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Noise music is a term used to describe varieties of avant-garde music and sound art that may use elements such as cacophony, dissonance, atonality, noise, indeterminacy, and repetition in their realization. Noise music can feature distortion, various types of acoustically or electronically generated noise, randomly produced electronic signals, and non-traditional musical instruments. Noise music may also incorporate manipulated recordings, static, hiss and hum, feedback, live machine sounds, custom noise software, circuit bent instruments, and non-musical vocal elements that push noise towards the ecstatic.

The Futurist art movement was important for the development of the noise aesthetic, as was the Dada art movement (a prime example being the Antisymphony concert performed on April 30, 1919 in Berlin), and later the Surrealist and Fluxus art movements, specifically the Fluxus artists Joe Jones, Yasunao Tone, George Brecht, Robert Watts, Wolf Vostell, Yoko Ono, Walter De Maria's Ocean Music, Milan Knížák's Broken Music Composition, early LaMonte Young and Takehisa Kosugi.

Contemporary noise music is often associated with extreme volume and distortion, particularly in the popular music domain with examples such as Jimi Hendrix's use of feedback, Nine Inch Nails, Sonic Youth and Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music.

Other examples of music that contain noise-based features include works by Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Helmut Lachenmann, Cornelius Cardew, Theatre of Eternal Music, Rhys Chatham, Ryoji Ikeda, Survival Research Laboratories, Whitehouse, Cabaret Voltaire, Psychic TV, Jean Tinguely's recordings of his sound sculpture (specifically Bascule VII), the music of Hermann Nitsch's Orgien Mysterien Theater, and La Monte Young's bowed gong works from the late 1960s. Genres such as industrial, industrial techno, and glitch music employ noise-based materials.


The Art of Noises

Luigi Russolo, a futurist painter of the very early 20th century, was perhaps the first noise artist. His 1913 manifesto, L'Arte dei Rumori, translated as The Art of Noises, stated that the industrial revolution had given modern men a greater capacity to appreciate more complex sounds. Russolo found traditional melodic music confining and envisioned noise music as its future replacement. He designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori and assembled a noise orchestra to perform with them. A performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico (1917) was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though recently some have been reconstructed and used in performances. Although Russolo's works bear little resemblance to modern noise music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of this genre, and many artists are now familiar with his manifesto.
At first the art of music sought purity, limpidity and sweetness of sound.
Then different sounds were amalgamated, care being taken, however, to caress the ear with gentle harmonies.
Today music, as it becomes continually more complicated, strives to amalgamate the most dissonant, strange and harsh sounds.
In this way we come ever closer to noise-sound.

Antonio Russolo, another Italianmarker Futurist composer and Luigi's brother, produced a recording of two works featuring the original Intonarumori. The 1921 made phonograph with works entitled Corale and Serenata, combined conventional orchestral music set against the famous noise machines and is the only surviving sound recording.

An early Dada related work from 1916 by Marcel Duchamp also worked with noise, but in an almost silent way. His ready-made With Hidden Noise (A Bruit Secret) was a collaborative exercise that created a noise instrument that Duchamp accomplished with Walter Arensberg. What rattles inside when With Hidden Noise is shaken remains a mystery.

Found sound

In the same period the utilisation of found sound as a musical resource was starting to be explored. An early example is Parade, a performance produced at the Chatelet Theatre, Paris, on May 18, 1917, that was conceived by Jean Cocteau, with design by Pablo Picasso, choreography by Leonid Massine, and music by Eric Satie. The extra-musical materials used in the production were referred to as trompe l'oreille sounds by Coctueau and included a dynamo, Morse code machine, sirens, steam engine, airplane motor, and typewriters. Arseny Avraamov's composition Symphony of Factory Sirens involved navy ship sirens and whistles, bus and car horns, factory sirens, cannons, foghorns, artillery guns, machine guns, hydro-airplanes, a specially designed steam-whistle machine creating noisy renderings of Internationale and Marseillaise for a piece conducted by a team using flags and pistols when performed in the city of Bakumarker in 1922. In 1923 Arthur Honegger created Pacific 231, a modernist musical composition that imitates the sound of a steam locomotive. Another example is Ottorino Respighi's 1924 orchestral piece Pines of Rome, which included the phonographic playback of a nightingale recording. Also in 1924 George Antheil created a work entitled Ballet Mécanique with instrumentation that included 16 pianos, 3 airplane propellers, and 7 electric bells. The work was originally conceived as music for the Dada film of the same name, by Dudley Murphy and Fernand Léger, but in 1926 it premiered independently as a concert piece.

In 1930 Paul Hindemith and Ernst Toch recycled records to create sound montages and in 1936 Edgard Varese experimented with records, playing them backwards, and at varying speeds. Varese had earlier used sirens to create what he called a "continuous flowing curve" of sound that he could not achieve with acoustic instruments. In 1931 Varese's Ionisation for 13 players featured 2 sirens, a lions's roar, and used 37 percussion instruments to create a repertoire of unpitched sounds making it the first musical work to be organized soley on the basis of noise. In remarking on Varese's contributions the American composer John Cage stated that Varese had "established the present nature of music" and that he had "moved into the field of sound itself while others were still discriminating 'musical tones' from noises".

In an essay written in 1937, Cage expressed an interest in using extra-musical materials and came to distinguish between found sounds, which he called noise, and musical sounds, examples of which included: rain, static between radio channels, and "a truck at fifty miles per hour". Essentially, Cage made no distinction, in his view all sounds have the potential to be used creatively. His aim was to capture and control elements of the sonic environment and employ a method of sound organisation, a term borrowed from Varese, to bring meaning to the sound materials. Cage began in 1939 to create a series of works that explored his stated aims, the first being Imaginary Landscape #1 for instruments including two variable speed turntables with frequency recordings.

Experimental music

In the 1940s, Pierre Boulez (who made his name with violently expressive scores and opinionated polemics) embodied a strict sound style shorn of Romantic nostalgia and the detritus of a defunct tradition. Boulez moved on to the rigorously organized technique of total serialism, which organized various aspects of sound — pitch, duration, volume, and attack — into series of twelve, in line with the twelve-tone system. Under the influence of Henry Cowell in San Francisco, Lou Harrison and John Cage began composing music for "junk" percussion ensembles, scouring junkyards and Chinatown antique shops for appropriately-tuned brake drums, flower pots, gongs, and more.

In Europe, during the late 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer coined the term musique concrète to refer to the peculiar nature of sounds on tape, separated from the source that generated them initially. The first of Schaeffer's Cinq Études de bruits, or Five Noise Etudes, consisted of transformed locomotive sounds. Following this, both in Europe and America, other modernist art music composers such as Karlheinz Stockhausen, G.M. Koenig, Pierre Henry, Iannis Xenakis, La Monte Young, and David Tudor, explored sound-based composition. In late 1947 Antonin Artaud recorded (To Have Done with the Judgment of god), an audio piece full of the seemingly random cacophony of xylophonic sounds mixed with various percussive elements, mixed with the noise of alarming human cries, screams, grunts, onomatopoeia, and glossolalia. In 1949, Nouveau Realisme artist Yves Klein wrote The Monotone Symphony (formally The Monotone-Silence Symphony, conceived 1947–1948), a 40-minute orchestral piece that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord (followed by a 20-minute silence) - showing how the sound of one drone could make music. Also in 1949, Boulez befriended John Cage, who was visiting Paris to do research on the music of Erik Satie. John Cage had been pushing music in even more startling directions during the war years, writing for prepared piano, junkyard percussion, and electronic gadgetry.

In 1951 Cage's Imaginary Landscape #4, a work for twelve radio receivers, was premiered in New York. Performance of the composition necessitated the use of a score that contained indications for various wavelengths, durations, and dynamic levels, all of which had been determined using chance operations.A year later in 1952, Cage applied his aleatoric methods to tape based composition. This resulted in the work Williams Mix, which was made up of some six hundred tape fragments arranged according to the demands of the I Ching. Cage's early radical phase reached its height that summer of 1952, when he unveiled the first art "happening" at Black Mountain College, and 4'33", the so-called controversial "silent piece". The premiere of 4'33" was performed by David Tudor. The audience saw him sit at the piano, and close the lid of the piano. Some time later, without having played any notes, he opened the lid. A while after that, again having played nothing, he closed the lid. And after a period of time, he opened the lid once more and rose from the piano. The piece had passed without a note being played, in fact without Tudor or anyone else on stage having made any deliberate sound, although he timed the lengths on a stopwatch while turning the pages of the score. Only then could the audience recognize what Cage insisted upon: that there is no such thing as silence. Noise is always happening that makes musical sound. In 1957 Edgard Varèse created on tape an extended piece of electronic music using noises created by scraping, thumping and blowing entitled Poème électronique.

On May 8, 1960, six young Japanese musicians, including Takehisa Kosugi and Yasunao Tone, formed the Group Ongaku with two tape recordings of noise music: Automatism and Object. These recordings made use of a mixture of traditional musical instruments along with a vacuum cleaner, a radio, an oil drum, a doll, and a set of dishes. Moreover, the speed of the tape recording was manipulated, further distorting the sounds being recorded.

Postmodern developments

The art critic Rosalind Krauss argued that by 1968 artists such as Robert Morris, Robert Smithson, and Richard Serra had "entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist." Sound art found itself in the same condition, but with an added emphasis on distribution.. Joseph Nechvatal & Carlo McCormick essays in TellusTools liner notes (New York: Harvestworks ed., 2001). Antiform process art became the terms used to describe this post-modern post-industrial culture and the process by which it is made. Serious art music responded to this conjuncture in terms of intense noise, for example the La Monte Young Fluxus composition 89 VI 8 C. 1:42-1:52 AM Paris Encore from Poem For Chairs, Tables, Benches, Etc. Young's composition Two Sounds (1960) was composed for amplified percussion and window panes and his Poem for Tables, Chairs and Benches (1960) used the sounds of furniture scraping across the floor.

Free noise

Also a process anti-form "free noise" emerged out of the avant-garde jazz tradition with musicians such as John Coltrane, Pharoah Sanders, Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Eric Dolphy, Archie Shepp, Sun Ra and the Arkestra, Albert Ayler, Peter Brötzmann, and John Zorn.

Industrial music

In the 1970s, the concept of art itself expanded and groups like Survival Research Laboratories, Borbetomagus and Elliott Sharp embraced and extended the most dissonant and least approachable aspects of these musical/spatial concepts.Around the same time, the first postmodern wave of industrial noise music appeared with Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, and NON (aka Boyd Rice). These cassette culture releases often featured zany tape editing, stark percussion and repetitive loops distorted to the point where they may degrade into harsh noise. In the 1970s and 1980s, industrial noise groups like Current 93, Hafler Trio, Throbbing Gristle, Coil, Laibach, Steven Stapleton, Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, Smegma, Nurse with Wound, Einstürzende Neubauten and The New Blockaders performed industrial noise music mixing loud metal percussion, guitars, and unconventional "instruments" (such as jackhammers and bones) in elaborate stage performances. These industrial artists experimented with varying degrees of noise production techniques. Interest in the use of shortwave radio also developed at this time, particularly evident in the recordings and live performances of John Duncan. Other postmodern art movements influential to postindustrial noise art are Conceptual Art and the Neo-Dada use of techniques such as assemblage, montage, bricolage, and appropriation. Bands like Étant Donnés, Le Syndicat, Test Dept, Clock DVA, Factrix, Autopsia, Nocturnal Emissions, Whitehouse, Severed Heads, Sutcliffe Jügend, and SPK soon followed.

Tellus #13
The sudden post-industrial affordability of home cassette recording technology in the 1970s, combined with the simultaneous influence of punk rock, established the no wave aesthetic, and instigated what is commonly referred to as noise music today.

Noise rock and No wave music

Lou Reed's double LP album, Metal Machine Music (1975) is an early, well-known example of commercial studio noise music that the music critic Lester Bangs has called the "greatest album ever made in the history of the human eardrum". It has also been cited as one of the "worst albums of all time". Reed was well aware of the drone music of La Monte Young. His Theater of Eternal Music was a seminal minimal music noise group in the mid-60s with Velvet Underground cohort John Cale, Marian Zazeela, Henry Flynt, Angus Maclise, Tony Conrad, and others. The Theater of Eternal Music's discordant sustained notes and loud amplification had influenced John Cale's subsequent contribution to the Velvet Underground in his use of both discordance and feedback. John Cale and Tony Conrad have released noise music recordings they made during the mid-sixties, such as Cale's Inside the Dream Syndicate series (The Dream Syndicate being the alternative name given by Cale and Conrad to their collective work with LaMonte Young).

The aptly-named noise rock fuses rock to noise, usually with recognizable "rock" instrumentation, but with greater use of distortion and electronic effects, varying degrees of atonality, improvisation, and white noise. One notable band of this genre is Sonic Youth who took inspiration from the no wave noise composers Glenn Branca and Rhys Chatham (himself a student of LaMonte Young). Marc Masters, in his book on the no wave, points out that aggressively innovative early dark noise groups like Mars and DNA drew on punk rock, avant-garde minimalism and performance art. Important in this noise trajectory are the nine nights of noise music called Noise Fest that was organized by Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth in the NYC art space White Columns in June 1981 followed by the Speed Trials noise rock series organized by Live Skull members in May 1983. Also notable in this vein is Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins, an avante-garde recording by John Lennon and Yoko Ono from 1968 consisting of repeating tape loops as John Lennon plays on different rock instruments such as piano, organ and drums along with sound effects (including reverb, delay and distortion), changes tapes and plays other recordings, and converses with Yoko Ono, who vocalises ad-lib in response to the sounds. They followed this recording with another noise recording in 1969 entitled Unfinished Music No.2: Life with the Lions.

Japanese noise music

Since the late 1980s in Japanmarker there has been a prolific output of "harsh" noise music by the noise figurehead Merzbow (pseudonym for the Japanese noise artist Masami Akita who himself was inspired by the Dada artist Kurt Schwitters's Merz art project of psychological collage). Other key Japanese noise artists include Hijokaidan, Boredoms, C.C.C.C., Incapacitants, KK Null, Yamazaki Maso’s Masonna, Solmania, K2, The Gerogerigegege and Hanatarash..

Post-industrial and Post-digital music

Following the wake of industrial noise music, noise rock, no wave and harsh noise, there has been a flood of noise musicians whose ambient, microsound or glitch-based work is often subtler to the ear. Cascone (2002) refers to this development as a postdigital movement and describes it as an aesthetic of failure. Some of this music has seen wide distribution thanks to peer to peer file sharing services and netlabels offering free releases. Goodman (2009) characterizes this widespread outpouring of free noise based media as a noise virus. Post-industrial noise artists from the 1980s, 90s and 2000s include Nicolas Collins, The Haters, Boyd Rice, Pole, The Psychic Workshop, Stephen Vitiello, If, Bwana, PBK (a.k.a. Phillip B. Klingler), Aube, Crawling With Tarts, Andrew Deutsch, Leif Elggren, Randy Grief, Robin Rimbaud, Minoy, Kim Cascone, Master/slave Relationship, Alva Noto, Oval, Boards of Canada, Maybe Mental, Florian Hecker, Farmers Manual, Kenji Siratori, Thanasis Kaproulias (Novi-Sad), Fennesz, Matthew Underwood, Pan Sonic, Yasunao Tone, Noise Maker's Fifes, Arcane Device, Francisco López, and others. In 2009 noise was said to be trending heavily with shit fi acts such as Wavves and Times New Viking. Richie Hawtin, Jan Jelinek, Ricardo Villalobos, Decomposed Subsonic, Trentemøller and other Minimal techno and Microhouse DJ have been using Post-industrial music noise elements such as buzz, hum and clicks as sonic flavor since the early 1990s.


In defining noise music and its value, Paul Hegarty (2007) cites the work of noted cultural critics Jean Baudrillard, Georges Bataille and Theodor Adorno and through their work traces the history of "noise". He defines noise at different times as "intrusive, unwanted," "lacking skill, not being appropriate" and "a threatening emptiness". He traces these trends starting with 18th century concert hall music. Hegarty contends that it is John Cage's composition 4'33", in which an audience sits through four and a half minutes of "silence" (Cage 1973), that represents the beginning of noise music proper. For Hegarty, "noise music", as with 4'33", is that music made up of incidental sounds that represent perfectly the tension between "desirable" sound (properly played musical notes) and undesirable "noise" that make up all noise music from Erik Satie to NON to Glenn Branca.

Writer Douglas Kahn, in his work Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts (1999), discusses the use of noise as a medium and explores the ideas of Antonin Artaud, George Brecht, William Burroughs, Sergei Eisenstein, Fluxus, Allan Kaprow, Michael McClure, Yoko Ono, Jackson Pollock, Luigi Russolo, and Dziga Vertov.

In Noise: The Political Economy of Music (1985), Jacques Attali explores the relationship between noise music and the future of society. He indicates that noise in music is a predictor of social change and demonstrates how noise acts as the subconscious of society – validating and testing new social and political realities.


Like much of modern and contemporary art, noise music takes characteristics of the perceived negative traits of noise mentioned below and uses them in aesthetic and imaginative ways.

In music, dissonance is the quality of sounds which seems "unstable", and has an aural "need" to "resolve" to a "stable" consonance. Despite the fact that words like "unpleasant" and "grating" are often used to describe the sound of harsh dissonance, in fact all music with a harmonic or tonal basis—even music which is perceived as generally harmonious—incorporates some degree of dissonance.
In common use, the word noise means unwanted sound or noise pollution.In electronics noise can refer to the electronic signal corresponding to acoustic noise (in an audio system) or the electronic signal corresponding to the (visual) noise commonly seen as 'snow' on a degraded television or video image. In signal processing or computing it can be considered data without meaning; that is, data that is not being used to transmit a signal, but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. Noise can block, distort, or change the meaning of a message in both human and electronic communication.White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise is considered analogous to white light which contains all frequencies.

In much the same way the early modernists were inspired by naïve art, some contemporary digital art noise musicians are excited by the archaic audio technologies such as wire-recorders, the 8-track cartridge, and vinyl records. Many artists not only build their own noise-generating devices, but even their own specialized recording equipment and custom software (for example, the C++ software used in creating the viral symphOny by Joseph Nechvatal).

Noise compilations

  • An Anthology of Noise & Electronic Music, Volumes 1–7 Sub Rosa, various artists (1920–2007)
  • Japanese Independent Music (2000) various artists, Paris Sonore
  • Just Another Asshole #5 (1981) compilation LP (CD reissue 1995 on Atavistic #ALP39CD), producers: Barbara Ess & Glenn Branca
  • New York Noise (2003) Soul Jazz B00009OYSE
  • New York Noise, Vol. 2 (2006) Soul Jazz B000CHYHOG
  • New York Noise, Vol. 3 (2006) Soul Jazz B000HEZ5CC
  • Noise May-Day 2003, various artists, Coquette Japanmarker CD Catalog#: NMD-2003
  • No New York (1978) Antilles, (2006) Lilith, B000B63ISE
  • Bip-Hop Generation (2001-2008) Volumes 1-9, various artists, Parismarker
  • Independent Dark Electronics Volume #1 (2008) IDE

See also


  1. [1] Torben Sangild, The Aesthetics of Noise, DATANOM, 2002
  2. Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007), p. x (preface).
  3. Caleb Kelly, Cracked Media: The Sound of Malfunction (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009), pp. 60-76.
  4. Matthew Biro, The Dada Cyborg: Visions of the New Human in Weimar Berlin, 2009, p. 50.
  5. Documents at The International Dada archive at The University of Iowa show that Antisymphonie was held at the Graphisches Kabinett, Kurfürstendamm 232, at 7:45 PM. The printed program lists 5 numbers: "Proclamation dada 1919" by Huelsenbeck, "Simultan-Gedicht" performed by 7 people, "Bruitistisches Gedicht" performed by Huelsenbeck (these latter 2 pieces grouped together under the category "DADA-machine"), "Seelenautomobil" by Hausmann, and finally, Golyscheff's Antisymphonie in 3 movements, subtitled "Musikalische Kriegsguillotine." The 3 movements of Golyscheff's piece are titled "provokatorische Spritze," "chaotische Mundhöhle oder das submarine Flugzeug," and "zusammenklappbares Hyper-fis-chendur."
  6. [2] Walter_Ocean-Music_1968.
  7. *Owen Smith, Fluxus: The History of an Attitude (1998) San Diego State University Press, pp. 7 & 82.
  8. Lou Reed and Amanda Petrusich " Interview: Lou Reed", Pitchfork Media (2007-09-17). (Accessed 2008-08-18).
  9. Such as 23 VIII 64 2:50:45 - 3:11 am The Volga Delta From Studies In The Bowed Disc from The Black Record (1969)
  10. [3] best glitch music albums of all times.
  11. Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007), pp. 189–92.
  12. Caleb Kelly, Cracked Media: The Sound of Malfunction (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009), pp. 6–10.
  13. In Futurism and Musical Notes, Daniele Lombardi discusses the mysterious case of the French composer Carol-Bérard; a pupil of Isaac Albeniz. Carol-Bérard is said to have composed a Symphony of Mechanical Forces in 1910 - but little evidence as emerged thus far to establish this assertion.
  14. [4] Luigi Russolo, "The Art of Noises".
  15. László Moholy-Nagy in 1923 recognized the unprecedented efforts of the Italian Futurists to broaden our perception of sound using noise. In an article in Der Storm #7, he outlined the fundamentals of his own experimentation: "I have suggested to change the gramophone from a reproductive instrument to a productive one, so that on a record without prior acoustic information, the acoustic information, the acoustic phenomenon itself originates by engraving the necessary Ritchriftreihen (etched grooves)." He presents detailed descriptions for manipulating discs, creating "real sound forms" to train people to be "true music receivers and creators". Source: UbuWeb Papers: A Brief history of Anti-Records and Conceptual Records by Ron Rice.
  16. Russolo, Luigi from The Art of Noises, circa 1913.
  17. Albright, Daniel (ed.) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Source. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004. p. 174
  18. Michel Sanouillet & Elmer Peterson (Eds.), The Writings of Marcel Duchamp, Da Capo Press, p. 135.
  19. .
  20. [5] Martin John Callanan, Sonification of You.
  21. Albright, Daniel (ed.) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Source. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004. p. 386
  22. .
  23. [6] The Ballet Mécanique.
  24. .
  25. UbuWeb Papers A Brief history of Anti-Records and Conceptual Records by Ron Rice.
  26. .
  27. .
  28. .
  29. .
  30. .
  31. .
  32. Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 362. ISBN 0374249393.
  33. Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 363 ISBN 0374249393.
  34. Henry Cowell, "The Joys of Noise", in Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music (New York: Continuum, 2004), pp. 22–24.
  35. D. Teruggi, "Technology and Musique Concrete: The Technical Developments of the Groupe de Recherches Musicales and Their Implication in Musical Composition", Organised Sound 12, no. 3 (2007): 213–31.
  36. Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 369.
  37. Antonin Artaud , original recording, edited with an introduction by Marc Dachy. Compact Disc (Sub Rosa/aural documents, 1995).
  38. Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History, pp. 25-26.
  39. An account and sound recording of The Monotone Symphony performed March 9, 1960 ( copy of 2001).
  40. Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 365.
  41. .
  42. John Cage, Silence: Lectures and Writings (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1961), p. 59.
  43. Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 401.
  44. OHM- The Early Gurus of Electronic Music:Edgard Varese's "Poem Electronique", Perfect Sound Forever website (Accessed 20 October 2009).
  45. Albright, Daniel (ed.) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Source. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004. p. 185
  46. Charles Mereweather (ed.), Art Anti-Art Non-Art (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2007), pp. 13 & 16.
  47. Rosalind E. Krauss, The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths: Sculpture in the Expanded Field (Cambridge, Mass.:MIT Press, 1986), pp. 30–44.
  48. Rosalind Krauss, " Sculpture in the Expanded Field", October 8 (Spring 1979), pp. 30-44.
  49. [7] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter “Access to Information”.
  50. Rob Young (ed.) The Wire Primers: A Guide To Modern Music (London: Verso, 2009), p. 29.
  51. Brian Duguid, Prehistory of Industrial Music ( , 1995), chapter “Organisational Autonomy / Extra-Musical Elements”.
  52. [8] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter "Organisational Autonomy / Extra-Musical Elements".
  53. [9] "Metal Machine Music" 8-Track Hall of Fame.
  54. Lester Bangs, Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung: The Work of a Legendary Critic, collected writings, Greil Marcus, ed. (1988) Anchor Press, p. 200.
  55. Charlie Gere, Art, Time and Technology: Histories of the Disappearing Body, (2005) Berg, p. 110.
  56. Lou Reed mentions (and misspells) La Monte Young's name on the cover of his album Metal Machine Music: "Drone cognizance and harmonic possibilities vis a vis Lamont Young's Dream Music".
  57. [10] Zeitkratzer Lou Reed Metal Machine Music.
  58. " Minimalism (music)", Encarta (Accessed 20 October 2009). Archived 2009-11-01.
  59. Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (2003) Pantheon, New York, p. 157.
  60. Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (New York: Pantheon, 2003), p. 103.
  61. " Rhys Chatham", Kalvos-Damien website (Accessed 20 October 2009).
  62. Marc Masters, No Wave (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2007), pp. 42–44.
  63. Rob Young (ed.), The Wire Primers: A Guide To Modern Music (London: Verso, 2009), p. 43.
  64. Marc Masters, No Wave (London: Black Dog Publishing, 2007), pp. 170–71.
  65. Mark Kemp, "She Who Laughs Last: Yoko Ono Reconsidered", Option Magazine (July-August 1992), pp. 74-81.
  66. [11] Paul Hegarty, "Full With Noise: Theory and Japanese Noise Music", Ctheory.
  67. Young, Rob (ed.) The Wire Primers: A Guide To Modern Music (London: Verso, 2009), p. 30.
  68. [12] japnoise noisicians profiled at
  69. Caleb Kelly, Cracked Media: The Sound of Malfunction (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009), pp. 6-24.
  70. Cascone, Kim. The Aesthetics of Failure: 'Post-Digital' Tendencies in Contemporary Computer Music. Computer Music Journal 24, no. 4 (Winter 2002): pp. 12–18.
  71. Goodman, Steve. Contagious Noise: From Digital Glitches to Audio Viruses in Parikka, Jussi and Sampson, Tony D. (eds.) The Spam Book: On Viruses, Porn and Other Anomalies From the Dark Side of Digital Culture. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. 2009. pp. 128.
  72. Observatori A.C. (ed.), Observatori 2008: After The Future (Valencia, Spain: Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, 2008), pp. 85-109.
  73. On the Abandon Ship Label and Its Noise-Tape-Trading Brethren. Village Voice August 11, 2009.
  74. Goodman, Steve. Contagious Noise: From Digital Glitches to Audio Viruses in Parikka, Jussi and Sampson, Tony D. (eds.) The Spam Book: On Viruses, Porn and Other Anomalies From the Dark Side of Digital Culture. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. 2009. pp. 129-130.
  75. Allen S. Weiss, Phantasmic Radio (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995), p. 90.
  76. [13] Paul Hegarty, "Full With Noise: Theory and Japanese Noise Music", in Life in the Wires, edited by Arthur Kroker and Marilouise Kroker, 86-98 (Victoria, Canada: NWP Ctheory Books, 2004).
  77. [14] Britannica.
  78. [15] About Noise, Noise Pollution, and the Clearinghouse.
  79. noise generator to explore different types of noise.
  80. white noise in wave(.wav) format.
  81. Eugene Hecht, Optics, 4th edition (Boston: Pearson Education, 2001), p. .
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  • Albright, Daniel (ed.) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Source. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004.
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Further reading

  • Akita, Masami. "The Beauty of Noise: An Interview with Masami Akita of Merzbow". In Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, edited by C. Cox and Dan Warner, pp. 59-61. New York: Continuum, 2004.
  • Álvarez-Fernández, Miguel. Dissonance, Sex and Noise: (Re)Building (Hi)Stories of Electroacoustic Music. In ICMC 2005: Free Sound Conference Proceedings. Barcelona: International Computer Music Conference; International Computer Music Association; SuviSoft Oy Ltd., 2005.
  • Barthes, Roland. "Listening". In his The Responsibility of Forms: Critical Essays on Music, Art, and Representation, translated from the French by Richard Howard. New York: Hill and Wang, 1985. ISBN 0809080753 Reprinted Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 0520072383 (pbk.)
  • Brassier, Ray. Genre is Obsolete. Multitudes, no. 28 (Spring 2007) [13082].
  • Cobussen, Marcel. Noise and Ethics: On Evan Parker and Alain Badiou. Culture, Theory & Critique, 46(1) pp. 29–42. 2005.
  • Collins, Nicolas (ed.) "Leonardo Music Journal" Vol 13: "Groove, Pit and Wave: Recording, Transmission and Music" 2003.
  • Court, Paula. New York Noise: Art and Music from the New York Underground 1978-88. London: Soul Jazz Publishing, in association with Soul Jazz Records, 2007. ISBN 0955481708
  • DeLone, Leon (ed.), Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975.
  • Doss, Erika. Twentieth-Century American Art. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002
  • Dempsey, Amy. Art in the Modern Era: A Guide to Schools and Movements. New York: Harry A. Abrams, 2002.
  • Foege, Alec. Confusion Is Next: The Sonic Youth Story. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
  • Gere, Charlie. Digital Culture, second edition. London: Reaktion, 2000. ISBN 1861893884
  • Goldberg, RoseLee. Performance: Live Art Since 1960. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.
  • Hainge, Greg (ed.). Culture, Theory and Critique 46, no. 1 (Issue on Noise, 2005)
  • Harrison, Charles, and Paul Wood. Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 1992.
  • Harrison, Thomas J. 1910: The Emancipation of Dissonance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
  • Hegarty, Paul Art of Noise. Talk given to Visual Arts Society at University College Corkmarker, 2005.
  • Helmholtz, Hermann von. On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music, 2nd English edition, translated by Alexander J. Ellis. New York: Longmans & Co. 1885. Reprinted New York: Dover Publications, 1954.
  • Hinant, Guy-Marc. "TOHU BOHU: Considerations on the nature of noise, in 78 fragments". In Leonardo Music Journal Vol 13: Groove, Pit and Wave: Recording, Transmission and Music. 2003. pp. 43-47
  • Huyssen, Andreas. Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • Iles, Anthony & Mattin (eds) Noise & Capitalism. Donostia-San Sebastián: Arteleku Audiolab (Kritika series). 2009.
  • Juno, Andrea, and Vivian Vale (eds.). Industrial Culture Handbook. RE/Search 6/7. San Francisco: RE/Search Publications, 1983. ISBN 0940642077
  • Kahn, Douglas, and Gregory Whitehead (eds.). Wireless Imagination: Sound, Radio and the Avant-Garde. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press, 1992.
  • Kocur, Zoya, and Simon Leung. Theory in Contemporary Art Since 1985. Boston: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
  • LaBelle, Brandon. Noise Aesthetics in Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art, New York and London: Continuum International Publishing, pp 222-225. 2006.
  • Lander, Dan. Sound by Artists. Toronto: Art Metropole, 1990.
  • Licht, Alan. Sound Art: Beyond Music, between Categories. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.
  • Lombardi, Daniele. Futurism and Musical Notes, translated by Meg Shore. Artforum [13083]
  • Malpas, Simon. The Postmodern'. New York: Routledge, 2005.
  • McGowan, John P. Postmodernism and Its Critics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
  • Miller, Paul D. [a.k.a. DJ Spooky] (ed.). Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press, 2008.
  • Morgan, Robert P. " A New Musical Reality: Futurism, Modernism, and 'The Art of Noises'", Modernism/Modernity 1, no. 3 (September 1994): 129–51. Reprinted at UbuWeb.
  • Moore, Thurston. Mix Tape: The Art of Cassette Culture. Seattle: Universe, 2004.
  • Nyman, Michael. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, 2nd edition. Music in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0521652979 (cloth) ISBN 0521653835 (pbk)
  • Pratella, Francesco Balilla. " Manifesto of Futurist Musicians" from Apollonio, Umbro, ed. Documents of 20th Century Art: Futurist Manifestos. Brain, Robert, R.W. Flint, J.C. Higgitt, and Caroline Tisdall, trans. New York: Viking Press, pp. 31-38. 1973.
  • Popper, Frank. From Technological to Virtual Art. Cambridge: MIT Press/Leonardo Books, 2007.
  • Popper, Frank. Art of the Electronic Age. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997.
  • Ruhrberg, Karl, Manfred Schneckenburger, Christiane Fricke, and Ingo F. Walther. Art of the 20th Century. Cologne and London: Taschen, 2000. ISBN 3822859079
  • Russolo, Luigi. The Art of Noises. New York: Pendragon, 1986.
  • Samson, Jim. Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900–1920. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1977.
  • Scaruffi, Piero. " Japanese Noise-Core". 2003.
  • Schafer, R. Murray. The Soundscape Rochester, Vt: Destiny Books, 1993. ISBN 978-0892814558
  • Schaeffer, Pierre. " Solfege de l'objet sonore". Le Solfège de l’Objet Sonore (Music Theory of the Sound Object), a sound recording that accompanied Traité des Objets Musicaux (Treatise on Musical Objects) by Pierre Schaeffer, was issued by ORTF (French Broadcasting Authority) as a long-playing record in 1967.
  • Sheppard, Richard. Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 2000.
  • Steiner, Wendy. Venus in Exile: The Rejection of Beauty in 20th-Century Art. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
  • Stuart, Caleb. "Damaged Sound: Glitching and Skipping Compact Discs in the Audio of Yasunao Tone, Nicolas Collins and Oval" In Leonardo Music Journal Vol 13: Groove, Pit and Wave: Recording, Transmission and Music. 2003. pp. 47–52
  • Tenney, James. A History of "Consonance" and "Dissonance". White Plains, NY: Excelsior; New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988.
  • Thompson, Emily. The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900-1933. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press, 2002.
  • Woods, Michael. Art of the Western World. Mandaluyong City: Summit Books, 1989.
  • Woodward, Brett (ed.). Merzbook: The Pleasuredome of Noise. Melbourne and Cologne: Extreme, 1999.
  • Young, Rob (ed.) Undercurrents: The Hidden Wiring of Modern Music. London: Continuum Books. 2002.

External links

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