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Ningbo ( ; literally "Tranquil Waves") is a seaport with sub-provincial administrative status. The city has a population of 2,201,000 and is situated in northeastern Zhejiangmarker province, Chinamarker. Lying south of the Hangzhou Bay, and facing the East China Seamarker to the east, Ningbo borders Shaoxingmarker to the west and Taizhoumarker to the south, and is separated from Zhoushanmarker by a narrow body of water.


Níng (宁) - Serene; bō (波) - Waves; Together - Serene Waves. The city is abbreviated Yǒng (甬), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, just like the Yong River (甬江) that flows through Ningbo. The abbreviation Ning is used for Nanjingmarker.


Ningbo was one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating back to 4800 BC the Hemudu culture. Once known as Mingzhou, Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port, along with Yangzhoumarker and Guangzhoumarker in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty. The city of Ningbo is recalled for a long time under the name of Liampó, in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) of Fernão Mendes Pinto, novel autobiographic Portuguese of the XVIth century. It is in this place it seems that was installed the first Portuguese salable community of the seas of China, before Macaomarker. There are celebrated the feats of the pirate António of Faria..Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britainmarker and Chinamarker. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences.

Ningbo was once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production.

During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague. According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.

"It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.' "

Administrative Structure

Ningbo currently has a Chinese Communist Party secretary of Mongol background, Bayanchuluun, serving as first-in-charge of the city.

Ningbo Local Government Offices
    • Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office
    • Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau
    • Ningbo Govt.

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities (市 shi) and 2 Counties (县 xian):

Ningbo City Proper
Haishu-qu 海曙区
Jiangdong-qu 江东区
Jiangbei-qu 江北区
Zhenhai-qumarker 镇海区
Ningbo Suburban and Rural
Beilun-qu 北仑区
Yinzhou-qu 鄞州区
Yuyao-shimarker 余姚市
Cixi-shimarker 慈溪市
Fenghua-shimarker 奉化市
Ninghai-xianmarker 宁海县
Xiangshan-xian 象山县

Geography and climate

  • Ningbo covers an area of and has a total coastline of including of mainland coastline and of island coastline.
  • Climatic Features: sub-tropical monsoon climate featured with temperate and humid weather and four distinct seasons; frost-free of 230-240 days
  • Average Temperature: ; average high in summer is , in winter
  • Average Rainfall: –


Ningbo is a very important economic hub and port city. A port city for foreign trade since the 7th century, Ningbo has since become a major exporter of consumer products, electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools.

The city formerly suffered from the fact that Hangzhou Bay stood between it and Shanghai, but this barrier was eliminated in late 2008 when a 33 km cross-sea bridge was completed, allowing travel to Shanghai in less than two hours.

The bridge is already having an impact on the local economy, according to foreign business people in the city – property prices are rising dramatically. Industrial land is now twice that of similar land around Shanghai in 2006. It remains to be seen what economic action will be taken to correct soaring property values and whether the correction will be hard or soft.

In 2007, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 56.5 billion, up 33.9% from 2006. The exports totalled USD 38.26 billion, up 33% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported USD 18.24 billion of goods, up 35.7% from the previous year.

Ningbo's economy grew 10.1 percent in 2008 to 396.4 billion yuan (US$57 billion). The city's per capita output was $10,079, more than three times the national average.

Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dying cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the Ningbo economic growth.

Ningbo Port

Ningbo is not just an ordinary city – it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration – and has a port second only to Shanghai. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deepwater and capable of handling 300,000 tonne vessels. By 2007, cargo throughput will be 250m tonnes and container throughput 7m TEUs, and by 2010, 300m tonnes and 10m TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could yet win the race with Shanghai as port of choice for servicing the Chinese east coast.


Ningbo at night
  • Tianyi Pavilion Museum, (Tian Yi Ge Bowuguan) Ningbo's best tourist attraction, the Tian Yi Chamber (daily 8am-4.30pm; ¥20), is comfortably tucked away in the vicinity of Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516 and said to be the oldest surviving library building in China, it was founded by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the eleventh century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations. Nowadays you can visit the library's garden and outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and tablets. It's quite a charming place and the gold-plated, wood-paneled buildings, their bamboo groves, pool and rockery still preserve an atmosphere of seclusion, contemplation and study.
  • Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in Southern China, is located in Jiangbei District, 15 km north of Ningbo city.
  • Tianfeng Tower
  • Ahyuwang Temple
  • Tiantong Temple
  • Tian Yi Square
  • Yushan Islands

Notable people

Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or their ancestral home was Ningbo.

People in mainland China

People in Hong Kongmarker

People in Taiwanmarker People overseas


Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo
The Hangzhou Bay Bridgemarker, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay opened to public on 1 May 2008, connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world, and the world’s second-longest bridge, after the Lake Ponchartrain Causewaymarker in Louisianamarker, USA.

The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports, ranked 4th by cargo tonnage in 2005, and 15th in TEU.

Ningbo Lishe International Airportmarker connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled flights to China and international destinations.


Ningbo is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Its sector of responsibility includes Taiwanmarker.


Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tang yuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground seasame mixed with sugar. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder.

Universities and colleges

Ningbo has three universities. Towards the north of the city is Ningbo University, while the Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University as well as the University of Nottingham Ningbo, Chinamarker – a joint venture between the University of Nottinghammarker and the Wanli Education Group.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Ningbo is twinned with:

Sister cities (友好城市)

Cities of friendly exchanges (友好交流关系城市)

See also


  1. Japan triggered bubonic plague outbreak, doctor claims, [1],
  2. Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.32.
  3. [2] Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office
  4. Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau
  5. Ningbo Govt.
  6. China Briefing Developing Cities: Ningbo
  7. JS Online: New statues are today's mane event

External links

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