Northern Nigeria is a
geographical region of Nigeria.
is more arid and less densly populated than the south. The people
are largely Muslim
, and many are Hausa
. Much of the north was once politically
united in the Northern
, a federal division disbanded in 1967.
The Hausa States
were a collection of independent city-states
situated in what became Northern Nigeria. Despite relatively
constant growth, the city-states were vulnerable to aggression and,
although the vast majority of its inhabitants were Muslim
by the 16th century, they were attacked by
from 1804 to 1808.
the last Hausa state was finally conquered by Usuman dan Fodio and incorporated into the
Arrival of the Hausa
Between 500 CE and 700 CE Hausa people, who had been slowly moving
west from Nubia and mixing in with the local Northern and Central
Nigerian population, established a number of strong states in what
is now Northern and Central Nigeria and Eastern Niger. With the
decline of the Nok and Sokoto, who had previously controlled
Central and Northern Nigeria between 800 BCE and 200 CE, the Hausa
were able to emerge as the new power in the region. Closely linked
with the Kanuri people of Kanem-Bornu (Lake Chad), the Hausa
aristocracy adopted Islam in the 11th century CE. By the 12th
century CE the Hausa were becoming one of Africa's major powers.
The architecture of the Hausa is perhaps one of the least known but
most beautiful of the medieval age. Many of their early mosques and
palaces are bright and colourful and often include intricate
engraving or elaborate symbols designed into the facade. By 1500 CE
the Hausa utilized a modified Arabic script known as ajami to
record their own language; the Hausa compiled several written
histories, the most popular being the Kano Chronicle.
The Fourteen Kingdoms
Kingdoms emerged in the 13th century as vibrant trading centers
competing with Kanem-Bornu and Mali.
primary exports were leather
, kola nuts
, animal hides,
. Except for minor alliances, the
Hausa city-states functioned independently. Rivalries generally
inhibited the formation of one centralized authority.
There were fourteen Hausa Kingdoms: The "Hausa Seven" and the
The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states with a shared mythology
with its founders being the sons of a Queen. They are known as the
meaning Hausa Seven
The states included:
The growth and conquest of the Hausa Bakwai resulted in the
founding of additional states with rulers tracing their lineage to
a concubine of the Hausa founding father, Bayajidda
. Thus they are called the Banza
meaning Bastard Seven.
The Banza Bakwai adopted many of the customs and
institutions of the Hausa Bakwai but were considered unsanctioned
or copy-cat kingdoms by non-Hausa people.
These states include:
- Yauri (also called Yawuri)
- Gwari (also called Gwariland)
- Kwararafa (a Jukun state)
- Nupe (of the Nupe people)
- Llorin (a Yoruba state)
Fulani Empire and Bornu Empire
Usuman dan Fodio led a jihad against the
Hausa States and finally united them into the Muslim Fulani Empire. The Fulani Empire was under the overall authority of the Commander of the Faithful, all of
whom after Usman dan Fodio also used the title Sultan of Sokoto.
Under him the
Empire was bicephalous and divided into two territories each
controlled by an appointed vizier
. Each of
the territories was further divided into autonomous Emirates
under mainly hereditary local Emirs
. The Bornu Empire
was initially absorbed into the Fulani Empire of Usman dan Fodio, but broke away after a few
years claiming increasing corruption of the Fulani Empire.
Royal Niger Company Territory
the British involvement in Northern Nigeria was predominantly
trade-related, and revolved around the expansion of the Royal Niger Company, whose interior
territories spread north from about where the Niger River and Benin
River joined at Lokoja.
Royal Niger Company's territory did not represent a direct threat
to the powerful Fulani empire.
Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
History of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
Northern Nigeria was a
British colony formed in 1900.
Map of Nigeria, 1909
The basis of the
colony was the 1885 Treaty of
which broadly granted Northern Nigeria to Britain, on
the basis of their protectorates in Southern Nigeria.
Britain's chosen Governor, Frederick
, with limited resources, slowly negotiated with ,and
sometimes coerced, the emirates of the north into accepting British
rule, finding that the only way this could be achieved was with the
consent of local rulers through a policy of indirect rule
which he developed from a
necessary improvisation into a sophisticated political theory.
Lugard left the protectorate after some years, serving in Hong
Kong, but was eventually returned to work in Nigeria where he
decided on the merger of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate with
Postage stamps and postal history
specifically for Northern Nigeria beginning in March 1890. All
stamps issued were the of Key Plate
design, differing in the sovereign depicted, watermarks
, and choice of colored or colorless
numerals for the denomination.
Unusually, a 25-pound stamp was issued in 1904. This was really
intended as a revenue stamp
, it being
nearly impossible to invent a piece of mail needing so much
postage. It was used to pay for imported liquor licences. It is the
great rarity of philately; mint copies commanding a price of around
Modern Northern Nigeria
The following 19 Nigerian states
comprise Northern Nigeria :