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Ningxia ( ; Postal map spelling: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( ), is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic of Chinamarker, located on the northwest Loess highlandmarker, the Yellow Rivermarker flows through a vast area of its land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary. Ningxia is the home of the Hui, one of the officially recognized Nationalities of China. The capital of the region is Yinchuanmarker.

Ningxia is bounded by Shaanximarker and Gansumarker provinces and Inner Mongolia autonomous region and has an area of 66,400 sq km.Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was detached and reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people in 1958. In 1969, Ningxia received a part of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, but this area was returned in 1979. It is nearly coextensive with the ancient kingdom of the Tangut people, whose capital was captured by Genghis Khan in the early 13th century. The region is mostly desert and is sparsely settled, but the vast plain of the Yellow River in the north has been irrigated for centuries; over the years an extensive system of canals has been built. Desert and grazing land make up most of the area. Extensive land reclamation and irrigation projects have increased cultivation. The northern section, through which the Yellow River flows, is the best agricultural land. One railroad, linking Lanzhoumarker with Baotoumarker, crosses the region. A highway has been built across the Yellow River at Yinchuan.

History

Ningxia and its surrounding areas were incorporated into the Qin Dynasty as early as the third century BCE. Throughout the Han Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty there were several large cities established in the region, and by the eleventh century the Tangut tribe had established the Western Xia Dynasty on the outskirts of the then Song Dynasty.

It then came under Mongol domination after Genghis Khan conquered Yinchuanmarker in the early thirteenth century. After the Mongols departed and its influences faded, some Turkic-speaking Muslims also began moving into Ningxia from the west. In the Muslim Rebellion of the 19th century, twelve million non-Muslims were killed by the Hui Muslims for the purpose of developing a Muslim country on the western bank of the Yellow River (Shaanximarker, Gansumarker and Ningxia (excluding the Xinjiang province)), around five million Hui Muslims in Western China were killed by the Qingmarker authorities.

In 1914, Ningxia was merged with the province of Gansumarker; in 1928, however, it was detached and became a province. Between 1914 and 1928, the Xibei San Ma brothers (literally "three Mas of the northwest") ruled the provinces of Qinghai, Ningxia and Gansu. In 1958, Ningxia formally became an autonomous region of China. In 1969, Ningxia's border was extended to the north and acquired parts of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, but was reverted again in 1979.

Geography

Ningxia borders the provinces of Shaanximarker and Gansumarker, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

Rivers that flow through Ningxia include the Yellow Rivermarker.

Ningxia is a relatively dry, desert-like region. There is significant irrigation in order to support the growing of wolfberries (a commonly consumed fruit throughout the region).

Ningxia's deserts include the Tengger desertmarker in Shapotou.

On 16 December 1920, the Haiyuan earthquakemarker, 8.6 magnitude, at , initiated a series of landslides that killed an estimated 200,000 people. Over 600 large loess landslides created more than 40 new lakes.

In 2006, satellite images indicated that a 700 by 200-meter fenced area within Ningxia—5 km southwest of Yinchuanmarker, near the remote village of Huangyangtan—is a near-exact 1:500 scale terrain model reproduction of a 450 by 350-kilometer area of Aksai Chinmarker bordering Indiamarker, complete with mountains, valleys, lakes and hills. Its purpose is as yet unknown.

Climate

The region is 1,200 km from the sea and has a continental climate with average summer temperatures rising to between 17 and 24°C in July and average winter temperatures dropping to between -7 and -10°C in January. Seasonal extreme temperatures can reach 39°C in summer and -30°C in winter. The diurnal temperature variation in summer is 17°C. Annual rainfall averages from 190 to 700 millimeters, with more rain falling in the south of the region.

Environment



Governance

The politics of Ningxia is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Chairman of the Autonomous Region is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Ningxia. However, in the Autonomous Region's dual party-government governing system, the Chairman has less power than the Communist Party of China Ningxia Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Ningxia CPC Party Chief".

Ningxia has a friendship agreement with Sogn og Fjordanemarker county of Norway.

Administrative divisions

Ningxia is divided into five prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Type
1 Yinchuanmarker 银川市 Yínchuān Shì Prefecture-level city
2 Shizuishanmarker 石嘴山市 Shízuǐshān Shì Prefecture-level city
3 Wuzhong 吴忠市 Wúzhōng Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Zhongweimarker 中卫市 Zhōngwèi Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Guyuan 固原市 Gùyuán Shì Prefecture-level city


Economy

Ningxia is the province with the third smallest GDP (Tibet being the last) in the PRC. Its nominal GDP in 2008 was just 109.85 billion yuan (US$15.8 billion) and a per capita GDP of 17,892 yuan (US$2,576). It contributes 0.3% of the national economy.

Ningxia is the principal region of China where wolfberries are grown.

Yinchuanmarker Economic and Technological Development Zone: established in 1992 spanning 32 km2, annual economic output Rmb23.7 billion (25.1% up) (US$3.5 billion) Major investors: Mainly local enterprises such as Kocel Steel Foundry, FAG Railway Bearing (Ningxia), Ningxia Little Giant Machine Tools, etc. Major industries: Machinery and equipment manufacturing, new materials, fine chemicals and the animation industry

Desheng Industrial Park (in Helan County), is a base for about 400 enterprises. The industrial park has industrial chains from Muslim food and commodities to trade and logistics, new materials and bio-pharmaceuticals that has 80 billion yuan in fixed assets. Desheng is looking to be the most promising industrial park in the city. It achieved a total output value of 4.85 billion in 2008, up 40 percent year-on-year. The local government plans to cut taxes and other fees to reduce the burden on local enterprises. The industrial output value reached 2.68 billion yuan in 2008, an increase of 48 percent from a year earlier.

Transport

Airports



Highways



Bridge



Rail



Universities

See List of universities and colleges in Ningxia

Hospitals

  • People's Hospital of Ningxia
  • Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Ningxia
  • Ningxia Medical College affiliated Hospital
  • Yinchuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Yinchuan People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan Stomatological Hospital
  • Yinchuan Women and Children's Healthcare Center
  • Women and Children's Healthcare Center of Ningixa
  • Yinchuan No.1 People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan No.2 People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan No.3 People's Hospital
  • Shizuishan No.2 People's Hospital
  • Guyuan Hospital of Ningxia


Tourism

One of Ningxia's main tourist spots is the famous Xixia Tombs site located 30 km west of Yinchuanmarker. The remnants of nine Western Xia emperors' tombs and two hundred other tombs lie within a 50-km² area. Other famous sites in Ningxia include Helan Shanmarker, the mysterious 108 dagobas, the twin pagodas of Baisikou and the desert research outpost at Shapatou.

Museums



Gallery

Image:Xixia_tombs.JPG |Western Xia TombsImage:Helanshan.jpg |From a cable car running to the top of Helan ShanmarkerImage:Yinchuan_aerial.JPG |Aerial view of YinchuanmarkerImage:Yinchuan_square.JPG |People's Square in YinchuanImage:Yinchuan_fountain.JPG|Fountain in YinchuanImage:108_Dagobas.JPG |The 108 dagoba near QingtongxiamarkerImage:Rich Nature Wolfberry Farm1 7-06.jpg|Wolfberry harvest celebration

Notes

  1. http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study/islam/historical_interaction/overviews/history_hui_muslims_china.html?query=Historical+Sketch+of+the+Hui+Muslims+of+China
  2. Close, U., and McCormick (1922) "Where the mountains walked" National Geographic Magazine 41(5): pp.445–464.
  3. Feng, X. and Guo, A. (1985) "Earthquake landslides in China" In Proceedings, IVth International Conference and Field Workshop on Landslides pp. 339–346, Japan Landslide Society, Tokyo, OCLC 70324350.
  4. Haines, Lester (19 July 2006). "Chinese black helicopters circle Google Earth". The Register
  5. Cassidy, Katherine (13 September 2006). "Armchair Sleuths Uncover Strange Military Sites in China". McClatchy Newspapers / Real Cities Network.
  6. Ningxia og Sogn og Fjordane eit steg vidare på samarbeidsvegen
  7. http://www.ycda.gov.cn - 银川经济技术开发区银川高新技术产业开发区


References



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