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Newark Liberty International Airport , first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport within the city limits of both Newarkmarker and Elizabethmarker, New Jerseymarker, United Statesmarker (although it is entirely owned by the city of Newark). It is about southwest of Midtown Manhattan (New York Citymarker).

The airport is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which also manages the two other major airports in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areamarker, John F. Kennedy International Airportmarker (JFK) and LaGuardia Airportmarker (LGA), in addition to three smaller airports, Stewart International Airportmarker, Teterboro Airportmarker and the Downtown Manhattan Heliportmarker. Newark is the tenth busiest airport in the United States and the nation's fifth busiest international air gateway; JFK ranks first.

Newark Liberty is the second-largest hub, after George Bush Intercontinental Airportmarker in Houstonmarker, for Continental Airlines, which is the airport's largest tenant (operating all of Terminal C and part of Terminal A). Primarily due to this large hub operation, Continental Airlines is by far the leading carrier in the New York market. Newark's second largest tenant is FedEx Express, which operates its third largest cargo hub from the airport. FedEx operates from three buildings on two million square feet within the airport complex.

In 2008, Newark Airport handled slightly more than 35.4 million passengers, compared with JFK's 47.8 million and LaGuardia's 23.1 million. In total over 107 million passengers used New York-area airports in 2008, making the New York-area the busiest airport system in the United States in terms of passenger numbers and second in the world behind Londonmarker.

History



Newark Airport was the first major airport in the New York area: it opened on October 1, 1928, occupying an area of New Jersey marshland filled with dredged soil.

In 1935, Amelia Earhart dedicated the Newark Airport Administration Building, which was North America's first commercial airline terminal (Croydon Aerodromemarker, south of Londonmarker, was the world's first, predating Newark by seven years). Newark was the busiest airport in the world until LaGuardia Airportmarker opened in 1939, dividing New York's air traffic and allowing Chicago Midway International Airportmarker to take the lead. Newark was temporarily closed to passenger traffic and taken over by the United States Army for logistics operations during World War II.

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey took over the airport in 1948 and made major investments in airport infrastructure, opening new runways and hangars and revamping the airport's terminal layout. Airline traffic resumed that year. The art deco Administration Building served as the main terminal until the opening of the North Terminal in 1953, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

In the 1950s, there were suggestions to move the airport after two crashes within a month occurred at nearby Elizabeth, New Jersey. A new international airport to serve the New York City area would have been built in what is now the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refugemarker, however local protests defeated the plan.

In the 1970s, the airport underwent a significant enlargement, including the construction of the current Terminals A, B, and C, and was renamed Newark International Airport. Terminals A and B opened in 1973, although some charter and international flights requiring customs clearance remained at the North Terminal. The main building of Terminal C was completed at the same time, but only metal framing work was done on the terminal's satellites, and it lay dormant until the mid-1980s, when for a brief time the west third of the terminal was equipped for international arrivals and used for certain People Express transcontinental flights. Terminal C was fully completed and opened to the public in June 1988.

Underutilized throughout the 1970s, Newark expanded dramatically in the 1980s. People Express struck a deal with the Port Authority to use the North Terminal as both its air terminal and corporate office in 1981 and began operations at Newark that year. It quickly rose to become one of the largest American airlines, steadily increasing Newark's traffic in the through most of the 1980s. Virgin Atlantic Airways began flights from Newark to Londonmarker in 1984, challenging JFK's status as New York's international gateway (however, Virgin Atlantic now has more flights going out of JFK than out of Newark). Federal Express (Now known as FedEx Express) opened its second hub at the airport in 1986. When People Express was merged into Continental in 1987, operations at the North Terminal were greatly reduced, and the building was demolished to make way for cargo facilities in the early 1990s. Newark has remained a hub for Continental.

Today, Continental has its Global Gateway at Terminal C, having completed a major expansion project that included the construction of a new, third concourse and a new Federal Inspection Services facility. With its Newark hub, Continental is the largest provider of air service to the New York metropolitan areamarker.

A flag flies over Gate A17
United Airlines Flight 93marker pushed back from gate A17 at 8:01 am, on its way from Newark to San Francisco International Airportmarker, on September 11, 2001. Two hours later it would crash into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvaniamarker, when passengers attempted to take over the plane from a team of hijackers. Based on the direction that the plane was flying at the time and information gathered afterwards, most observers believe that the hijackers intended to crash the plane into a target in Washington, D.C.marker, such as the Capitolmarker or White Housemarker. In memory of this event, the airport's name was changed from Newark International Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport. This name was chosen over the initial proposal, Liberty International Airport at Newark, and refers to the landmark Statue of Libertymarker, just east of the airport. Despite the name change few locals call it by its new name. The name most often used by locals is "Newark Airport" or simply "Newark".

In 2001, Newark Liberty International Airport became the terminus of the world's longest non-stop scheduled airline route, Continental's service to Hong Kongmarker. In 2004, Singapore Airlines broke Continental's record by starting non-stop 18-hour flights to Singaporemarker from Newark. Continental began flying from Newark to Beijing on June 15, 2005 and Delhimarker on November 1, 2005. When these services began, Continental became for a time the only airline to serve Indiamarker nonstop from the United States, and the third U.S. carrier, after United and Northwest to serve mainland China nonstop and the first U.S. carrier to offer nonstop flights to Beijing from New York. On July 16, 2007, Continental Airlines announced that it would seek government approval for nonstop flights between Newark and Shanghai in 2009. In September 2007, the United States Department of Transportation tentatively awarded Continental the right to fly to Shanghai from Newark beginning March 25, 2009 using Boeing 777-200ER aircraft.

Since June 2008 flight caps restricting the number of flights to 81 per hour have been in use. The flight caps, which are only in effect until 2009, are intended to be a short-term solution to Newark Airport's congestion problem.

Facilities

Newark Liberty International Airport covers and has three runways and one helipad:
  • Runway 4L/22R: 11,000 x 150 ft (3,353 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt/Concrete
  • Runway 4R/22L: 10,000 x 150 ft (3,048 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 11/29: 6,800 x 150 ft (2,073 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Helipad H1: 40 x 40 ft (12 x 12 m), Surface: Concrete


Runway 11/29 is part of the original paved runway system developed in the 1940s. In 1952, original Runways 1/19 and 6/24 were closed in response to concerns about obstructions and noise, and a modern Runway 4/22 (now 4R/22L) was commissioned at a length of This runway was later extended to , shortened for a while to and finally brought to its present length by 2000. Runway 4L/22R was built in the early 1970s at a length of and was extended to its current dimensions by 2000.

All approaches except Runway 29 are equipped with Instrument Landing Systems, and Runway 4R is certified for Category II ILS approaches.

Most departing traffic use Runway 4L/22R, while most arriving traffic use 04R/22L, and 11/29 is used more often by smaller aircraft or when there are strong crosswinds on the two main runways. Newark's two parallel runways (4L and 4R) have a lateral separation of only , which is the fourth smallest of major airports in the U.S., after SFOmarker, LAXmarker and SEAmarker.

Traffic and statistics

In 2008, Newark Liberty International Airport handled 32,825,570 passengers.

Busiest International Routes from Newark (2008)
Rank City Passengers Top Carriers
1 London-Heathrow, United Kingdommarker 1,022,834 British Airways, Continental Airlines, Virgin Atlantic
2 Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Francemarker 607,822 Air France, Continental Airlines
3 Toronto, Ontario, Canadamarker 528,248 Air Canada, Air Canada Jazz, Continental Airlines, Porter Airlines
4 Tel Aviv, Israelmarker 480,949 Continental Airlines, El Al
5 Amsterdam, Netherlandsmarker 365,661 Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines
6 Frankfurt, Germanymarker 302,076 Continental Airlines, Lufthansa
7 Rome, Italy 268,516 Continental Airlines, Alitalia (Air One)
8 Stockholm, Swedenmarker 263,750 Continental Airlines, Scandinavian Airlines System
9 Cancun, Mexicomarker 256,963 Continental Airlines
10 Mumbai, Indiamarker 250,977 Air India, Jet Airways, Continental Airlines
11 Copenhagen, Denmarkmarker 240,096 Continental Airlines, Scandinavian Airlines System
12 Manchester, United Kingdommarker 217,679 Continental Airlines
13 Lisbon, Portugalmarker 216,104 Continental Airlines, TAP Portugal
14 Dublin, Irelandmarker 208,873 Continental Airlines
15 Montreal, Quebec, Canadamarker 185,886 Air Canada Jazz, Continental Express
16 Madrid, Spainmarker 176,325 Continental Airlines
17 Delhi, Indiamarker 174,236 Continental Airlines
18 Hong Kong, Chinamarker 173,432 Continental Airlines
19 Mexico City, Mexicomarker 164,285 Continental Airlines
20 Tokyo, Japanmarker 158,672 Continental Airlines
21 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republicmarker 158,185 Continental Airlines
22 San Jose, Costa Ricamarker 154,841 Continental Airlines
23 Edinburgh, United Kingdommarker 151,512 Continental Airlines
24 Beijing, Chinamarker 143,431 Continental Airlines
25 Milan, Italymarker 141,734 Continental Airlines
26 Barcelona, Spainmarker 141,074 Continental Airlines
27 Cologne, Germanymarker 140,173 Continental Airlines
28 Munich, Germanymarker 139,889 Lufthansa
29 Oranjestad, Arubamarker 139,532 Continental Airlines
30 Geneva, Switzerlandmarker 135,944 Continental Airlines
Busiest Domestic Routes from Newark (2008)
Rank City Passengers Top Carriers
1 Orlando, Floridamarker 1,405,190 JetBlue Airways, Continental Airlines
2 Chicago, Illinoismarker 1,114,400 Continental Airlines, Continental Express, American Airlines, United Airlines
3 Atlanta, Georgiamarker 1,099,180 Continental Airlines, Continental Express, AirTran Airways, Delta Air Lines
4 Fort Lauderdale, Floridamarker 1,089,380 JetBlue Airways, Continental Airlines
5 Los Angeles, Californiamarker 944,460 Continental Airlines, American Airlines
6 San Francisico, Californiamarker 793,260 Continental Airlines, United Airlines
7 Houston, Texasmarker 788,750 Continental Airlines
8 Las Vegas, Nevadamarker 739,280 Continental Airlines
9 Miami, Floridamarker 729,750 Continental Airlines, American Airlines
10 Tampa, Floridamarker 677,310 JetBlue Airways, Continental Airlines
11 West Palm Beach, Floridamarker 671,300 JetBlue Airways, Continental Airlines
12 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texasmarker 565,480 Continental Airlines, American Airlines
13 Phoenix, Arizonamarker 521,450 Continental Airlines, US Airways
14 Fort Myers, Floridamarker 439,270 JetBlue Airways, Continental Airlines
15 San Juan, Puerto Ricomarker 437,900 Continental Airlines
16 Charlotte, North Carolinamarker 431,360 Continental Airlines, US Airways
17 Seattle/Tacoma, Washingtonmarker 422,660 Continental Airlines, Alaska Airlines
18 Denver, Coloradomarker 408,680 Continental Airlines, United Airlines
19 Boston, Massachusettsmarker 387,850 Continental Airlines
20 San Diego, Californiamarker 346,580 Continental Airlines
21 Minneapolis/St Paul, Minnesotamarker 327,080 Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines
22 Detroit, Michiganmarker 291,720 Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines
23 Raleigh-Durham, North Carolinamarker 278,190 Continental Express, Continental Airlines, Continental Connection
24 Cleveland, Ohiomarker 261,250 Continental Airlines
25 Washington, D.C.marker 242,790 United Express, Continental Connection
26 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniamarker 220,520 Continental Express, Continental Airlines
27 Jacksonville, Floridamarker 211,090 Continental Express, Continental Airlines
28 St Louis, Missourimarker 207,540 American Connection, Continental Express
29 New Orleans, Louisianamarker 204,260 Continental Airlines
30 Santa Ana, Californiamarker 209,910 Continental Airlines


Terminals

Terminal A at night in 2005
Interior of Terminal C


Newark Liberty International Airport has three passenger terminal. Terminal A and Terminal B were completed in 1973 and have four levels. Ticket counters are on the top floor, except for the second-floor Air India and first-floor British Airways desks. Gates and shops are on the third floor. An international arrivals lounge (Terminal B) and baggage carousels (both A and B) are on the second floor. Finally, short-term parking and ramp operations (restricted areas) are on the ground floor. Terminal C, completed in 1988, has two ticketing levels, one for international check-in and one for domestic check-in. The gates, as well as food and shopping outlets, are located on a mezzanine level between the two check-in floors. From 1998 to 2003, Terminal C was renovated. The baggage claim area was renovated and turned into a second departure level, a third concourse was added, an international arrivals facility was added, and a 3,400-space parking garage and new baggage processing facilities were added, including turning the former underground parking area into a new baggage claim. Parking had been prohibited underneath the terminal as a security measure after the first attack on the World Trade Center in 1993.

As of 2008, Terminal B is being renovated to increase capacity for departing passengers and passenger comfort. The renovations include expanding and updating the ticketing areas, building a new departure level for domestic flights, and building a new arrivals hall. Plans are also in place to expand Terminal A by adding a new parking garage and radically expanding the size of the first concourse to add new gates, ticketing, baggage and security areas.

Each terminal is subdivided into three numbered concourses: Terminal A, for instance, is divided into concourses A1, A2, and A3. Gate numbering is continuous through all the terminals. Wayfinding signage throughout the terminals was designed by Paul Mijksenaar.

Terminal A is the only terminal at Newark not fitted with immigration facilities: flights arriving from other countries cannot use Terminal A (except countries with US customs preclearance), although some departing international flights use the terminal.

Following the business model of the Port Authority's other facilities, in some cases entire terminals are operated by terminal operators and not by the Port Authority directly. At Newark Liberty, Terminal A is operated by United Airlines and Terminal C is operated by Continental Airlines. Terminal B is the only passenger terminal directly operated by the Authority.

Terminals, airlines and destinations

Cargo



Ground transportation

AirTrain



Newark is an intermodal airport. A monorail system, AirTrain Newark, connects the terminals with the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Link Stationmarker for connection to Amtrak and New Jersey Transit service. Passengers can use this connection to travel from EWR to any station along New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor or North Jersey Coast Line, including regional transit hubs such as New York City's Penn Stationmarker.

Continental Airlines uses this rail connection to book passengers through Newark to 30th Street Stationmarker in Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniamarker; Wilmington Stationmarker in Wilmington, Delawaremarker; Penn Stationmarker in New York Citymarker; Stamford Stationmarker in Stamford, Connecticutmarker; and Union Stationmarker in New Haven, Connecticutmarker.

The monorail is free for use between all stations, but passengers wishing to exit or enter the Rail Link station must pay a fee. NJ Transit tickets to or from the Rail Link station that are sold at ticket windows and vending machines automatically include this fee. Tickets purchased on a train will not allow passengers to enter the Rail Link station; they will have to pay the fee at the station.

Other connections

Numerous bus services run between Newark Liberty and nearby population centers, including New Jersey Transit, Airporter, and Olympia Trails. Express buses to Manhattan transit hubs (Grand Central Terminalmarker, Port Authority Bus Terminalmarker, etc.), and a bus service to JFK Airportmarker are also available.

The airport is also served by a number of New Jersey Transit buses, providing local service from downtown Newark, including Newark Penn Stationmarker, Irvingtonmarker, Lakewoodmarker and Toms Rivermarker.

The New Jersey Turnpike has 2 exits that allow motorists to gain access to Newark Liberty International Airport.

Taxis also operate from the airport at flat rates based on destination. From the City of New York, fares are set by New York City's Taxi and Limousine Commission. Newark Liberty, along with destinations in Nassau and Westchester Counties, is one of the exceptions to the rule that a New York City taxi driver may refuse to take a passenger to any destination outside the five boroughs.

Continental Airlines also books passengers via Trans-Bridge Lines to Lehigh Valley International Airportmarker in Allentown, Pennsylvaniamarker, a 90-minute trip.

There are also private limousine and car service companies providing service to the airport.

Accommodations

Within Newark Liberty International Airport's complex is a Marriott hotel, the only hotel located on the airport's property. Shuttle vans stop at all terminals to transport guests to the hotel because the Marriott is not serviced by the monorail and is not physically connected to any terminal. There are also a variety of hotels located adjacent to Newark Airport.

Airport information

Airport information can be obtained in several ways both before traveling to the airport and while there. In addition to the Web site listed below, travelers may call the airport at +1-973-961-6000 or from within the United Statesmarker and Canadamarker, toll-free at 888-EWR-INFO (397-4636).

In the immediate vicinity of the airport, parking and other information can be obtained by tuning to a highway advisory radio station at 530 AM.

Newark Airport, along with LaGuardiamarker and Kennedymarker airports, uses a uniform style of signing throughout the airport properties. Yellow signs direct passengers to airline gates, ticketing and other flight services; green signs direct passengers to ground transportation services, and black signs lead to restrooms, telephones and other passenger amenities.

New York Citymarker traffic reporter Bernie Wagenblast provides the voice for the airport's phone system, radio station and curbside announcements, as well as the messages heard onboard AirTrain Newark and in its stations.

The airport has the IATA designation EWR, rather than a designation that begins with the letter 'N' because the U.S. Navy discourages the use of IATA codes that begin with the letter 'N' for United States airports, and because the obvious designator of "NEW" is already assigned to Lakefront Airportmarker in New Orleans, LA.

Incidents and accidents



See also



References

  1. Crain's New York Business Lists
  2. http://news.van.fedex.com/files/FedEx%20Express%20Hub%20in%20Newark.pdf
  3. ACI passenger figures for 2008
  4. Elizabeth, NJ Plane Crash Kills 28, Jan 1952 | GenDisasters ... Genealogy in Tragedy, Disasters, Fires, Floods
  5. http://news.van.fedex.com/files/FedEx%20Express%20Hub%20in%20Newark.pdf
  6. Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts / (2006) Page 76 ISBN 158816635X
  7. http://www.boeing.com/commercial/caft/cwg/ads_b/Closely.pdf
  8. Building a Better Airport
  9. http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressCenterGuide/VideoAirportContacts/
  10. Newark Liberty International Airport Marriott
  11. ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas MD-11F N611FE Newark International Airport, NJ (EWR)


External links




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