The Full Wiki

Nightmare: Map

  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



A nightmare is an unpleasant dream. Nightmares cause strong unpleasant emotional responses from the sleeper, typically fear or horror. The dream may contain situation(s) of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical distress. Such dreams can be related to physical causes such as a high fever; in an uncomfortable or awkward position; stress or post traumatic experiences. Sometimes there may not readily be an explanation. If a person has experienced a psychological trauma, the said experience may haunt them in their nightmares. Sleepers may be waken in a state of distress, and be unable to get back to sleep for some time. Eating before bed, which triggers an increase in the body's metabolism and brain activity, is another potential stimulus for nightmares. The term "nightmare" used to refer to what is now called Sleep Paralysis in the 19th century and earlier.

Occasional nightmares are commonplace, but recurrent nightmares can interfere with sleep and may cause people to seek medical help. A recently proposed treatment consists of imagery rehearsal. This approach appears to reduce the effects of nightmares and other symptoms in acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Medical investigation

Studies of dreams have found that about three quarters of dream content or emotions are negative.

One definition of "nightmare" is a dream which causes one to wake up in the middle of the sleep cycle and experience a negative emotion, such as fear. This type of event occurs on average once per month. They are not common in children under 5, more common in young children (25% experiencing a nightmare at least once per week), most common in adolescents, and less common in adults (dropping in frequency about one-third from age 25 to 55).

Fearfulness in waking life is correlated with the incidence of nightmares.

See also



Notes

  • Max Eastman visited Sigmund Freud's apartment in Viennamarker in 1926. He saw a print of Fuseli's The Nightmare next to Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson. Ernest Jones chose another version of Fuseli's painting as the frontispiece of his book On the Nightmare; however, neither Freud nor Jones mentioned those paintings in their writings about the classic nightmare.
  • Recent exhibits: Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Imagination. 15 February – 1 May (2006); Tate Britain, Millbank, London SW1P 4RG.
  • When considered a disease, nightmares are classified as follows:
    • ICD-10 code = F51.5
    • ICD-9 code = 307.47


References

  1. The Science Behind Dreams and Nightmares, Talk of the Nation, national Public Radio. 30 October 2007.
  • Anch, A.M., & Browman, C.P., & Mitler, M.M., & Walsh, J.K. (1988). Sleep: A scientific perspective. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Harris J.C. (2004). Arch Gen Psychiatry. May;61(5):439-40. The Nightmare. (PMID 15123487)
  • Jones, Ernest (1951). On the Nightmare (ISBN 0-87140-912-7) (pbk, 1971; ISBN 0-87140-248-3).
  • Forbes, D. et al. (2001) Brief Report: Treatment of Combat-Related Nightmares Using Imagery Rehearsal: A Pilot Study, Journal of Traumatic Stress 14 (2): 433-442
  • Siegel, A. (2003) A mini-course for clinicians and trauma workers on posttraumatic nightmares.
  • Burns, Sarah (2004). Painting the Dark Side : Art and the Gothic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century America. Ahmanson-Murphy Fine Are Imprint, 332 pp, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-23821-4.
  • Davenport-Hines, Richard (1999). Gothic: Four Hundred Years of Excess, Horror, Evil and Ruin. North Point Press, p160-61.
  • Simons, Ronald C and Hughes, Charles C (eds.)(1985). Culture-Bound Syndromes. Springer, 536pp.
  • Sagan, Carl (1997). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark.


External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message