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North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of Englandmarker, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of , making it the largest ceremonial county in England. The majority of the Yorkshire Dalesmarker and all of the North York Moorsmarker lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, and around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks.

Divisions and environs

The area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts; they are Craven, Hambletonmarker, Harrogatemarker, Richmondshiremarker, Ryedalemarker, Scarboroughmarker and Selbymarker.

The Department for Communities and Local Governmentmarker did consider reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority. The changes were planned to be implemented no later than 1 April 2009. This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so the County Council and District Council structure will remain.

The largest settlement in the administrative county is Harrogatemarker, while in the ceremonial county it is Yorkmarker.

Yorkmarker, Middlesbroughmarker and Redcar and Clevelandmarker are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Teesmarker is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, and Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region.

The ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire, South Yorkshiremarker, West Yorkshire, Lancashiremarker, Cumbriamarker and County Durham.

Physical features

Within North Yorkshire are the North York Moorsmarker and most of the Yorkshire Dalesmarker; two of eleven areas of countryside within England and Wales to be officially designated as national parks. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbraymarker and York. The Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast. The highest point is Whernsidemarker, on the Cumbrian border, at .The three major rivers in the county are the River Swalemarker, River Uremarker and the River Teesmarker. The Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows through York and into the Humber estuary. The Tees forms the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdalemarker to Middlesbroughmarker and Stockton and to the coast.

History

North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, and covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshiremarker and the former county borough of York.

York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, and at the same time Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Clevelandmarker from 1974 to 1996.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added for North Yorkshire at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Year Regional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services
1995 7,278 478 2,181 4,618
2000 9,570 354 2,549 6,667
2003 11,695 390 3,025 8,281


Education

North Yorkshire LEA has a mostly comprehensive education system with 42 state schools secondary (not including sixth form colleges) and 12 independent schools.

Towns and villages

Italicised locations lie outside the current North Yorkshire shire county.

Places of interest

Italicised locations lie outside the current North Yorkshire shire county.


News and Media

The County is served by BBC North East and Cumbria, and for more southerly parts of the county BBC Yorkshire. Yorkshire Television and Tyne Tees Television are also received in most areas of the County.BBC Tees is broadcast to northern parts of the county, whist BBC Radio York is broadcast more widely. BBC Radio Leeds is broadcast to southern parts of the county.

Transport

There are only two main motorways that run through North Yorkshire and they are the A1 and the A66. A small stretch of the M62 motorway also runs through North Yorkshire, close to Eggboroughmarker. The other main non-motorway routes are the A1marker, the A19 and the A66.

The East Coast Main Line, of which East Coast, First TransPennine Express and Grand Central are the principal passenger rail operators on the line. Northern Rail operate the remaining branch lines in the county including those services from York to Harrogate, Scarborough to Hull, Darlington to Saltburn and the Esk Valley Linemarker from Middlesbroughmarker to Whitbymarker. Last but certainly not least, the Settle-Carlisle Line runs through the far west of the county with services again operated by Northern. The county suffered very badly under the Beeching cuts of the 1960s which saw places like Richmond, Ripon, Tadcaster, Helmsley, Pickering and the Wensleydale communities wiped from the railway map. Other notable closures were the Whitby to Scarborough, York to Driffield and the secondary main line between Northallertonmarker and Harrogatemarker via Riponmarker. The Malton to Whitby line which closed in 1965 was reopened by preservationists between Pickeringmarker and Grosmontmarker in 1973 to form what we now know as the North Yorkshire Moors Railway. The Wensleydale Railwaymarker is another success story with plans to fully reinstate the link between Northallerton and Garsdalemarker on the Settle - Carlisle line which ran through Hawesmarker. The line presently operates services between Leeming Barmarker and Redmiremarker but they hope to be able to access Northallerton station, on the busy East Coast Main Line, as soon as an agreement can be made with the railway authorities. Another notable reinstatement project in the county is a plan to reopen the Harrogate - Ripon line. Yorkmarker is the largest station in the county with 11 platforms and is a major tourist attraction in its own right. The station is immediately adjacent to the world famous National Railway Museummarker.

Bus services also run daily; most are controlled by Arriva, Harrogate & District, Scarborough & District, Yorkshire Coastliner, First and the local Dales & District. In York, FirstGroup run a park and ride service as well as normal bus routes around the city. There are no major airports in the county itself but Durham Tees Valleymarker in County Durham, Newcastle Airportmarker and Leeds Bradford International Airportmarker are the closest.

Sports

North Yorkshire is home to several football clubs, the most successful of which is Middlesbrough FC who play in the Coca-Cola Championship; others include York City FC who have played in the Football League but today play in the Conference National. Whitby Town FC have reached the FA cup first round seven times, and have played the likes of Hull City , Wigan and Plymouth Argyle , they currently play in the Unibond Premier league. No notable rugby union teams hail from the county but York City Knights are a rugby league team and play in the Rugby League National League 2. North Yorkshire is home to many racecourses; these include Catterick Bridgemarker, Redcarmarker, Riponmarker and Thirskmarker. It also has one motor racing circuit, Croft Circuitmarker; the circuit holds meetings of the British Touring Car Championship, British Superbike and Pickup Truck Racing race series. Yorkshire County Cricket Club, play a number of fixtures at North Marine Roadmarker, Scarboroughmarker.

References

  1. Arnold-Baker, C., Local Government Act 1972, (1973)
  2. North East Assembly - List of local authorities and members
  3. http://bubl.ac.uk/org/tacit/marilyns/chapter6.htm
  4. OPSI - The North Yorkshire (District of York) (Structural and Boundary Changes) Order 1995
  5. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  6. includes hunting and forestry
  7. includes energy and construction
  8. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured


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