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Newington is an area within the London Borough of Southwarkmarker in Londonmarker, Englandmarker. It was the site of the early administration of the county of Surreymarker and the location of the County of London Sessions House from 1917, in a building now occupied by the Inner London Crown Courtmarker.

Etymology

The name means "new farmstead" or the newer part of the manor of Walworth but because of its position on the principal road to the south-coast (Stane Street) subsumed it. The 'church' mentioned in Domesday Book in the entry for Walworth was probably that located here, so that when local administration by the Vestry Boards within the metropolitan area was created, (Metropolis Management Act) it assigned what is usually known as 'Walworth' as the vestry of 'St Mary, Newington'.

The first mention of Newington (or Neweton) occurs in the Testa de Nevill (a survey of feudal tenure officially known as the Book of Fees compiled 1198-1242) during the reign of Henry III, wherein it is stated that the queens goldsmith holds of the king one acre of land in Neweton, by the service of rendering a gallon of honey. In 1313 it is mentioned again in the Archbishop of Canterbury's Register as Newington juxta London.

The name has now fallen out of common usage because of London's urban sprawl and most residents would refer to the area as either Walworthmarker or Elephant and Castlemarker. The name lives on in the streets called Newington Causewaymarker and Newington Buttsmarker and in the open space Newington Gardensmarker, formerly the location of Horsemonger Lane Gaolmarker from 1791.

History

Newington gained in importantance around 1200 with the establishment of Lambeth Palacemarker nearby, which increased the local traffic. The area remained as a farming village with a low level of population until the second half of the 18th century. There was a little industry, for example, the manufacture of clay pipe for tobacco smoking. In William Shakespeare's time, there was a theatre called Newington Buttsmarker and later there were further theatres.

New roads brought development opportunities. The local landowner and MP for Winchestermarker, Henry Penton, started to sell some of his farmland. The 19th century brought more dense speculative housebuilding, and some philanthropic provision too. The Trinity House Estate, laid out around a 1820s classical church by Francis Bedford, is still largely in existence.
Trinity Church Square forms part of a conservation area


People

The scientist Michael Faraday was born here, in Newington Butts, in 1791. William Jowett, a 19th century missionary and author, was born at Newington in 1787, as was the visionary English artist Samuel Palmer in 1805.

Topography

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See also



References

  1. Goodwin, G., revised by H. C. G. Matthew, 'Jowett, William (1787–1855), missionary', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004)


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