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The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture. The Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, and at the same time monasteries, abbeys, churches and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches (particularly over windows and doorways) and especially massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style.

These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe, particularly in Englandmarker, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences which is also known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque.

Origin of the term, development into Gothic

The term may have originated with 18th century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, and was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbeymarker in Romanesque style (now all replaced by later rebuildings) just before the Conquest, which is still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can clearly be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon.

As master mason developed the style and experimented with ways of overcoming the geometric difficulties of groin vaulted ceilings, they introduced features such as the pointed arch which were later characterised as being Gothic in style. Architectural historians and scholars consider that a style must be assessed as an integral whole rather than an aggregate of features, and while some include these developments within the Norman or Romanesque styles, others describe them as transitional or "Norman-Gothic Transitional". A few websites use the term "Norman Gothic", but it is unclear whether they refer to the transitional style or to the Norman style as a whole. ,

Neo-Norman

A style of architecture that emulates works of Norman architecture from the 11th and 12th century Romanesque in Britain and Normandy. These works are prominent in many 20th century buildings and spaces, particularly the arch and pillars. There are two examples in Manchester: the former Stock Exchange building and a synagogue in Fallowfieldmarker.

Norman architecture in Normandy

Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seinemarker in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman Barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, and great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950 they were building stone keeps. The Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposed to a wide variety of cultural influences including the Near East, some of which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the Early Christian basilica plan, longitudinal with side aisles and an apse, and a western facade with two towers as at the Church of Saint-Étiennemarker at Caen begun in 1067, which formed a model for the larger English cathedrals beginning some twenty years later.

Norman architecture in England

In Englandmarker, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, and Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture. Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy, and in 1042 brought masons to work on Westminster Abbeymarker, the first Romanesque building in England. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights who built "motte" castles as a defence against the Welshmarker. Following the invasion Normans rapidly constructed motte-and-bailey castles, and in a burst of building activity built churches and abbeys, as well as more elaborate fortifications including Norman stone keeps.

The buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries, the masonry with small bands of sculpture, perhaps as blind arcading, and concentrated spaces of capital and round doorways and in the tympanum under an arch. The "Norman arch" is the round arch. Norman mouldings are carved or incised with geometric ornament, such as chevron patterns around arches. The cruciform churches often had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083.

After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedralmarker in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture. Around 1191 Wells Cathedralmarker and Lincoln Cathedralmarker brought in the English Gothic style, and Norman became increasingly a modest style of provincial building.

Ecclesiastical architecture



Bibliography
  • Sedding, Edmund H. (1909) Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co.


Military architecture



Domestic architecture



Norman architecture in Scotland

Scotlandmarker also came under early Norman influence, with Norman nobles at the court of King Macbeth around 1050. His successor Máel Coluim III overthrew him with English and Norman assistance, and his queen Margaret encouraged the church. The Benedictine order founded a monastery at Dunfermlinemarker. Her fourth son who became King David built St. Margaret's Chapelmarker at the start of the 12th century.

Ecclesiastical architecture



Norman architecture in Ireland

The Normans settled mostly in an area in the east of Irelandmarker, later known as the Pale, and constructed many Norman buildings including Trim Castlemarker, County Meathmarker , Swords Castle in Fingal (North Co. Dublin), and Dublin Castlemarker.

Norman architecture in Italy

Mezzogiorno

The Normans began constructing castles, their trademark architectural piece, in Italy from an early date. William Iron Arm built one at an unidentified location (Stridula) in Calabria in 1045. After the death of Robert Guiscard in 1085, peninsular southern Italy experienced a series of civil wars and fell under the control of increasingly weaker princes. Revolts characterised the region until well into the twelfth century and minor lords sought to resist ducal or royal power from within their own castles. In the Molise, the Normanas embarked on their most extensive castle-building programme. There they introduced the opus gallicum technique to Italy.

Besides the encastellation of the countryside, the Normans erected several religious buildings which still survive. They edified the shrine at Monte Sant'Angelomarker and built a mausoleum to the Hauteville family at Venosamarker. They also built many new Latin monasteries, including the famous foundation of Sant'Eufemiamarker.

Sicily

Sicily's Norman period lasted from circa 1070 until about 1200. The architecture was decorated in gild mosaics such as that at the cathedral at Monrealemarker. The Palatine Chapel in Palermomarker built in 1130 is the perhaps the strongest example of this where the interior of the dome (itself a Byzantine feature) is decorated in mosaic depicting Christ Pantocrator accompanied by his angels.

During Sicily's later Norman era early Gothic influences can de detected such as those in the cathedral at Messina consecrated in 1197. However, here the high Gothic campanile is of a later date, and should not be confused with the early Gothic built during the Norman period, which featured pointed arches and windows rather than the flying buttresses and pinnacles later to manifest themselves in the Gothic era.



Malta

After its Norman conquest in 1091, Malta saw the construction of several still-surviving Norman pieces of architecture. Fortresses and houses still exist in Mdinamarker and Vittoriosamarker.

References

Gallery

Image:Chevet abbHommes.JPG|Abbaye-aux-Hommesmarker, Caen.Image:Greencastle County Down.jpg|Greencastle, County Downmarker.Image:Raviscanina.jpg|Castle at Raviscaninamarker: redoubt of the rebel Andrew of Rupecanina.Image:Palermo-Castle-bjs-2.jpg|The Palazzo dei Normannimarker in Palermo.Image:Mdina004.jpg|A Norman house in Mdinamarker.Image:New Romney Church Tower - New Romney - Kent - June 2007.jpg|New Romneymarker church tower, an example of English small-town Norman architecture.image:Winchester cathedral side.jpeg|Winchester Cathedralmarker, an example of Norman architecture in England.Image:St-nich-1.jpg|Example of a small village church in Pyrfordmarker, Surreymarker, Englandmarker.Image:St Bees Priory westdoor evening sun.jpg| St Bees Priorymarker, Cumbria, west door, Circa 1160

Sources

  • Bilson, J.: Durham cathedral and the cronology of its vaults, Archeol. Journal 79, 1929
  • Clapham, A. W.: English Romanesque Architecture after the conquest. Oxford 1934
  • Clifton-Taylor, A.: The Cathedrals of England. London 1967
  • Cook, G. H.: The English Cathedrals through the Centuries. London 1957
  • Escher, K.: Englische Kathedralen. Zürich 1929
  • Lexikon der Weltarchitektur. Von Pevsner, Nikolaus / John Fleming / Hugh Honour [1966]. München 1971.
  • Rieger, R.: Studien zur mittelalterlichen Architektur Englands. In: Wiener Kunstwiss. Blätter, Jg. 2, 1953
  • Short, Ernest H.: Norman Architecture in England, 2005
  • Spengler, Dietmar: Die anglo-normannischen Kirchen. Referat im HS SS 1980, Köln (unveröffentlicht)
  • Webb, G.: Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages (Pelican History of Art), London 1956


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