
Alan G. Hevesi Liberal 2,684 847 2,124 1,886 486 8,027 0.5%
Better Schools 416 772 628 407 81 2,304 0.2%
Total 3,100 1,619 2,752 2,293 567 10,331 0.7%
Julia Willebrand Green 2,241 670 2,456 1,579 209 7,155 0.5%
Terrance M. Gray Conservative 507 642 844 1,219 365 3,577 0.2%
Thomas K. Leighton Marijuana Reform 791 529 680 418 145 2,563 0.2%
Kenny Kramer Libertarian 368 296 338 306 100 1,408 0.1%
Bernhard H. Goetz Fusion 203 201 333 253 59 1,049 0.1%
Kenneth B. Golding American Dream 96 112 163 81 22 474 .03%
scattered votes 114 57 26 106 29 332 .02%
TOTAL RECORDED VOTE 389,791 187,003 413,854 380,215 110,051 1,480,914 (100.0%)
(unrecorded votes) 9,186 6,125 12,097 10,285 1,836 39,529
Total vote 398,977 193,128 425,951 390,500 111,887 1,520,443


1997

Notes:
  • In the Democratic Primary, Messinger defeated Rev. Al Sharpton, avoiding a runoff election.
  • Figures are for 99% of precincts reporting


Past elections

1993



1985

1981

1977

In his 2005 book Ladies and Gentlemen, The Bronx Is Burning, historian Jonathan Mahler argues that the New York City blackout of 1977, with its accompanying rioting, enabled the law-and-order advocate Ed Kochto beat out his more left-wing opponents, including incumbent mayor Abe Beame, in the 1977 election.



Note that the eventual winner, Rep. Ed Koch, could not win a plurality in any of the Five Boroughs for the initial Democratic primary. Rep. Bella Abzugtook Manhattan, Mayor Abe BeameBrooklyn, Rep. Herman Badillothe Bronx, and NY Sec. of State Mario CuomoQueens & Staten Island. In the Democratic run-offwith Cuomo, Koch took Queens and three other boroughs, leaving Cuomo with only Staten Island. In the general election, Cuomo kept Staten Island and won back Queens, but lost the other three boroughs (Manhattan, Brooklyn and The Bronx) to Koch.

In the Republican primary,Roy M.Goodman, a member of the New York State Senate, defeated Barry Farber, a radio commentator, by a vote of 44,667 to 34,782 (56.2% to 43.8%). Farber, however, won the nomination of the Conservative Party of New Yorkand won almost as many votes in the general election (57,437 or 4.0%) as Goodman did as the Republican nominee (58,606 or 4.1%).

1929 to 1973

Some figures and anecdotes courtesy James Trager's New York Chronology(HarperCollins: 2003). Other numbers are from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, then published by The New York World-Telegram(Scripps-Howard), for 1943 (page 412) and 1957 (page 299), and from The Encyclopedia of New York City(see Sourcesbelow).

Before 1975, the present Borough of Staten Islandmarker was formally known as The Borough of Richmond.

1973



note: All the candidates except Marchihad run in the Democratic primary.





1969

note: In one of the most unusual primary seasons since the conglomeration of greater New York, the incumbent Mayor (Lindsay) and a former incumbent (Robert F.Wagner, Jr.) both lost their parties' primaries. Procaccino won with less than 33% of the vote against four opponents, which inspired the use of runoffs in future primaries. In the general election, Lindsay carried Manhattan (the only borough he had carried in losing the Republican primary to Marchi, 107,000 to 113,000) as he did in 1965, but he was only 4,000 votes ahead of giving first place in Queens to Procaccino. Turnout dropped to 2.4 million from 2.6 million in 1965. (In the same election, Lindsay's 1965 opponent Abe Beamewas easily returned to his old job of Comptroller.)



1965



Over a quarter of Lindsay's vote (293,194) was on the Liberal Partyline, while over 60,000 of Beame's votes were on the Civil Service Fusion line. John Lindsay, a Republican Congressman from the "Silk-Stocking" District on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, carried Manhattanmarker, Queensmarker, and traditionally-Republican Staten Islandmarker (Richmond), while Abe Beame, the City Comptroller, carried The Bronxmarker and his home borough of Brooklynmarker, both of which he had also won in the Democratic primary.However, while Beame had also carried Queens in the primary, he lost it to Lindsay in the general election. (Five years later, Bill Buckley's brother James L.Buckleywould win the 1970 New York state election for U.S. Senator on the Conservative Partyline against divided opposition.)

1961

Mayor Wagner broke with the regular Democratic organization which had supported him in 1953and 1957, defeating their candidate, Arthur Levitt, in the Democratic primary 61% to 39%. At the same time, after running successfully with Lawrence Gerosa for Comptrollerin the previous two elections, Wagner chose to run instead with Abraham Beamein 1961. Gerosa ran against Wagner for Mayor as the "real Democrat" on a pro-taxpayer platform. 211,000 of Wagner's 1,237,000 votes came on the Liberal Party line, and 55,000 on the purpose-built Brotherhood line.





1957

The Wagner-Christenberry campaign has left us one of the great campaign anecdotes: Christenberry was railing against Wagner's police department for not doing enough to fight corruption and vice, so the cops raided Christenberry's illegal casino in the basement of the hotel he was manager of.

1953



"Industrial Government" is a ballot title sometimes used, to avoid confusion or to meet election laws, by the Socialist Labor Party. The Liberal Party of New Yorkwon over five times as many votes as the American Labor Partyin Manhattan, and eight-to-ten times as many in the other boroughs. The ALP lost its ballot status after the 1954 Governor's race, and voted to dissolve itself in 1956.

1950

Vincent Impellitteri, the mayor who succeeded mid-term after William O'Dwyer resigned on August 31, 1950, swept Manhattanmarker, Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker in this special election, while Ferdinand Pecora (aided by the Liberal Party) took very narrow leads in The Bronxmarker and Brooklynmarker.In this election, the Liberals heavily outpolled the American Labor Party in every borough but Manhattanmarker and Staten Islandmarker, where the two parties' votes were almost equal.

1949



1945

The No Deal Party(according to Chris McNickle in The Encyclopedia of New York City) was founded by the retiring maverick Republican Mayor Fiorello La Guardiato draw Republican votes towards Newbold Morrisand away from the official Republican Party with whom La Guardia was having a dispute. The No Deal Party dissolved soon after the 1945 election. Newbold Morris was a Republican, while Jonah Goldstein was a Democrat until nomination day.

1941

As in 1937, more voters in every borough voted on the Democratic line than on any other single line; but this time (unlike 1937) the Democrat carried Queensmarker and Staten Islandmarker over La Guardia, shrinking the Mayor's overall citywide percentage lead from 20% to 6%.As in 1937, La Guardia's overall margin of victory depended on the American Labor Party, which again won more votes than the Republicans in The Bronxmarker.While the total vote and Republican vote were almost identical in 1937 and 1941, the ALP line lost 47,000 votes (2.4%), almost entirely from Manhattan (-18,000) and Brooklyn (-26,000), as the vote on La Guardia's other lines (Fusion, Progressive and United City) dropped from 187,000 (8.3%) to 86,000 (3.7%). The Democratic Party gained about 160,000 votes lost by La Guardia (and about 7½ % of the total). In both Queens and Richmond (Staten Island), the swing was even greater: La Guardia lost over 15% of the total vote (and the Democrats gained over 15%) from 1937, as his lead there flipped from roughly 56%-44% to 39%-60%.

1937

Note that the leading line in every borough, and in the City as a whole, is the Democratic line for Judge Mahoney. Running on the Republican line alone (as he did when losing the election of 1929), Mayor La Guardiawould have lost every borough, but he carried all five when the American Labor Partyline was added. The ALP line did better than the Republican line in The Bronxmarker, although worse than the Democratic one.

1933

| width="20%" align="center" bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|1933


While opposed by Tammany Hall, McKeeenjoyed the support of Democratic President (and former Governor) Franklin D.Roosevelt, who declared neutrality when his ally Mayor La Guardiawas running for reelection in #1937. (See Ed Flynn's comments about FDR's 1936 contribution to starting the American Labor Partyin the #Referencesbelow.) According to Michael Tomasky, La Guardia, who had lost the #1921Republican Mayoral primary to Manhattan Borough PresidentHenry Curran, did not enjoy the support of a united Republican Party when he won the party's nomination and lost the general election in #1929, but was able to win over Republican organizational support in 1933.

Collapse of the Socialist Party vote

In 1933, a year that might otherwise have favored the Socialist Party'schances, the New Dealbegan, Morris Hillquitdied, Norman Thomasrefused to run again for Mayor, and the Socialist vote (previously as high as one-eighth to one-fifth of the total) collapsed irretrievably from a quarter of a million to sixty thousand (one-thirtieth of the total). Many supporters of Thomas's 1929 campaign defected (some, like Paul Blanshard, also leaving the Party) to support Fiorello La Guardia. By the time of the next Mayoral election in 1937, which the Socialist Party decided by internal referendum not to contest, many reformers and trade-unionists who wanted to support major-party progressives like La Guardia (R-ALP-Fusion), Gov. Herbert Lehman(D-ALP) and Pres. Franklin D.Roosevelt(D-ALP) from outside the two-party structure backed the American Labor Party(ALP), the Social Democratic Federationand later the Liberal Party of New York. After a disastrous gubernatorial campaign in 1938(where Thomas and George Hartmann won only 25,000 votes out of over 4.7 million), the Socialist Party lost its separate line on the New York ballot, allowed its members to join the ALP, and in fact encouraged them to do so. In 1939, the Socialist Harry W.Laidler, a co-founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Societyand League for Industrial Democracy, was elected (with the help of proportional representation) to the New York City Councilon the ALP's ticket, but lost its renomination two years later because of rivalry with the Communists.
  • [Although not apparent from the table below, the Communist Party's vote for other municipal offices, such as City Council and President of the Board of Aldermen, was increasing at the same time that the Socialist Party's was declining below the Communists'. But in 1936, when the foundation of the ALP coincided with world Communism's shift from independent action towards the Popular Front, New York City Communists redirected much of their own energy towards supporting the ALP.]


[Click on the year for fuller details.ALP = American Labor Party (see commentary above).Socialist Labor Party candidates and votes not retrievable for every year from the sources used for this article.Readers are encouraged to supply any missing details.]

In 1894and in 1897, Lucien Sanialwas the mayoral candidate of the Socialist Labor Partybefore both the SLP and the Social Democratic Partyeach split in two. In 1901, one faction of the SLP, led by Morris Hillquit, and one faction of the SDP, led by Eugene V.Debs, united to form the Socialist Party of America, which soon drew away many votes formerly cast for the SLP. For further details, see Hillquit's History of Socialism in the United States(1910) and Howard Quint's Forging of American Socialism(1964), both cited in the #Referencesat the end of this article.

1932

Totals after a court-ordered recount:



Joseph V.McKee, as the (popularly-elected) President of the Board of Aldermen, became Acting Mayor upon the resignation of elected Mayor Jimmy Walkeron September 1, 1932. McKee's write-in total is, in fact, the highest any New York City election would ever see. For the election after the next one, voting machines which would make write-in voting much more difficult were introduced. Machines of this basic design are still being used.

Lewis Humphrey Poundswas President of the Borough of Brooklynfrom June 1913to December1917.

This was the last of many campaigns for different offices by Morris Hillquit, a co-founder of the Socialist Party of America, who died in 1933. Hillquit had won over 21% of the vote for Mayor in 1917.

  • Borough returns before the recount (which did not significantly affect the outcome):




1929

The great stock market crash hit Wall Streetmarker on October 24-29, 1929, less than two weeks before Election Day.Richard E.Enrightwas New York City Police Commissionerfrom 1918 to 1925.

1897 to 1925

¶ Basic numbers for the elections of 1897 to 1925 come from The World Almanac and Book of Factsfor 1929 and 1943. Percentages and borough totals calculated independently. (Because of some anomalies, not all columns and rows add precisely.) First names and informational links gathered from Wikipedia and several external sources, including the free public archive of The New York Times.

1925

Mayor Hylan, an ally of the newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, was unseated in a venomous Democratic primary by "Gentleman" Jimmy Walker, the Democratic party leader in the New York State Senate, who had been recruited to oppose Hylan by Hearst's inveterate enemy, Democratic Governor Al Smith. After the death of Tammany Hallleader Charles F.Murphyin 1924, the regular Democratic organizations also split their allegiances, with Hylan receiving support from John McCooey, the leader in Brooklyn, and Walker from Ed Flynnof the Bronx. (Hearst had run for Mayor on third-party tickets in 1909 and 1913, while Al Smith had lost a bid for the Democratic nomination for Mayor in 1917, instead winning the Presidency of the New York City Councilas Hylan's running-mate.)

|27.7%||21.7%||34.7%||35.6%||32.0%


1921

Henry Curranwas the Borough Presidentof Manhattan and heavily defeated Fiorello H.La Guardia, President of the Board of Aldermen, in the Republican primary electionfor Mayor.

1917

[Others and Total from The Encyclopedia of New York City (Yale, 1995), which does not exactly match the other numbers, taken from The World Almanac for 1929 & 1943.]

The Fall 1917 election would have been exciting even had it occurred in peacetime. In September, the City held its first-ever primary electionsfor Mayor. The sitting independent Democratic Mayor, John P.Mitchel, who had enjoyed Republican support under Fusion in 1913, narrowly lost the Republican primary to William Bennett, after mistakes and frauds led to a series of recounts. When negotiations between the parties failed, Mitchel ran alone as a Fusion candidate against Bennett, the Socialist Morris Hillquitand John F. Hylan, the regular Democrat supported by Tammany Halland William Randolph Hearst.

However, the elections happened after the United States had declared waron April 6. Hillquit and the Socialist Partyquickly and vigorously opposed the war, which Mitchel vigorously supported. Hillquit's anti-war position helped the Socialists win their highest-ever vote for Mayor, but also led to vitriolic denunciations by many including The New York Timesand former President Theodore Roosevelt. Mitchel and Hillquit each won less than quarter of the vote, while Hylan, who had been non-committal about the war, won the election with less than half the vote. However, as in 1897, the numbers suggest that Tammany Hall might have won even against a unified opposition.

1897 to 1913

The Bronxmarker and Manhattanmarker, although separate Boroughs since 1898, shared New York County and reported their votes together until Bronx County was formed in April 1912 and came into its separate existence on January 1, 1914.

[ The World Almanacdoes not list separate returns for the two boroughs until 1917, but The Encyclopedia of New York City(see Sources) gives these major candidates' results for 1913:
  • Manhattan: McCall 103,429 - Mitchel 131,280, and The Bronx: McCall 25,684 - Mitchel 46,944. ]


Mayor William Jay Gaynor, who had survived being shot in the throat by a disappointed office-seeker in 1910, died at sea from the indirect effects of his injury on September 10, 1913. He was succeeded for the rest of 1913 by Ardolph Loges Kline, the acting President of the Board of Aldermen.The election of 1897 was held just before the Five Boroughsformally consolidatedinto Greater New Yorkin 1898, so it was the present City's first Mayoral election. For preliminary results for all the municipal offices, broken down into smaller districts, see "DEMOCRATS TAKE ALL; The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City.ONLY TWO REPUBLICANS IN THE COUNCIL..."in The New-York Times, November 4, 1897 (seen April 11, 2008).

Henry George, author of Progress and Povertyand proponent of the Single Tax on land, died (probably from the strain of campaign speeches) on October 29, four days before Election Day; his son took his place on the ballot to represent "The Democracy of Thomas Jefferson" . ('In 1886, George had been the United Labor Party's candidate for Mayor of the smaller City of New York, now the Borough of Manhattanmarker, winning 68,110 votes to 90,552 for the Democrat Abram Hewitt and 60,435 for the Republican Theodore Roosevelt, although George's supporters maintained that he had lost the election through fraud.)

It appears from the percentages to be an open question whether the Republican Party's decision in 1897 not to support Seth Low's Fusioncampaign caused his defeat by splitting the vote against Tammany Hall. Republicans withdrew in Low's favor in 1901 (when he won) and in 1903 (when he lost).

† For Lucien Sanial, see the table notes under #Collapse of the Socialist Party voteabove (1933) and ALL THEY NEED IS VOTES; THREE CANDIDATES FOR MAYOR WHO WOULD MAKE A STIR.in The New-York Timesfor Wednesday, November 4, 1894, page 19.

References

  1. For further details, see Third Term No Charm, Historians Say by Sewell Chan, The New York Times "City Room", published and retrieved on October 1, 2008.
  2. Fernanda Santos: The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, The New York Times, New York edition, October 24, 2008, page A24 (retrieved on October 24, 2008), Judge Rejects Suit Over Term Limits, The New York Times, New York edition, January 14, 2009, page A26, and Appeals Court Upholds Term Limits Revision, The New York Times City Room Blog, April 28, 2009 (both retrieved on July 6, 2009). The original January decision by Judge Charles Sifton of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Long Island, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island) was upheld by a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Vermont, Connecticut and New York state).
  3. See, for example, these stories from The New York Times: "In Crisis Giuliani’s Popularity Overflows City", by Jennifer Steinhauer, Sept. 20, 2001, "A Shift in the Ritual, and Meaning, of Voting", by Mirta Ojito, Sept. 26, 2001 and "GIULIANI EXPLORES A TERM EXTENSION OF 2 OR 3 MONTHS", by Jennifer Steinhauer with Michael Cooper, September 27, 2001.
  4. Sewell Chan, Bloomberg Says He Wants a Third Term as Mayor, The New York Times, published and retrieved on October 2, 2008.
  5. Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks, Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, The New York Times, published on-line and retrieved on October 23, 2008
  6. For the first seven candidates, see Emily S. Rebb, "Seven Others Striving to Win the Mayor's Job", The New York Times, published on line October 13, 2009, retrieved October 14, 2009
  7. Board of Elections in the City of New York, Statement and Return Report for Certification Primary Election 2009 - 09/15/2009 Crossover - Democratic Party Democratic Mayor Citywide (PDF), September 25-26, 2009, retrieved on October 21, 2009
  8. page 437 of The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York By Vincent J. Cannato (Basic Books, 2001, ISBN 0-465-00843-7)
  9. Page 41 of the 1966 World Almanac & Book of Facts and page 69 of Cannato's The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York
  10. To be Mayor of New York: Ethnic Politics in the City, by Chris McNickle (Columbia University Press, 1993, ISBN 0231076363, page 175: free preview was available on June 20, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=ONlCSIMrV_kC&pg=PA175)
  11. A full biographical sketch of Prof. Hartmann is in "The perils of a public intellectual - George W. Hartmann" by Benjamin Harris Journal of Social Issues, Spring, 1998 — available in April 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0341/is_n1_v54/ai_21107569
  12. A brief profile of Judge Jeremiah Titus Mahoney can be found within this article, "Up Again, Down Again", TIME, Monday, August 16, 1937
  13. Michael Tomasky, "New York's Finest" (a review of The Great Mayor: Fiorello La Guardia and the Making of the City of New York, by Alyn Brodsky), New York Review of Books, February 12, 2004, page 28, available by subscription or payment at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/article-preview?article_id=16898
  14. pages 105-107 of Bernard K. Johnpoll's Pacifist's Progress: Norman Thomas and the decline of American socialism, Quadrangle (Chicago) 1970: ISBN 0-8129-0152-5
  15. See pages 113-116 of The Emerging Republican Majority by Kevin Phillips (Doubleday Anchor paperback edition 1970). According to the March 1950 reminiscences of FDR's advisor Ed Flynn, "President Roosevelt with Jim Farley and myself, brought the American Labor Party into being. It was entirely Roosevelt's suggestion. Farley and I never believed in it very much, but he felt at the time—and it is true today—that there were many people who believed in what Roosevelt stood for but who, for some reason or another...would not join the Democratic party. If another party were created, you could bring these people into it actively. That was really why it was created." cited in It Didn't Happen Here: Why socialism failed in the United States, by Seymour Martin Lipset and Gary Marks (New York, 2000: W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04098-4), page 342 note 56
  16. Johnpoll, Pacifist's Progress, pages 194-5
  17. Pages 265-269 of Harvey Klehr's The Heyday of American Communism: the Depression decade Basic Books (NY) 1984 ISBN 0-465-02945-0 & ISBN 0-465-02946-9
  18. World Statesmen—Boroughs of New York City retrieved on June 25, 2008. See also the entry for "Borough Presidents" by Nora L. Mandel in The Encyclopedia of New York City (Yale 1995), cited in Sources below.
  19. Robert A. Slayton, Empire Statesman: the rise and redemption of Al Smith, The Free Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-684-86502-2, pages 115-116 and 221-225. See also New York City mayoral election, 1917.
  20. "Frank D. Waterman's Run for Mayor: New York City, 1925" from The PENnant (the magazine of the Pen Collectors of America) 1995 and also the Wikipedia article about his father, Lewis Waterman
  21. The Wikipedia entry is for William Mills Ivins, Jr. (William Mills Ivins' son); see also a long, contemporary New York Sunday Times magazine feature article, "William M. Ivins, a Man of Many Facets; A Character Study of the Republican Candidate for the Mayoralty" (October 22, 1905 page SM1).
  22. James T. Hunter (1870-1952), silversmith, ran also for Mayor of New York City in 1903, and for Lieutenant Governor in 1910. See his Obituary in The New York Times, January 7, 1952, page 19 (subscription or payment required)
  23. The Single Tax Movement in the United States by Arthur Nichols Young (Princeton, 1916), page 152
  24. Young, The Single Tax Movement in the United States, page 95. See also History of Socialism in the United States by Morris Hillquit (5th edition, New York 1910, reprinted New York 1971 by Dover: ISBN 0-486-22767-7), pages 249-253, and The Forging of American Socialism by Howard Quint (2nd edition, Indianapolis 1964: Bobbs-Merrill), pages 37-43.


Sources

Many sources have been consulted and compared, but the most important ones are these:

  • [2001-2005] The Board of Elections in the City of New York http://www.vote.nyc.ny.us/results.html


  • [1997] Cable News Network (CNN) http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1997/gen/resources/election97/results.html




  • [1929-1973] The New York Chronology by James Trager (HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 0-06-074062-0 ) More details and preview available at http://books.google.com/books?id=xvGhQoNT27IC






See also





1989



1973 General Election
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Abraham Beame Democratic 158,050 160,774 321,477 283,474 37,355 961,130 56.5%
49.0% 57.0% 63.4% 56.6% 46.7%
John Marchi Republican 45,803 37,609 73,776 90,942 28,445 276,575 16.3%
14.2% 13.3% 14.5% 18.2% 35.5%
Albert H. Blumenthal Liberal 101,117 32,661 60,340 66,059 5,120 265,297 15.6%
31.3% 11.6% 11.9% 13.2% 6.4%
Mario Biaggi Conservative 17,882 50,805 51,713 60,490 9,096 189,986 11.2%
5.5% 18.0% 10.2% 12.1% 11.4%
subtotal 322,852 281,849 507,306 500,965 80,016 1,692,988 99.5%
others 7,883 0.5%
  1,700,871  
1973 Democratic initial primary
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Abraham Beame 45,901 41,508 96,621 73,520 8,912 266,462 34%
26% 27% 41% 40% 42%
Herman Badillo 73,676 55,432 57,836 33,990 2,902 223,836 29%
41% 36% 25% 19% 14%
Albert H. Blumenthal 41,906 18,400 31,913 28,960 2,062 123,241 16%
23% 12% 14% 16% 10%
Mario Biaggi 17,830 39,462 48,352 45,992 7,524 159,160 21%
10% 25% 21% 25% 35%
subtotal (for the top 4 candidates only) 179,313 154,802 234,722 182,462 21,400 772,699 [100%]
1973 Democratic run-off primary
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Abraham Beame 77,928 97,415 201,866 153,415 17,999 548,623 60.7%
41% 53% 68% 73% 78%
Herman Badillo
112,482 86,482 93,140 57,658 4,819 354,581 39.3%
59% 47% 32% 27% 21%
T O T A L 190,410 183,897 295,006 211,073 22,818 903,204  
1969 General Election
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John V. Lindsay Liberal - Independent 328,564 161,953 256,046 249,330 16,740 1,012,633 41.2%
67.1% 40.1% 36.0% 36.3% 17.5%
Mario Procaccino Democratic - Civil Service Fusion 99,460 165,647 301,324 245,783 19,558 831,772 33.8%
20.3% 41.0% 42.4% 35.8% 20.5%
John Marchi Republican - Conservative 61,539 76,711 152,933 192,008 59,220 542,411 22.1%
12.6% 19.0% 21.5% 27.9% 62.0%
489,563 404,311 710,303 687,121 95,518 2,386,816 97.1%
others 71,387 2.9%
2,458,203
1965 General Election
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John V. Lindsay Republican - Liberal - Independent Citizens 291,326 181,072 308,398 331,162 37,148 1,149,106 43.3%
55.8% 39.5% 40.0% 46.9% 45.8%
Abraham Beame Democratic - Civil Service Fusion 193,230 213,980 365,360 250,662 23,467 1,046,699 39.4%
37.0% 46.6% 47.4% 35.5% 28.9%
William F. Buckley, Jr. Conservative 37,694 63,858 97,679 123,544 20,451 343,226 12.9%
7.2% 13.9% 12.7% 17.5% 25.2%
522,250 458,910 771,437 705,368 81,066 2,539,031 95.7%
others   115,420 4.3%
  2,654,451
1961 General Election
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. Democratic - Liberal - Brotherhood 265,015 255,528 396,539 290,194 30,145 1,237,421 50.15%
55.6% 55.8% 52.7% 45.8% 41.0%
Louis Lefkowitz Republican - Nonpartisan - Civic Action 174,471 134,964 251,258 243,836 31,162 835,691 33.87%
36.6% 29.5% 33.4% 38.5% 42.3%
Lawrence E. Gerosa Independent - Citizens' Party 36,893 67,213 105,232 99,987 12,279 321,604 13.03%
7.7% 14.7% 14.0% 15.8% 16.7%
subtotal 476,379 457,705 753,029 634,017 73,586 2,394,716 97.05%
others   72,830 2.95%
T O T A L   2,467,546  
1961 Democratic primary
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 122,607 78,626 136,440 102,845 15,498 456,016 61%
65% 62% 57% 62% 60%
Arthur Levitt 66,917 47,885 103,296 64,157 10,471 292,726 39%
35% 38% 43% 38% 40%
subtotal (for Wagner and Levitt only) 189,524 126,511 239,736 167,002 25,969 748,742 [100%]
1957
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. Democratic - Liberal - Fusion 316,203 316,299 494,078 341,212 40,983 1,508,775 67.8%
73.8% 76.6% 75.1% 64.1% 64.7%
Robert Christenberry Republican 112,173 96,726 163,427 191,061 22,381 585,768 26.3%
26.2% 23.4% 24.9% 35.9% 35.3%
428,376 413,025 657,505 532,273 63,364 2,094,543 94.2%
others   129,511 5.8%
  2,224,054
1953
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. Democratic 236,960 206,771 339,970 207,918 31,007 1,022,626 45.6%
47.9% 46.2% 46.6% 40.6% 51.8%
Harold Riegelman Republican 147,876 97,224 183,968 208,829 23,694 661,591 29.5%
29.9% 21.7% 25.2% 40.8% 39.6%
Rudolph Halley Liberal 76,884 112,825 162,275 73,192 3,514 428,690 19.1%
Independent 7,648 9,853 13,264 7,356 295 38,416 1.7%
Total 84,532 122,678 175,539 80,548 3,809 467,106 20.8%
17.1% 27.4% 24.1% 15.7% 6.4%
Clifford T. McAvoy American Labor Party 14,904 13,290 17,337 7,182 332 53,045 2.4%
David L. Weiss Socialist Workers 10,683 7,760 13,062 7,254 1,019 2,054 0.1%
Nathan Karp Industrial Gov't [SLP] 916 .04%
scattered 180 .01%
unrecorded (blank, spoiled, etc.) 36,630 1.6%
T O T A L 494,955 447,723 729,876 511,731 59,861 2,244,146
1950
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Vincent Impellitteri Experience 246,608 215,913 357,322 303,448 37,884 1,161,175 44.2%
40.4% 41.3% 40.5% 55.5% 60.0%
Ferdinand Pecora Democratic 166,240 157,537 271,670 104,734 11,177 711,358 27.1%
Liberal 48,370 59,717 90,576 24,489 841 223,993 8.5%
Total 214,610 217,254 362,246 129,223 12,018 935,351 35.6%
35.1% 41.6% 41.0% 23.6% 19.0%
Edward Corsi Republican 102,575 54,796 113,392 99,225 12,384 382,372 14.6%
16.8% 10.5% 12.8% 18.1% 19.6%
Paul Ross American Labor Party 47,201 34,575 49,999 14,904 899 147,578 5.6%
T O T A L 610,994 522,538 882,959 546,800 63,185 2,626,476
1949
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
William O'Dwyer Democratic 278,343 254,014 425,225 270,062 38,868 1,266,512 47.6%
44.8% 48.7% 48.8% 53.4% 64.5%
Newbold Morris Republican - Liberal - Fusion 219,430 185,248 332,433 200,552 18,406 956,069 35.9%
35.3% 35.5% 38.2% 39.7% 30.6%
Vito Marcantonio American Labor 123,128 82,386 113,478 34,677 2,957 356,626 13.4%
19.8% 15.8% 13.0% 6.9% 4.9%
620,901 521,648 871,136 505,291 60,231 2,579,207 96.9%
others   83,710 3.1%
  2,662,917
1945
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
William O'Dwyer Democratic -

American Labor
253,371 227,818 386,335 228,275 29,558 1,125,357 55.3%
55.8% 55.3% 56.5% 61.5% 66.3%
Jonah J. Goldstein Republican - Liberal -

Fusion
100,591 95,582 161,119 65,240 9,069 431,601 21.2%
22.2% 23.2% 23.6% 17.6% 20.4%
Newbold Morris No Deal 100,064 88,404 136,262 77,687 5,931 408,348 20.0%
22.0% 21.5% 19.9% 20.9% 13.3%
454,026 411,804 683,716 371,202 44,558 1,965,306 96.5%
others   71,385 3.5%
  2,036,691
1941
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
change in La Guardia's margin of victory, 1937-1941 – 21,481 – 31,205 –116,061 –133,684 – 19,160 – 321,591 – 14.5%
La Guardia's margin over Jeremiah Mahoney (1937) + 91,989 +105,517 +207,869 + 40,966 + 7,533 + 453,874 + 20.3%
La Guardia's margin over O'Dwyer (1941) + 70,508 + 74,312 + 91,808 – 92,718 – 11,627 + 132,283 + 5.8%
Fiorello H. La Guardia Republican 188,851 103,420 242,537 116,359 17,318 668,485 29.5%
35.6% 22.9% 30.5% 27.1% 30.7%
American Labor Party 81,642 135,900 174,601 39,693 3,538 435,374 19.2%
15.4% 30.1% 21.9% 9.3% 6.3%
City Fusion 21,642 14,719 17,024 8,759 1,223 63,367 2.8%
United City 6,090 5,568 5,694 1,770 170 19,292 0.9%
Total 298,225 259,607 439,856 166,581 22,249 1,186,518 52.4%
56.2% 57.6% 55.2% 38.8% 39.4%
William O'Dwyer Democratic 227,717 185,295 348,048 259,299 33,876 1,054,235 46.6%
42.9% 41.1% 43.7% 60.5% 60.1%
George W. Hartmann Socialist 4,790 6,005 8,574 2,973 274 22,616 1.0%
T O T A L 530,732 450,907 796,478 428,853 56,399 2,263,369
1937
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
La Guardia's margin over Mahoney + 91,989 +105,517 +207,869 + 40,966 + 7,533 + 453,874 + 20.3%
Fiorello H. La Guardia Republican 181,518 96,468 228,313 144,433 23,879 674,611 30.2%
32.1% 22.0% 29.2% 37.3% 38.4%
American Labor Party 99,735 138,756 200,783 40,153 3,363 482,790 21.6%
17.6% 31.6% 25.7% 10.4% 5.4%
Fusion 39,959 30,677 55,423 26,217 7,280 159,556 7.1%
7.1% 7.0% 7.1% 6.8% 11.7%
Progressive 7,783 6,421 9,997 3,136 336 27,673 1.2%
328,995 272,322 494,516 213,939 34,858 1,344,630 60.2%
58.1% 62.0% 63.3% 55.3% 56.1%
Jeremiah T. Mahoney Democratic 233,120 163,856 282,137 171,002 27,100 877,215 39.2%
41.2% 37.3% 36.1% 44.2% 43.6%
Trades Union 2,044 1,378 2,490 1,014 122 7,048 0.3%
Anti-Communist 1,842 1,571 2,020 957 103 6,493 0.3%
237,006 166,805 286,647 172,973 27,325 890,756 39.8%
41.9% 38.0% 36.7% 44.7% 43.9%
566,001 439,127 781,163 386,912 62,183 2,235,386
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Fiorello H. La Guardia Republican - Fusion 203,479 151,669 331,920 154,369 27,085 868,522 40.4%
38.4% 38.8% 44.4% 39.3% 43.7%
Joseph V. McKee Recovery 123,707 131,280 194,558 141,296 18,212 609,053 28.3%
23.3% 33.6% 26.0% 36.0% 29.4%
John P. O'Brien Democratic 192,649 93,403 194,335 90,501 15,784 586,672 27.3%
36.3% 23.9% 26.0% 23.0% 25.4%
Charles Solomon Socialist 10,525 14,758 26,941 6,669 953 59,846 3.0%
( s u b t o t a l ) 530,360 391,110 747,754 392,835 62,034
Robert Minor Communist 26,044 1.3%
T O T A L 2,150,137
year
Social-Democratic Party & Socialist Party of America
votes
%
Socialist Labor Party
votes
%
other left, labor & reform
votes
%
1897 Lucien Sanial 14,467 2.8% Henry George, Jefferson Dem. 21,693 4.1%
1901 Ben Hanford [Social Dem.] 9,834 1.7% Keinard 6,213 1.1%
1903 Forman [Social Dem.] 16,956 2.9% Hunter 5,205 0.9%
1905 Algernon Lee 11,817 2.0% Kinneally 2,276 0.4% W.R. Hearst, Muni. Own'ship 224,989 37.2%
1909 Joseph Cassidy 11,768 2.0% Hunter 1,256 0.2% Wm R. Hearst, Civic Alliance 154,187 25.9%
1913 Charles Edward Russell 32,057 5.1% Walters 1,647 0.3%
1917 Morris Hillquit 145,332 21.7% Edmund Seidel
1921 Jacob Panken 82,607 7.1% John P. Quinn 1,049 0.1% Jerome De Hunt, Farmer-Labor 1,008 0.1%
1925 Norman Thomas 39,574 3.5% Brandon 1,643 0.1% Fisher, Progressive 1,498 0.1%
1929 Norman Thomas 175,697 12.3% Olive M. Johnson 6,401 0.4% Richard Enright, Square Deal 5,965 0.4%
1932 Morris Hillquit 251,656 12.6%
1933 Charles Solomon 59,846 3.0% Robert Minor, Communist 26,044 1.3%
1937 [no candidate] F.H. La Guardia, ALP line only 482,790 21.6%
1941 George W. Hartmann 22,616 1.0% F.H. La Guardia, ALP line only 435,374 19.2%
Year Candidate Party Total percent
1932 (after recount) John P. O'Brien Democratic
Lewis H. Pounds Republican
Morris Hillquit Socialist
Joseph V. McKee Independent/Write-in
1932 (before recount)
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John P. O'Brien Democratic 308,944 181,639 358,945 176,070 30,517 1,056,115 53.2%
60.8% 52.0% 51.0% 47.9% 54.3%
Lewis H. Pounds Republican 116,729 48,366 157,152 105,068 16,586 443,901 22.4%
23.0% 13.9% 22.3% 28.6% 29.5%
Morris Hillquit Socialist 40,011 68,980 113,622 24,981 2,293 249,887 12.6%
7.9% 19.8% 16.2% 6.8% 4.1%
Joseph V. McKee Independent (write-in) 42,299 50,212 73,431 61,648 6,782 234,372 11.8%
8.3% 14.4% 10.4% 16.8% 12.1%
T O T A L 507,983 349,197 703,150 367,767 56,178 1,984,275
1929
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Jimmy Walker Democratic 232,370 159,948 283,432 166,188 25,584 867,522 59.2%
63.8% 62.9% 57.7% 61.7% 57.8%
Fiorello H. La Guardia Republican 91,944 52,646 132,095 75,911 15,079 367,675 25.1%
25.3% 20.7% 26.9% 28.2% 34.0%
Norman Thomas Socialist 37,316 39,181 71,145 24,897 3,248 175,697 12.0%
10.3% 15.4% 14.5% 9.2% 7.3%
Olive M. Johnson Socialist Labor 1,238 1,577 2,585 906 95 6,401 0.4%
Richard Enright Square Deal 1,121 845 2,361 1,354 284 5,965 0.4%
363,989 254,197 491,618 269,256 44,290 1,423,260 97.2%
others   41,429 2.8%
  1,464,689
1925 General Election
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Jimmy Walker Democratic 247,079 131,226 244,029 103,629 22,724 748,687 65.8%
69.4% 71.8% 60.9% 63.0% 67.3%
Frank D. Waterman Republican 98,617 39,615 139,060 58,478 10,794 346,564 30.5%
Norman Thomas Socialist 9,482 11,133 16,809 1,943 207 39,574 3.5%
Brandon Socialist Labor 388 488 591 155 21 1,643 0.1%
Fisher Progressive 387 262 528 284 37 1,498 0.1%
TOTAL 355,953 182,724 401,017 164,489 33,783 1,137,966
1925 Democratic primary
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Jimmy Walker 102,835 45,308 65,671 28,203 6,321 248,338 62%
79% 68% 52% 47% 34%
John Francis Hylan 27,802 21,228 60,814 32,163 12,197 154,204 38%
21% 32% 48% 53% 66%
subtotal (for Walker and Hylan only) 130,637 66,536 126,485 60,366 18,518 402,542 [100%]
1921
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John Francis Hylan Democratic 261,452 118,235 260,143 87,676 22,741 750,247 64.2%
62.9% 67.6% 62.1% 69.0% 70.8%
Henry H. Curran Republican - Coalition 124,253 34,919 128,259 36,415 9,000 332,846 28.5%
29.9% 20.0% 30.6% 28.6% 28.0%
Jacob Panken Socialist 28,756 21,255 29,580 2,741 275 82,607 7.1%
6.9% 12.2% 7.1% 2.2% 0.9%
Jerome T. De Hunt Farmer Labor 321 133 395 88 71 1,008 0.1%
John P. Quinn Socialist Labor 316 244 346 123 20 1,049 0.1%
George K. Hinds Prohibition 375 120 390 111 14 1,010 0.1%
TOTAL 415,473 174,906 419,113 127,154 32,121 1,168,767
1917
party
Manhattan
The Bronx
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John Francis Hylan Democratic 113,728 41,546 114,487 35,399 8,850 314,010 46.8%
46.4% 42.9% 46.5% 51.7% 58.3%
John Purroy Mitchel Fusion 66,748 19,247 52,921 13,641 2,940 155,497 23.2%
27.3% 19.9% 21.5% 19.9% 19.4%
Morris Hillquit Socialist 51,176 30,374 48,880 13,477 1,425 145,332 21.7%
20.9% 31.4% 19.9% 19.7% 9.4%
William M. Bennett Republican 13,230 5,576 29,748 5,916 1,968 56,438 8.4%
5.4% 5.8% 12.1% 8.6% 13.0%
Subtotal 244,882 96,743 246,036 68,433 15,183 671,277
Edmund Seidel Socialist Labor 20,586
others
T O T A L 691,809
1913
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
John Purroy Mitchel Fusion 178,224 137,074 34,279 8,604 358,181 57.1%
54.7% 60.2% 59.6% 54.4%
Edward E. McCall Democratic 129,113 77,826 20,097 6,883 233,919 37.3%
39.6% 34.2% 35.0% 43.3%
Charles Edward Russell Socialist 17,383 11,560 2,865 249 32,057 5.1%
Walters Socialist Labor 952 538 129 28 1,647 0.3%
Raymond Prohibition 412 587 118 96 1,213 0.2%
TOTAL 326,084 227,585 57,488 15,860 627,017
1909
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
William Jay Gaynor Democratic 134,075 91,666 17,570 7,067 250,378 42.1%
42.5% 41.9% 38.4% 47.1%
William Randolph Hearst Civic Alliance 87,155 49,040 15,186 2,806 154,187 25.9%
27.6% 22.4% 33.2% 18.7%
Otto T. Bannard Republican - Fusion 86,497 73,860 11,907 5,049 177,313 29.8%
27.4% 33.8% 26.0% 33.6%
Joseph Cassidy Socialist 6,811 3,874 1,004 79 11,768 2.0%
James T. Hunter Socialist Labor 813 369 56 18 1,256 0.2%
TOTAL 315,351 218,809 45,723 15,019 594,902
1905
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
George B. McClellan, Jr. Democratic 140,264 68,788 13,228 6,127 228,407 37.8%
41.6% 31.4% 37.6% 44.1%
William Randolph Hearst Municipal Ownership League 123,292 84,835 13,766 3,096 224,989 37.2%
36.6% 38.8% 39.2% 22.3%
William M. Ivins Republican 64,280 61,192 7,213 4,499 137,184 22.7%
19.1% 28.0% 20.5% 32.4%
Algernon Lee Socialist 7,466 3,387 847 117 11,817 2.0%
Kinneally Socialist Labor 1,485 657 95 39 2,276 0.4%
TOTAL 336,787 218,859 35,149 13,878 604,673
1903
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
George B. McClellan, Jr. Democratic 188,681 102,569 17,074 6,458 314,782 53.4%
56.1% 48.8% 56.5% 48.1%
Seth Low Fusion 132,178 101,251 11,960 6,697 252,086 42.7%
39.3% 48.2% 39.6% 49.9%
Forman Social Democratic 11,318 4,529 976 133 16,956 2.9%
James T. Hunter Socialist Labor 3,540 1,411 178 76 5,205 0.9%
John McKee Prohibition 376 396 47 50 869 0.1%
TOTAL 336,093 210,156 30,235 13,414 589,898
1901
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Edward M. Shepard Democratic 156,631 88,858 13,679 6,009 265,177 45.8%
47.4% 42.7% 49.4% 46.1%
Seth Low Fusion 162,298 114,625 13,118 6,772 296,813 51.2%
49.1% 55.0% 47.4% 51.9%
Benjamin Hanford Social Democratic 6,409 2,692 613 120 9,834 1.7%
Keinard Socialist Labor 4,323 1,638 181 71 6,213 1.1%
Alfred L. Manierre Prohibition 617 501 74 72 1,264 0.2%
TOTAL 330,278 208,314 27,665 13,044 579,301
1897
party
The Bronx and Manhattan
Brooklyn
Queens
Richmond [Staten Is.]
Total
%
Robert A. Van Wyck Democratic 143,666 76,185 9,275 4,871 233,997 44.7%
48.0% 40.1% 40.7% 43.5%
Seth Low Citizens' Union 77,210 65,656 5,876 2,798 151,540 28.9%
25.8% 34.6% 25.8% 25.0%
Benjamin F. Tracy Republican 55,834 37,611 5,639 2,779 101,863 19.5%
18.6% 19.8% 24.7% 24.8%
Henry George Jefferson Democracy 13,076 6,938 1,096 583 21,693 4.1%
Lucien Sanial † Socialist Labor 9,796 3,593 921 157 14,467 2.8%
TOTAL 299,582 189,983 22,807 11,188 523,560

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