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Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva (October 1, 1837 – December 26, 1885) was an Argentinemarker politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. Avellaneda's main projects while in office were banking and education reform, leading to Argentina's economic growth.

Born in San Miguel de Tucumánmarker, Avellaneda taught economy at the University of Buenos Airesmarker, was the founder of the periodical El Eco del Norte, became director of the El Nacional and editor of El Comercio de la Plata. He was a member of the house of representatives in 1859 and Minister of Government in 1866, during the government of Adolfo Alsina. During Domingo Sarmiento's presidency, he was Minister of Justice and Education and implemented an educational reform.

Avellaneda attained the presidency in 1874 but had its legitimacy contested by Bartolomé Mitre and supported by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. Mitre deployed the army against Avellaneda but eventually surrendered. Having won the revolution and bringing peace to the country, Avellaneda faced the serious economical crisis, centring his efforts in the control of the land with the Conquest of the Desert and expanding the railroads, the cereal and meat exportations, and the European immigration, specially to Patagonia. During his presidency, the economy of Argentina was seriously affected by the European crisis putting the country on the edge of economical default. Decided to take Argentina from its debts, he said he would "[...]pay with the hunger and thirst of the Argentine people" if needed.

A prolific writer, his works have been published in 12 volumes.

He was the youngest Argentine president ever elected. He had served in the Argentine Senate for five months in 1874 and returned to the Senate in 1883 until his death.

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