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The Northeast Corridor (NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United Statesmarker by ridership and service frequency. The route is fully electrified and serves a densely urbanized string of cities from Washington, D.C.marker, in the south through Baltimoremarker, Wilmingtonmarker, Philadelphiamarker, Trentonmarker, Newarkmarker, New Yorkmarker, New Havenmarker, and Providencemarker to Bostonmarker. It also has branches connecting Philadelphia with Harrisburg, Pennsylvaniamarker (known as the Keystone Corridor); New Haven with Hartford, Connecticutmarker, and Springfield, Massachusettsmarker; New York City with Albany, New Yorkmarker, and several other commuter destinations. The busiest passenger rail station in the United States is Pennsylvania Stationmarker in New York, the central hub of the Northeast Corridor.

The NEC is immediately identified by the use of overhead wires and high speed rolling stock. Mostly operated and owned by Amtrak, the NEC offers the only true high-speed rail service in the United States, Amtrak's Acela Express, as well as lower-speed conventional passenger trains. Freight trains also use the tracks. Several commuter rail agencies provide local service along the Northeast Corridor, some electrified and some diesel-powered. These rail networks are MARC in Maryland and Washington, D.C., SEPTA in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and central New Jersey, NJ Transit in New Jersey and New York, Metro-North in New York and Connecticut, Shore Line East in Connecticut, and MBTA in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

Interstate 95 closely parallels the Northeast Corridor mainline for its entire length, and the mainline can be seen from portions of the highway. Indeed, I-95 so closely parallels the rail line that at times it takes the same curves as the rail line, especially in Connecticut.


Current passenger services

The busiest part of the Northeast Corridor is the segment between Philadelphia and New York City. Amtrak operates 54 round-trip trains each weekday on this route, with an extra train (the Cardinal) on Wednesdays and Fridays. 344 round trips use the New York City to Philadelphia segment per week.

Amtrak accounts for about 14% of all intercity trips (including those by automobile) between Washington, D.C., and New York City and about 47% of trips between those cities by rail or air carrier.

The following Amtrak services run along the Northeast Corridor:

Other services using the NEC:

Non-Amtrak commuter rail services

In addition to Amtrak, several commuter rail agencies operate passenger service using the Northeast Corridor tracks.

Ownership

Track

With primarily passenger services, the Northeast Corridor is a cooperative venture between Amtrak and various state agencies. Amtrak owns the track between Washington and New Rochellemarker, New Yorkmarker a northern suburb of New York Citymarker.
The segment from New Rochelle to New Haven is owned by the states of New York and Connecticut. Metro-North Railroad commuter trains operate on this segment. North of New Haven, ownership again reverts to Amtrak, whose tracks stretch to the border between Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The final segment from the border north to Boston is owned by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Under Amtrak's ownership, the Northeast Corridor experienced several high-profile electric-power failures in 2006 and other infrastructure problems. Intermittent power outages caused delays, lasting up to five hours, for Amtrak and state commuter trains. Railroad officials have blamed Amtrak's funding woes for the deterioration of the track and power supply infrastructure, which in places is almost a hundred years old.

Stations

Amtrak owns Pennsylvania Stationmarker in New York, 30th Street Stationmarker in Philadelphia, Penn Stationmarker in Baltimore, and Union Stationmarker in Washington.

Freight service

Freight service is provided on the Northeast Corridor by trackage rights. The Norfolk Southern Railway operates over the line south of Philadelphia, and CSX Transportation has rights from New York to New Haven and in Massachusetts. CSX also has rights between Benning Yard in Washington, DC and Bowie, MD, where the CSX Pope's Creek Secondary diverges from the NEC. Between Philadelphia and New York, Conrail, which formerly provided service on the whole line, still operates over the line, as a local switching and terminal company for both CSX and Norfolk Southern. The Providence and Worcester Railroad operates local freight service from New Haven into Rhode Island and has incidental trackage rights from New Haven to New York.

History

Unlike most European high-speed rail lines, built on new rights-of-way, the NEC uses existing lines that were built separately as early as the 1830s; the most recent section, the Hell Gate Bridge and New York Connecting Railroad in New York, opened in 1917. From 1893, when the NYNH&H acquired the Old Colony Railroad, including the Providence-Boston section of the NEC, the NEC has been owned by two companies - the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) from Washington to New York and the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad (NYNH&H) from New York to Boston. Under the PRR and NYNH&H, the lines were known as the Philadelphia-to-Washington Main Line, Philadelphia-to-New York Main Line and Shore Line.

In 1968 the PRR merged with its former rival, the New York Central Railroad, to form Penn Central Transportation. The NYNH&H was merged into Penn Central in 1969, bringing the whole Washington-Boston corridor under control of one company. With the 1971 formation of Amtrak, the intercity passenger services were under government control. In 1976 the bankrupt Penn Central was taken over by the government corporation Conrail, and the sections of line that had not already been sold to commuter transportation authorities were sold to Amtrak. The purchase of the Northeast Corridor was controversial at the time. The Department of Transportation initially blocked the transaction and withheld purchase funds for several months for largely political reasons until Amtrak granted it control over reconstruction of the corridor.

New York electrification

The electrification projects of the steam railroads in the area which is now the NEC began with the Baltimore Belt Linemarker of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1896 and the Park Avenue Tunnel of the New York and Harlem Railroad, part of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad (NYC) to its Grand Central Terminalmarker in New York, and also used by the NYNH&H via trackage rights. With the 1900 opening of the Gare d'Orsaymarker in Paris, France, the first electrified urban rail terminal in the world, a new technology was available, and the NYC began planning for electrification between Grand Central and the split at Mott Havenmarker. Electricity was already in use on various branch lines of the NYNH&H, but was provided to interurban streetcars via third rail or trolley wire.

Low visibility caused by the air pollution of the steam locomotives used at the time caused an accident killing 17 on January 8, 1902, and the resulting public outcry led to a push for electric operation in Manhattanmarker. In 1905 the NYNH&H announced that it would electrify its main line from New York to Stamford, Connecticutmarker. Along with the construction of the new Grand Central Terminalmarker, opened in 1912, the NYC electrified its lines, beginning on December 11, 1906 with suburban multiple unit service to High Bridgemarker on the Hudson Line. Electric locomotives began serving Grand Central February 13, 1907, and all NYC passenger service into Grand Central was electrified July 1. NYNH&H electrification began July 24 to New Rochellemarker, August 5 to Port Chestermarker and October 6, 1907 the rest of the way to Stamford. Steam trains last operated into Grand Central on June 30, 1908, after which all NYNH&H passenger trains into Manhattan were electrified. On June 22, 1914 the NYNH&H electrification was extended to New Havenmarker, where it would end for many years.

At the same time, the PRR was building its Pennsylvania Stationmarker and electrified approaches, served by the PRR's lines in New Jerseymarker and the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR). LIRR electric service began in 1905 on the Atlantic Branch from downtown Brooklyn past Jamaicamarker, and in June 1910 on the branch to Long Island City, part of the main line to Penn Station. Penn Station opened September 8, 1910 for LIRR trains and November 27 for the PRR, which changed engines and had platforms for transferring at Manhattan Transfermarker.

On July 29, 1911 the NYNH&H began electric service on its Harlem River Branch, a suburban branch that would become a main line with the completion of the New York Connecting Railroad and its Hell Gate Bridge. The bridge opened on April 1, 1917, but was operated by steam with an engine change at Sunnyside Yardmarker east of Penn Station until 1918.

Philadelphia electrification

In 1905, the PRR announced that it would electrify its suburban lines at Philadelphia, eventually extending it all the way between New York and Washington. Electric service began September 11, 1915 with multiple unit trains west to Paolimarker on the PRR main line (now the Keystone Corridor). Electric service to Chestnut Hillmarker (now the R8 Chestnut Hill West), including a stretch of the NEC, began March 30, 1918. Local electric service to Wilmington, Delawaremarker on the NEC began September 30, 1928, and the other way to Trenton, New Jerseymarker on June 29, 1930.

NEC southern section: New York to Washington

PRR electric service began between Exchange Place, the Jersey Citymarker terminal, and New Brunswick, New Jerseymarker on December 8, 1932, including the extension of Penn Station electric service from Manhattan Transfer. On January 16, 1933 the rest of the electrification, between New Brunswick and Trenton, opened, giving a fully electrified intercity line between New York and Philadelphia, and beyond to Wilmington. Through trains to Washington began running under electricity to Wilmington February 12, with the engine change moved from Manhattan Transfer to Wilmington. The same was done on April 9 for trains running west from Philadelphia, with the change point moved to Paoli.

In 1933, the electrification south of Wilmington stalled due to the Great Depression, but the PRR managed to get a loan from the federal government, and resumed work the next year. The tunnels at Baltimore were rebuilt, and electric revenue service between New York and Washington began February 10, 1935. On April 7 the electrification of all New York-Washington passenger trains was complete, with 639 daily trains, 191 locomotive-hauled and the other 448 multiple unit. New York-Washington electric freight service began May 20 with the electrification of freight lines in New Jersey and Washington. Extensions to Potomac Yard across the Potomac River from Washington, as well as several freight branches along the way, were electrified in 1937 and 1938. The Potomac Yard electrification remained until 1981.

The North American speed record for a production train

The UAC Turbotrain set the speed record for a production train at 170.8 miles per hour (274.8 kilometers per hour) on the Northeast Corridor between New Brunswick, New Jerseymarker and Trenton, New Jerseymarker on December 20, 1967, when that portion of the line was still under Pennsylvania Railroad control.

NEC northern section: New York to Boston

Electrification of the portion north of New Haven to Providence and Boston was planned by the NYNH&H, and authorized by the company's board of directors shortly before the U.S. entered World War I. This plan was not carried out because of the war and because of the company's financial problems. Decades later, a project for electrification between New Haven and Boston was included in a bill signed by President Gerald Ford in 1976. The project stalled after 1980 because of opposition from the Reagan Administration. Electrification of this section was at last completed prior to the December 2000 introduction of Acela Express service.

Penn Central and Amtrak: forming the NEC

Despite the New York Connecting Railroad and Hell Gate Bridge joining the two segments, they were operated almost entirely independently of each other until the merger of the PRR and NYNH&H into Penn Central Transportation in 1968 and 1969 respectively, and the establishment of Amtrak in 1971. On September 21, 1970 all New York-Boston trains but the Turboservice were rerouted into Penn Station from Grand Central, and the Turboservice was moved February 1, 1971. Amtrak, which took over intercity service on May 1, 1971, soon began running more trains through New York, partly due to poor maintenance at Sunnyside Yardmarker.

At the same time, rail freight service in New England was declining. The February 26, 1975 Preliminary System Plan for Conrail proposed abandoning all freight on the Shore Line (NEC) between Groton, Connecticutmarker and Hills Grove, Rhode Island. However, on March 14, the U.S. Railway Association announced that it had reevaluated the line segment and would be keeping it in operation.

The State of New Yorkmarker bought and the State of Connecticutmarker leased their sections of the New Haven Line, between Woodlawn, New Yorkmarker and New Haven, Connecticutmarker, from Penn Central on January 1, 1971; the Metropolitan Transportation Authority operated the line. On January 27, 1973 the State of Massachusettsmarker bought the Attleboro/Stoughton Line in Massachusettsmarker for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. The Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 provided for Amtrak to purchase the NEC, and all other NEC trackage passed to Amtrak on April 1, 1976 with the formation of Conrail, with Conrail trackage rights on the full line. Except between New Haven and the Rhode Island/Massachusetts state line, which were sold to the Providence and Worcester Railroad, those rights remained until the 1999 breakup of Conrail, when they were split between the Norfolk Southern Railway to the south and CSX Transportation to the north. Amtrak now operates and maintains the portion in Massachusetts, but the line from New Haven to New Rochelle, New Yorkmarker is operated by the Metro-North Railroad; this has been a problem with establishment of high-speed service.

Northeast Corridor Improvement Project

In the 1980s, a major overhaul and improvement of the system between Washington DC and Boston was undertaken. Called NECIP, this included safety improvements, modernization of the signaling system by General Railway Signalmarker and new CETC control centers by Chrysler at Philadelphia, New York and Boston. It allowed more trains to run faster and closer together, and set the stage for later high-speed operation. Also the most successful engine on the Corridor, the AEM-7 was introduced. This Locomotive allowed for lower travel times between cities.

Preparing for Acela Express

In preparation for the new higher-speed Acela Express trains, Amtrak substantially upgraded the portion of the Northeast Corridor north of New York in the early 1990s. Grade crossings were eliminated, some bridges were rebuilt, and curves were modified. Beginning in 1996, the electrification was extended north along the 157-mile (253 km) section of track between New Haven and Boston. Wooden sleepers (railroad ties) were replaced with those made of concrete and heavier continuous welded rail (replacing the jointed track) was laid down. Train platforms south of New York, originally constructed for the Metroliner multiple-unit cars of the late 1960s, were rebuilt to accommodate the new cars. Platforms north of New York had to be constructed completely from scratch.

Predecessor NEC railroads

For a more detailed history of the Northeast Corridor, and the earlier railroads operating along it, see the following articles:

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad lines
NYNH&H and PRR jointly owned line
Pennsylvania Railroad lines


Grade crossings

Due to the high-speed nature of the line, grade crossings have been eliminated between New York and Washington since 1976 (when Amtrak replaced the Metroliner multiple units with the locomotive-hauled Metroliners). Eleven grade crossings remain on the NEC, all of which are in southeastern Connecticutmarker. At these crossings, preventative measures such as four-quadrant gates are used (except in New London, Connecticutmarker, where three crossings are in close proximity to the station):



Station listing



Station Listing
State Milepost City Station Amtrak Other Connections
MAmarker 228.7 Bostonmarker South Stationmarker AE NR LS MBTA MBTA Red Line, commuter rail to Plymouthmarker, Middleboroughmarker
227.6 Back Bay Stationmarker AE NR LS MBTA MBTA Orange Line, commuter rail to Worcestermarker
226.5 Rugglesmarker MBTA MBTA Orange Line
223.7 Forest Hillsmarker MBTA MBTA Orange Line
220.3 Hyde Parkmarker MBTA
217.3 Westwoodmarker Route 128marker AE NR MBTA MBTA commuter rail, park and ride
213.9 Cantonmarker Canton Junctionmarker MBTA MBTA commuter rail to Stoughtonmarker
210.8 Sharonmarker Sharonmarker MBTA
204.0 Mansfieldmarker Mansfieldmarker MBTA
196.9 Attleboromarker Attleboromarker MBTA
191.9 South Attleboromarker MBTA
190.8 state line Massachusetts/Rhode Island
RImarker 185.1 Providencemarker Providencemarker AE NR MBTA
Warwickmarker T.marker F.marker Green Airportmarker MBTA not yet open
158.1 West Kingstonmarker Kingstonmarker NR
141.3 Westerlymarker Westerlymarker NR
141.1 state line Rhode Island/Connecticut
CTmarker 132.3 Stoningtonmarker Mysticmarker NR
122.9 New Londonmarker New Londonmarker AE NR SLE
105.1 Old Saybrookmarker Old Saybrookmarker NR SLE
101.2 Westbrookmarker Westbrookmarker SLE
96.8 Clintonmarker Clintonmarker SLE
93.1 Madisonmarker Madisonmarker SLE
88.8 Guilfordmarker Guilfordmarker SLE
81.4 Branfordmarker Branfordmarker SLE
72.9 Division Post - Metro-North Railroad/Amtrak
72.7 New Havenmarker State Street Stationmarker MNR SLE
72.3 Union Stationmarker AE NR VT MNR SLE Amtrak to Hartford and Springfield
West Havenmarker West Haven MNR not yet open
63.3 Milfordmarker Milfordmarker MNR
59.0 Stratfordmarker Stratfordmarker MNR Metro-North to Waterburymarker
55.4 Bridgeportmarker Bridgeportmarker NR VT MNR SLE
rowspan=3|Fairfieldmarker Fairfield Metro Center MNR not yet open
50.6 Fairfieldmarker MNR
48.9 Southportmarker MNR
47.2 Westportmarker Green's Farmsmarker MNR
44.2 Westportmarker MNR
42.1 Norwalkmarker East Norwalkmarker MNR
41.0 South Norwalkmarker MNR Metro-North to Danburymarker
39.2 Rowaytonmarker MNR
37.7 Darienmarker Darienmarker MNR
36.2 Noroton Heightsmarker MNR
33.1 Stamfordmarker Stamfordmarker AE NR VT MNR SLE Metro-North to New Canaanmarker
31.3 Greenwichmarker Old Greenwichmarker MNR
30.3 Riversidemarker MNR
29.6 Cos Cobmarker MNR
28.1 Greenwichmarker MNR
26.1 state line Connecticut/New York
NYmarker 25.7 Port Chester, New Yorkmarker Port Chestermarker MNR
24.1 Rye, New Yorkmarker Ryemarker MNR
22.2 Harrison, New Yorkmarker Harrisonmarker MNR
20.5 Mamaroneck, New Yorkmarker Mamaroneckmarker MNR
18.7 Larchmont, New Yorkmarker Larchmontmarker MNR
16.6 New Rochelle, New Yorkmarker New Rochellemarker NR MNR Metro-North to Grand Centralmarker
0.0 New York Citymarker Penn Stationmarker AE AD CD CL CS EAE ES KS, LS ML NR PA PL SM SS VT LIRR NJT NYCT , , , , , , LIRR Main Line and Port Washington Branch trains to Long Island.
1.2 state line New York/New Jersey
NJmarker 5.0 Secaucusmarker Secaucus Junctionmarker NJT NJT to Hoboken and northern New Jersey
7.0 Secaucus/Harrison Portal Drawbridge NJT Active Moveable Bridge over Hackensack River.
7.3 Harrisonmarker Swift NJT Junction with NJT Moris & Essex Line to Dover, Hackettstown & Gladstone and Montclair-Boonton Line to Montclair Heights, Dover and Hackettstown.
8.0 Hudson NJT Former location of Manhattan Transfermarker; Current junction between NJT Kearney Connection, AMT NEC NY Connecting RR and AMT NEC Penn Main Line. First Mile Post for NY Connecting RR. Second Mile Post for Penn Main Line.
8.5 Hudson Yard NJT Amtrak/NJT Yard.
8.8 Newarkmarker Dock Active Moveable Bridge over Passaic River.
9.0 Penn Stationmarker AE CD CL CS KS NR PA PL SM SS VT NJT Newark City Subway, PATHmarker
10.0 Cliff Former Newark(South Street) Station; Southern throat for Newark Station.
10.8 Hunter Junction for NJT Raritan Valley Line to High Bridgemarker and Raritanmarker; Conrail Lehigh Valley Line and Reading Line to West Trentonmarker.
12.0 Newark Airportmarker KS NR NJT AirTrain.
12.6 Lane Junction for Conrail Greenville and Passaic & Harsimus Branches.
13.4 Elizabethmarker North Elizabethmarker NJT
14.5 Elizabeth marker NJT
15.0 Elmora Interlocking Plant
15.1 South Elizabeth Closed passenger Station.
17.7 Lindenmarker Lindenmarker NJT
19.2 Rahwaymarker North Rahway NJT Closed passenger station.
19.8 Rahwaymarker NJT
20.0 Union Junction with NJT North Jersey Coast Line to Bay Headmarker.
21.9 Woodbridgemarker Colonia Closed passenger station.
23.0 Iselin Closed passenger station.
23.2 Metroparkmarker AE KS NR VT NJT Park and ride
26.2 Metuchenmarker Metuchenmarker NJT
26.4 Lincoln Interlocking Plant.
29.3 Edisonmarker Edisonmarker NJT
31.7 New Brunswickmarker New Brunswickmarker KS NR NJT
33.2 County Junction Conrail Millstone Running Track
33.1 North Brunswickmarker Jersey Avenuemarker NJT Park and ride
35.9 Adams Closed Passenger Station
38.9 South Brunswickmarker Deans Closed Passenger Station
41.4 Monmouth Junction Interlocking Plant
41.6 Midway Junction with Conrail Jamesburg Branch.
47.3 Princeton Junctionmarker Nassau Junction with NJT Princeton Branch.
47.4 Princeton Junctionmarker KS NR NJT NJT Princeton Branch to Princetonmarker.
54.0 Hamilton Township marker PRR Division Post New Jersey/Philadelphia Divisions
54.4 Hamiltonmarker NJT
54.9 Millham Interlocking Plant.
56.8 Trentonmarker Fair Junction for Belvedere-Delaware Secondary Track. Former junction for Bordentown Secondary Track (See NJT River Line) Current Amtrak Division Post New York and Philadelphia Divisions.
57.1 Trentonmarker AE CD CL CS KS NR PA SM SS VT SEPTA NJT NJT River Linemarker to Camdenmarker
57.7 state line New Jersey/Pennsylvania
PAmarker 58.5 Morrisvillemarker Morrisville Closed passenger station
58.6 Morris Junction for Conrail Trenton Branch and Morrisville Yard.
63.6 Tullytownmarker Levittownmarker SEPTA
66.8 Bristolmarker Bristolmarker SEPTA
69.7 Bristol Townshipmarker Croydonmarker SEPTA
71.3 Bensalemmarker Eddingtonmarker SEPTA
72.5 Cornwells Heightsmarker Cornwells Heights KS NR SEPTA
74.6 Philadelphiamarker Torresdalemarker SEPTA
77.2 Holmesburg Junctionmarker SEPTA
78.2 Taconymarker SEPTA
80.1 Bridesburgmarker SEPTA
85.1 North Philadelphiamarker KS NR SEPTA
88.1

0
Zoo Tower
1.5 30th Street Stationmarker AE CD CL CS KS NR PA PL SM SS VT SEPTA NJ Transit to Atlantic City, Market-Frankford Line, Subway-Surface Trolleys, all SEPTA commuter rail lines, Amtrak trains to Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Chicago
1.8 University Citymarker SEPTA SEPTA to Philadelphia International Airportmarker, Elwyn, and Delaware
6.1 Darbymarker Darbymarker SEPTA
6.5 Sharon Hillmarker Curtis Parkmarker SEPTA
7.2 Sharon Hillmarker SEPTA
7.7 Folcroftmarker Folcroftmarker SEPTA
8.3 Glenoldenmarker Glenoldenmarker SEPTA
9.0 Norwoodmarker Norwoodmarker SEPTA
9.7 Prospect Parkmarker Prospect Parkmarker SEPTA
10.4 Ridley Parkmarker Ridley Parkmarker SEPTA
11.1 Crum Lynnemarker SEPTA
12.3 Eddystonemarker Eddystonemarker SEPTA
13.4 Chestermarker Chester Transportation Centermarker SEPTA
Lamokin Street Station SEPTA Flag stop, closed in 2003.
15.5 Highland Avenue Stationmarker SEPTA
16.7 Marcus Hookmarker Marcus Hookmarker SEPTA
18.2 state line Pennsylvania/Delaware
DEmarker 19.6 Claymont, Delawaremarker Claymontmarker SEPTA
26.8 Wilmington, Delawaremarker Wilmingtonmarker AE CD CL CS NR PL SM SS VT SEPTA
32.5 Churchmans Crossingmarker SEPTA
38.7 Newark, Delawaremarker Newarkmarker NR SEPTA
41.5 state line Delaware/Maryland
MDmarker 59.5 Perryvillemarker Perryvillemarker MARC
65.5 Aberdeenmarker Aberdeenmarker NR MARC
75.6 Edgewoodmarker Edgewoodmarker MARC
84.2 Essexmarker Martin State Airportmarker MARC
95.7 Baltimoremarker Penn Stationmarker AE CD CL CS NR PL SM SS VT MARC Maryland Transit Administration Light Rail
99.4 West Baltimoremarker MARC
103.0 Halethorpe, Marylandmarker Halethorpemarker MARC
107.7 Linthicummarker BWI Airport Rail Stationmarker AE CD CL NR VT MARC
113.6 Odentonmarker Odentonmarker MARC
119.4 Bowiemarker Bowie Statemarker MARC
124.7 Seabrookmarker Seabrookmarker MARC
126.1 New Carrolltonmarker New Carrolltonmarker NR VT MARC Orange Line, park and ride
131.4 state line Maryland/District of Columbia
DCmarker 135.9

1.1
Washingtonmarker C Tower
0.0 Union Stationmarker AE CPL CD CL CS NR PL SM SS VT MARC VRE VRE commuter rail, Red Line, Amtrak trains to Virginia, Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, MARC commuter Rail


See also



References

  1. Congressional Budget Office. "The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service," September 2003.[1]
  2. A loss for Amtrak is Coleman's Gain. Business Week, p.36 (1976-09-13).
  3. Kevin McKinney, At the dawn of Amtrak, Trains June 1991
  4. United States Railway Association final system plan for reconstructing railroads in the northeast and midwest region pursuant to the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973


Sources




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