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Northern Europe: Map

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[[Image:Europe subregion map UN geoschme.svg|right|thumb|250px|Northern Europe as defined by the United Nations(marked blue):

]]
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as including the following countries and dependent regions:



Nordic countries or Nordic region include only a subset of the mentioned countries and territories.Before the 19th century, the term 'Nordic' or 'Northern' was commonly used to mean Northern Europe in a sense that included the Nordic countries, European Russia, the Baltic countries (at that time Estoniamarker, Livonia and Courland). The United Kingdommarker and Irelandmarker are sometimes included in Western Europe.

History

A Dutch map of Northern Europe, printed in 1601.
Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Mediterranean region (i.e. the Roman Empire), everything not near this sea was termed Northern Europe, including Germanymarker, the Low Countries, and Austriamarker. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, such as in discussions of the Northern Renaissance. In medieval times, the term (Ultima) Thule was used to mean a mythical place in the extreme northern reaches of the continent.
Northern Europe:
Country Area

(km²)
Population

(2009 est.)
Population density

(per km²)
Capital
Ålandmarker (Finlandmarker) 1,552 26,008 16.7 Mariehamnmarker
Belgiummarker (Western Europe) 30,528 10,754,528 352.2 Brusselsmarker
Denmarkmarker 43,094 5,519,441 128.0 Copenhagenmarker
Faroe Islandsmarker (Denmarkmarker) 1,399 49,006 35.0 Tórshavnmarker
Greenlandmarker (Denmarkmarker) 2,166,086 57,000 0.026 Nuukmarker
Estoniamarker 45,226 1,340,415 29.6 Tallinnmarker
Finlandmarker 336,593 5,349,200 15.8 Helsinkimarker
Guernseymarker 78 61,811 792.4 St Peter Portmarker
Icelandmarker 103,000 319,246 3.0 Reykjavíkmarker
Irelandmarker 70,280 4,459,300 63.4 Dublinmarker
Isle of Manmarker 572 80,000 139.8 Douglasmarker
Jerseymarker 116 89,300 769.8 Saint Heliermarker
Latviamarker 64,589 2,254,000 34.8 Rigamarker
Lithuaniamarker 65,200 3,349,872 51.3 Vilniusmarker
Luxembourgmarker (Western Europe) 2,586 493,500 190.8 Luxembourgmarker
Netherlandsmarker (Western Europe) 41,526 16,571,800 399.0 Amsterdammarker
Norwaymarker 324,220 4,843,800 14.9 Oslomarker
Svalbard and Jan

Mayen Islands
(Norwaymarker)
62,049 2,140 0.034 Longyearbyenmarker
Swedenmarker 449,964 9,316,256 20.7 Stockholmmarker
United Kingdommarker 244,820 61,634,599 251.7 Londonmarker
Total 4,053,478 126,571,222 31.22


Geography

Northern Europe consists of the Scandinavian peninsula, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland northern Europe, Greenland and the main European continent.The area is defined by the volcanic islands of the far northwest, notably Icelandmarker and Jan Mayenmarker, the mountainous western seaboard, extending from the mountainous sections of Great Britainmarker & Irelandmarker to the Scandinavian mountainsmarker, the central north mountains and hills of Swedenmarker (which are the foothills of the Scandinavian mountains) and the large eastern plain, which contains, Lithuaniamarker, Latviamarker, Estoniamarker and Finlandmarker.The region has a south west extreme of just under 50 degrees north and a northern extreme of 81 degrees north.The entire region's climate is affected by the Gulf stream which has a mild influence on the climate.From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental.As the climate and relief varies vegetation is also extremely variable, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests (formerly of which a majority was in the Scottish highlands and south west Norwaymarker) and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south, west and temperate east.

See also



Notes

  1. United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)
  2. World Population Prospects Population Database



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