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Nottingham ( ) is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshiremarker, England and is one of only eight members of the English Core Cities Group.

Whilst the City of Nottingham unitary authority has a historically tightly drawn boundary which accounts for its relatively small population of 288,700, the wider Nottingham Urban Areamarker has a population of 667,000 and is the seventh-largest urban area in the United Kingdom, ranking between those of Liverpoolmarker and Sheffieldmarker.

Nottingham is famed for its links with the Robin Hood legend and, during the Industrial Revolution, obtained worldwide recognition for its lace-making and bicycle industries. It was granted its city charter as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria in 1897 and has since been officially titled the City of Nottingham.

History

In Anglo-Saxon times, around 600 AD the site formed part of the Kingdom of Merciamarker and was known in the Brythonic language as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Cavesmarker. When it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham"; the homestead of Snot's people (Inga = the people of; Ham = homestead). Snot brought together his people in an area now know as the Lace Marketmarker. Robin Hood, the legendary outlaw, is supposed to have lived near Nottingham.

Nottingham was captured in 867 by Danish Vikings and later became one of the Five Burghs - or fortified towns - of The Danelawmarker.

In the 11th century Nottingham Castlemarker was constructed on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. The Anglo-Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts. A settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Squaremarker became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. On the return of Richard Coeur de Lion from the Crusades, the castle stood out in Prince John's favour. So, it was besieged by Richard, and after a sharp conflict, captured.

By the 15th century, Nottingham had established itself as the centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from alabaster The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and technically remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshiremarker.
The old central area focused around Market Square


During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry; in particular, Nottingham was an internationally important centre of lace manufacture. However, the rapid and poorly planned growth left Nottingham with the reputation of having the worst slums in the British Empire outside India. Residents of these slums rioted in 1831, in protest against the Duke of Newcastle's opposition to the Reform Act 1832, setting fire to his residence, Nottingham Castlemarker.

In common with the UK textile industry as a whole, Nottingham's textile sector fell into headlong decline in the decades following World War II, as British manufacturers proved unable to compete on price or volume with the output of factories in the Far East and South Asia. Very little textile manufacture now takes place in Nottingham, but the City's heyday in this sector endowed it with some fine industrial buildings in the Lace Marketmarker district. Many of these have been restored and put to new uses.

Nottingham was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and at that time consisted of the parishes of Nottingham St Mary, Nottingham St Nicholas and Nottingham St Peter. It was expanded in 1877 by adding the parishes of Basfordmarker, Brewhouse Yard, Bulwellmarker, Radfordmarker, Sneintonmarker, Standard Hill and parts of the parishes of West Bridgfordmarker, Carltonmarker, Wilfordmarker (North Wilford). In 1889 Nottingham became a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. City status was awarded as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria, being signified in a letter from the Prime Minister the Marquess of Salisbury to the Mayor, dated 18 June 1897. Nottingham was extended in 1933 by adding Bilboroughmarker and Wollatonmarker, parts of the parishes of Bestwood Park and Colwickmarker, and a recently developed part of the Beeston Urban Districtmarker. A further boundary extension was granted in 1951 when Clifton and Wilford (south of the River Trent) were incorporated into the city.

Demographic evolution of Nottingham
Year Population
4th century <37
10th century <1,000
11th century 1,500
14th century 3,000
Early 17th century 4,000
Late 17th century 5,000
1801 29,000
1811 34,000
1821 40,000
Year Population
1831 51,000
1841 53,000
1851 58,000
1861 76,000
1871 87,000
1881 159,000
1901 240,000
1911 260,000
Year Population
1921 269,000
1931 265,000
1951 306,000
1961 312,000
1971 301,000
1981 278,000
1991 273,000
2001 275,000


Architecture



Nottingham is home to a multitude of different architectural styles, with buildings from a vast swathe of history stretching right back to the 1100s. Victorian Nottingham saw a building boom with many ornate buildings being built owing to the city's 19th century industrial importance, including work by architects such as Alfred Waterhouse (architect of London's Natural History Museummarker), Thomas Chambers Hine and Nottingham's own Watson Fothergill.

The western third of the city is home to most of the city's modern office complexes. Several tall office buildings line Maid Marian Way whilst the Georgian area around Oxford and Regent Streets is dominated by small professional firms. The Albert Hallmarker (rebuilt in 1909 after the original Watson Fothergill structure fell victim to fire) faces the Gothic revival St Barnabas' Cathedralmarker by Pugin. Nottingham Castlemarker and its grounds are located further south in the western third of the city. The central third descends from the University district in the north, past the Gothic revival Arkwright Building where Nottingham's Central Library was previously based - Nottingham Trent University now owns this building as well as many others in the area. Theatre Royal on Theatre Square with its pillared façade was built within six months in 1865. King and Queen Streets are home to striking Victorian buildings designed by the likes of Alfred Waterhouse and Watson Fothergill.The central focal point of the City is Old Market Squaremarker which is the largest in the UK and is dominated by the Council Housemarker. This was built in the 1920s to display civic pride, ostentatiously using baroque columns and placing stone statues of two lions at the front to stand watch over the square. The Exchange Arcade on the ground floor is an upmarket shopping containing high-end boutiques. Portland Stone, the same as used for St Paul's Cathedralmarker, was used to construct the Council House and Exchange Arcade. Streets lead from all directions off the square but to the south, shopping streets lead their way in to the Broadmarsh Shopping Centre which is soon to be completely rebuilt. Plans include a much larger three-floor centre with glass-covered 'streets' (similar to the Birmingham Bullringmarker), an iconic new building on the south west corner of the site and a new transport terminus for the proposed tram lines and buses.
The Canal-side further south of this is adjacent to the railway station and home to numerous redeveloped 19th Century industrial buildings which have found new uses as bars and restaurants.

The eastern third of the city centre contains the Victoria Shopping Centre, built in the 1970s on the site of the demolished Victoria Railway Station. All that remains of the old station is the clock tower and the station hotel (now the Nottingham Hilton Hotel). The 250 feet-high Victoria Centre flats stand above the shopping centre and are the tallest buildings in the city. The eastern third contains Hockley Villagemarker. ( Photos) Hockley is where the vast majority of Nottingham's unique, independent shops are to be found. It is also home to two alternative cinemas. The Screen Room claims to be the smallest in the world with only 21 seats ( Link), whilst the Broadway was the cinema of choice for Quentin Tarantino's UK premier of Reservoir Dogs. The Lace Market area is just south of Hockley and was once the heart of Britain's Lace industry during the 19th century British Empire. Its densely packed streets are full of between four and seven-story red brick warehouses, ornate iron railings and red phone boxes. The majority have been restored and are now used for different purposes. New College Nottingham occupies the Adams Buildingmarker which was built by Thomas Chambers Hine for Thomas Adams. Many of the buildings have been concerted into apartments. Several bars and restaurants also have premises in the Lace Market. St. Mary's Church, Nottinghammarker on High Pavement is widely considered to be the best example of an English cross-shaped church. Robin Hood was reputedly arrested on this medieval site after being betrayed by a monk and subsequently imprisoned by the Sheriff of Nottingham. The Georgian-built Shire Hall is home to the Galleries of Justice tourist attraction and was Nottingham's main court and prison building for 200 years from 1780, although the site's use as a court stretches back as far as 1375.
Wollaton Hallmarker lies about to the west of the city centre. This Tudor mansion, built in 1588, is home to the city's Natural History Museum and is set in of deer park.

Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalemmarker, partially built into the cave system beneath Nottingham Castle, is a contender for the title of "England's Oldest Pub" due to its supposed establishment in 1189. The Bell Innmarker on the Old Market Squaremarker, and Ye Olde Salutation Innmarker on Maid Marian Way have both disputed this claim. An episode of the Channel 4 TV documentary series History Hunters tested attributes of the three claimants and found that, while each has its own evidence, none can claim exclusivity. The Trip, whilst the oldest building, was for most of its early life a brewery and not a public house. The Salutation sits on the oldest recognised public house site, but the current building is comparatively recent. The Bell, although not in such an antiquated location, boasts the oldest public house building. There is also conflicting information available: dendrochronology from roof timbers in the Salutation give a date for the building of c.1420 with similar dates for the Bell. Ultimately, the roots of the multiple claims can be traced to various subtleties of definition in terms such as public house and inn.

Education

Secondary Education

Nottingham's state schools consistently rank poorly in national league tables. Despite a lot of investment, the closure of numerous schools and the opening of new city academies, Nottingham City LEA remains near the bottom of the league tables at both primary school and secondary school levels. At primary level, Nottingham was ranked fourth from bottom in the country, at 147th out of 150 local authorities rated in 2006, whilst at secondary level, Nottingham came eighth from bottom nationally in terms of GCSE results attained.

Nottingham also has a number of independent schools, with Nottingham High Schoolmarker, which was founded in 1513, being the city's oldest educational establishment by far. Nottingham High Schoolmarker came 8th nationally for A-Levels in 2008 according to the Sunday Times.

Further Education

Three further education colleges are located in Nottingham. Castle Collegemarker is the largest and was formed from the merger of Broxtowe College and the People's College. New College Nottinghammarker is the result of the merger of four smaller further education colleges, whilst Bilborough Collegemarker is solely a Sixth Form college.

Higher Education

Nottingham is home to two universities: the University of Nottinghammarker and Nottingham Trent University (formerly Trent Polytechnic). Together they are attended by over 40,000 full-time students. The University of Nottingham's teaching hospital, University of Nottingham Medical Schoolmarker, is part of the largest hospital in the UK, the Queen's Medical Centremarker (aka QMC). The city is home to the headquarters of the National College for School Leadership, whilst the Nottingham School of Fashion is notable for having trained the famous fashion designer Paul Smith.

Industry

Nottingham is home to the headquarters of many well-known companies. One of the best known is Boots the Chemists (now Alliance Boots), founded in the city by Jesse Boot 1st Lord Trent in 1849 and substantially expanded by his son John Boot (2nd Lord Trent).
Part of the HMRC complex in Nottingham.
Other large current employers include the credit reference agency Experian, the energy company E.ON UK, the tobacco company John Player & Sons, betting company Gala Group, engineering company Siemens, sportswear manufacturers Speedo, high street opticians Vision Express, games and publishing company Games Workshop (creator of the popular Warhammer series), PC software developer Serif Europe (publisher of PagePlus and other titles), the American credit card company Capital One, whose European offices are situated by the side of Nottingham stationmarker. Nottingham is also the home of HM Revenue and Customs and the Driving Standards Agency.

Although Boots itself is no longer a research-based pharmaceutical company, a combination of former Boots researchers and university spin-off companies have spawned a thriving pharmaceutical/science/biotechnology sector. BioCity, the UK's biggest bioscience innovation and incubation centre, sits in the heart of the city and houses around thirty science-based companies. Other notable companies in the sector include Perceptive Informatics (ClinPhone plc before being bought by Parexel) and Pharmaceutical Profiles. The city was made one of the UK's six Science Cities in 2005 by the then Chancellor Gordon Brown.

Until recently bicycle manufacturing was a major industry, the city being the birthplace of Raleigh Cycles in 1886 and later joined by Sturmey-Archer, the creator of 3-speed hub gears. However, Raleigh's factory on Triumph Road, famous as the location for the filming of Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, was demolished in Summer 2003 to make way for the University of Nottingham'smarker expansion of Jubilee Campusmarker.

Nottingham is also joint headquarters of Paul Smith, the high fashion house.

Creative Industries are a target growth sector for the city with graphic design, interiors and textile design being a particular focus. There is already a thriving design industry in the city including Distinction, Jupiter, and Purple Circle.

Nottingham City Council has recently announced that other target sectors include Financial and Business Services, Science and Technology, Public Sector and Retail and Leisure as part of their economic development strategy for the city.The global Business SMS company Esendex was founded in the Lace Market district and now operates in 6 markets across the world.Ceramics manufacturer Mason Cash was founded and continues to have operations in Nottingham.

The schools and aerial photographers, H Tempest Ltd were Nottingham-based for many years, until relocating to St. Ives (Cornwall) around 1960. A skeleton office remained for many years in the original building next to Mundella School.

Many of the UK's railway ticket machines and platform departure boards run software written by Atos Origin in their offices in Nottingham. Other major industries in the city include engineering, textiles, knitwear and electronics. An increasing number of software developers are located in Nottingham: Reuters and Monumental Games are based in the city, with Free Radical Design located in nearby Sandiacremarker and Serif Europe based between Wilfordmarker and Ruddington, south west of the Trent and east of Cliftonmarker.

Nottingham is progressively changing from an industrial city to one based largely in the service sector. Tourism — particularly from the United States and the Far East — is becoming an increasingly significant part of the local economy.

In 2004 Nottingham had a GDP per capita of £24,238 (US$48,287, €35,529), which was the highest of any English city after London, and the fourth highest of any city of the UK, after London, Edinburghmarker and Belfastmarker.

Economic trends
Year Regional Gross

Value Added (£m)
Agriculture

(£m)
Industry

(£m)
Services

(£m)
1995 4,149 2 1,292 2,855
2000 5,048 1 912 4,135
2003 5,796 - 967 4,828
source: Office for National Statistics


Shopping

The Exchange Arcade inside the Council House


In 2007 Nottingham was positioned fifth in the retail shopping league of England (CACI Retail Footprint 2007), behind London, Birminghammarker, Manchestermarker and Leedsmarker.

There are two main shopping centres in Nottingham: Victoria Centremarker and Westfield Broadmarshmarker. The Victoria Centre was established on the site of the former Victoria Railway Station, and was the first to be built in the City, with parking for up to 2,400 cars on several levels, two levels of shopping with bus station, and topped by 26 floors of flats. Work on redeveloping Westfield Broadmarshmarker at a cost of £400 million (creating 400 stores, 136,000 m2 of shopping space) is to start in 2008 although this could be offset by closures elsewhere in the city. Debenhams and Marks and Spencer are to be the anchors of the new centre, which may be open in 2011. Smaller shopping centres are the The Exchange Arcade, the Flying Horse Walkmarker (once a famous hotel) and new developments in Trinity Square and The Pod. The new developments will increase the shopping sales area in the city centre by 28% to . The Bridlesmith Gatemarker area has numerous designer shops, and is the home of the original Paul Smith boutique. There are also various side streets and alleys that hide some interesting and often overlooked buildings and shops - streets such as Poultry Walk, West End Arcade and Hurts Yard. These are home to many specialist shops as is Derby Road, near the Cathedral and once the antiques area but now home to some the city's most interesting independent shops.

Nottingham has a number of department stores including the House of Fraser, John Lewis, and Debenhams. Hockley Villagemarker caters to alternative tastes with shops like Ice Nine and Void, famous across the city.

Culture



Nottingham has two large-capacity theatres, the Nottingham Playhousemarker and the Theatre Royal (which together with the neighbouring Nottingham Royal Concert Hallmarker forms the Royal Centre) and a smaller theatre space at the University of Nottingham's Lakeside Arts Centre. The city also has smaller theatres with the Nottingham Arts Theatre and the Lace Market Theatremarker. There are also several art galleries which often receive national attention, particularly the Nottingham Castle Museummarker, the University of Nottingham's Djanogly Gallery and Wollaton Park's Yard Gallery. The visual arts in Nottingham will be significantly enhanced in 2008 and 2009 by the opening of New Art Exchange and Nottingham Contemporarymarker. In a new £13.9 million 3000 square metre building on the corner of High Pavement and Middle Hill designed by Caruso St John, N.C. will be one of the largest venues for exhibitions of contemporary art in the UK. Both of the city's universities also put on a wide range of theatre, music and art events open to the public throughout the year.
The city has several multiplex cinemas alongside two arthouse cinemas in Hockleymarker. The independent cinemas are the Broadway Cinema, one of the major independent cinemas in the UK and Screen Room, which claims to be the world's smallest cinema (at just 21 seats). Broadway was redeveloped and expanded in 2006. Quentin Tarantino held the British premiere of Reservoir Dogs there in 1992.

There is a classical music scene, with long-established groups such as the city's Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonic Orchestra, Nottingham Harmonic Society, Bach Choir, Early Music Group Musica Donum Dei and the Symphonic Wind Orchestra giving regular performances in the city.

The annual Goose Fair in October is always popular, being one of the largest fairs in the country.

Nottingham won the Britain in Bloom competition, in the Large City category, in 1997, 2001, 2003 and 2007. It also won the Entente Florale Gold Award in 1998.

Nottingham is known for its large teenage alternative scene (rock, punk, emo etc.), the heartland of which is Old Market Squaremarker. Another focus for their activities is the Rock Citymarker concert venue. The Sumac Centre based in Forest Fields has for many years supported local upcoming musicians, artists and film makers, and a variety of campaign groups.

Nottingham has a strong grass roots "Do it yourself" music culture, and is very in touch with underground trends in modern music. Nottingham is renowned as one of the biggest cities supporting the Dubstep movement of dance music. It also has a strong 'DIY' music scene, with a large number of independent promoters using a variety of venues, pubs/bars, warehouse spaces and gallerys to host gigs throughout the city.

Since 2006, Nottingham has also been the location of the annual Gamecity Festival - an independent game festival which is open to the public and held in the Old Market Square and various other venues across the city.

Tourism

Ferris Wheel in Old Market Square
Nottingham receives around 300,000 overseas visitors each year. Many visitors are attracted by Nottingham's nightlife and shops, by its history, and by the legend of Robin Hood, visiting Sherwood Forestmarker and Nottingham Castlemarker. Popular history-based tourist attractions in central Nottingham include the Castle, City of Cavesmarker, Lace Marketmarker, The Galleries of Justicemarker, and the City's ancient pubs.

Parks and gardens include Wollaton Parkmarker (over 500 acres) near the University Highfields Park on the University of Nottinghammarker campus, Colwick Park, which includes the racecourse, and the Nottingham Arboretummarker, Forest Recreation Groundmarker and Victoria Park which are in or close to the city centre. Sherwood Forestmarker, Rufford Country Parkmarker, Creswell Cragsmarker and Clumber Parkmarker are further away from the city itself. A new park is being developed in the city at the Eastside City development.

The Nottingham Robin Hood Society was originally formed by Robin Hood historian Jim Lees and two Nottingham teachers Steve and Ewa Theresa West in 1972. Steve and Ewa Theresa played the part of Maid Marion and Robin Hood and attracted a ' band' of like minded followers who ' costumed up ' nearly every weekend for a function. The then society acted in street theatre, appeared at charity events and functions and for several years ' held up ' the appointed Sheriff of Nottingham at the opening of the annual Nottingham Festival. The society also made a film for Japanese Television and joined in picnics and midnight vigils around in Major Oak to promote tourism. Although a Nottingham Robin Hood Society remains, the original society members disbanded after the death of Jim Lees.

In February 2008, a Ferris wheel was put up in the Old Market Square and was a major attraction of Nottingham City Council's 'Light Night' on February 8. The wheel returned to Nottingham in February 2009 to mark another night of lights, activities, illuminations and entertainment. Initially marketed as the Nottingham Eye, it was later redubbed as the Nottingham Wheel, to avoid any association with the London Eyemarker.

Museums and galleries

  • Brewhouse Yard Museum, the museum of Nottingham Life based within five 17th Century cottages at the base of the rock of Nottingham Castle. Once a refuge for persecuted members of dissenting religious groups, today, the museum investigates over 300 years of local history.
  • The Galleries of Justicemarker - Museum of Law Trust based at the Shire Hall in the Lace Marketmarker
  • Green's Windmillmarker and Science Centre - A unique working windmill in the heart of the city that was home to the 19th Century mathematical miller, George Green.
  • Nottingham Castlemarker Museum and Art Gallery - home to the city’s Decorative Art and Fine Art collections, along with the Story of Nottingham galleries, and the Sherwood Foresters Regimental Museum.
  • Nottingham Contemporarymarker - Nottingham's newest art centre featuring International Art, exclusive exhibitions, a variety of events, cafe bar and shop with creative workshops for children every weekend.
  • Nottingham Industrial Museum
  • Nottingham Natural History Museum - based at Wollaton Hallmarker.Wollaton Hall is one of the finest Elizabethan houses in the country, located in 500 acres of historic and ancient parkland.
  • Nottingham Transport Heritage Centremarker in Ruddington is a museum of local transport. It has an eight mile (13 km) long railway where Heritage steam trains and Diesel locomotives are used on passenger runs, a classic Road Transport collection with many Nottingham associated vehicles to see, a miniature and model railway and many other things.


Entertainment



The 2,500-capacity Nottingham Royal Concert Hallmarker and 9,500-capacity Nottingham Arenamarker attract the biggest names in popular music. For less mainstream acts and a generally more intimate atmosphere, Nottingham has a selection of great smaller venues including The Salutation, Seven (formerly Junktion 7), The Old Angel, the award-winning dedicated rock music venue Rock Citymarker and the smaller sister venues The Rescue Rooms, The Bodega Social Club and Stealth. These venues, with their packed listings and close proximity, make Nottingham one of the centres of live popular music in the UK.

Nottingham Playhousemarker is the major producing theatre in the city including some new and innovative works.

In the 1980s, Nottingham was barely mentioned in the Good Food Guide; but now there are several restaurant entries and a range of cuisine reflecting the ethnic diversity of the city. The Nottingham Restaurant Awards play a leading role in promoting the industry.

The large number of students in the city bolsters the night time entertainment scene. There are several well established areas of the city centre for entertainment such as Lace Marketmarker, Hockleymarker, The Waterfront and The Corner Housemarker.

Nottingham also boasts one of only 20 remaining Turkish Baths in the UK.

Sport

Nottingham is home to several high profile sports clubs, including Nottingham Forest F.C., Notts County F.C and Trent Bridge Cricket Ground. All three famous sports venues are within sight of each other, with Meadow Lane on the city side of the River Trent, and the City Ground and Trent Bridge in West Bridgford, in the borough of Rushcliffe. Nottingham has the most sporting facilities per head of any city in Europe and is home to the National Ice Arena and the National Watersports Centre at Holme Pierrepont.

Football

Nottingham Forest F.C.

Nottingham Forest Football Club are currently members of the Football League Championship (second tier) after winning promotion to this level in 2008, but are best remembered for their success under Brian Clough, who was manager from 1975 to 1993 and guided them to a Football League title, two European Cups and four League Cups. Other notable managers include Frank Clark, Dave Bassett, Ron Atkinson and Colin Calderwood. Notable former players include Kenny Burns, Peter Shilton, Trevor Francis (who became Britain's first £1million footballer when he joined the club in 1979), Stuart Pearce, Lee Chapman, Roy Keane, Stan Collymore, Dave Beasant and Steve Stone. The club's stadium is the City Groundmarker, which stands in West Bridgfordmarker on the banks of the River Trent.

Forest should not be confused with 'The Forest', which is an open green space where the annual Goose Fair (see above) is held; however, the club takes its name from this open space, having been founded there in 1865. This makes Forest the third oldest club in the league. Nottingham Forest does not take its name from Sherwood Forestmarker, contrary to popular opinion.

Nottingham is also bidding to become a part of England's 2018 World Cup Bid.

Notts County F.C.

Meadow Lane viewed from the Kop
Notts County, who play at Meadow Lanemarker stadium on the opposite side of the River Trent to Nottingham Forest, is the oldest professional Football League team in the world, having been founded in 1862 - a year before the establishment of the Football Association. They were founder members of the Football League in 1888 and won the FA Cup in 1894, but have spent most of their history outside the top flight of English football, the most recent spell ending in 1992 after just one season. Notable former managers of the club include Jimmy Sirrel, John Barnwell, Neil Warnock, Howard Kendall and Sam Allardyce. Notable former players include Jeff Astle, Alan Brown, Justin Fashanu, Andy Goram, Tony Hateley, Tommy Johnson, Tommy Lawton, Steve Nicol, Glenn Roeder and Nigel Worthington.

Trent Bridge Cricket Ground

Trent Bridgemarker cricket ground, located across the river in West Bridgfordmarker, Rushcliffemarker, is the home of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club, who were winners of the 2005 County Championship and runners-up in the 2006 Twenty20 cup competition. Trent Bridge is a major venue for international Test matches, and also hosts other important cricketing events such as the Twenty20 cup finals and regular one-day international games. The ground, which has won architectural awards for the design of some of its newer stands, also houses a cricket academy, a hotel, and a gym, and also uniquely features not one, but two public houses built within the ground itself, most famously the world-renowned Trent Bridge Inn.

Trent Fm Arena

The Trent Fm Arena, a large ice skating rink; the city's links to ice skating can be traced back to arguably its most famous children of recent times, Olympic ice dancing champions Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean who collected a unanimous 6.0 score at the 1984 Winter Olympics at Sarajevomarker. The NIC is used as a training and competition venue for speed skating, sledge hockey and figure skating and receives an annual grant from bodies such as Sport England to maintain and fund these sports.

The Trent FM Arena is the home of the Nottingham Panthers ice hockey team, founded in 1946. The team are currently managed by Canadian Corey Neilson who transitioned from a role as player to player coach in 2008. Neilson was a 3rd round draft pick (53rd overall) of the Edmonton Oilers in 1994. In January 2009 it was announced that Neilson would remain as Panthers head coach for the 2009/2010 season. There is a thriving junior ice hockey programme which is also based at the centre. Since 2001, Nottingham has been the host city of the annual ice hockey Play-Off Championship Finals weekend, which attracts fans from many different parts of the country. Also calling the NIC home is the Nottingham North Stars recreational ice hockey team. Founded in 1989 North Stars are one of the oldest recreational clubs in the country.

Rugby Union

The city's rugby union side, Nottingham R.F.C. are also based at Meadow Lanemarker and are currently members of National League One. Having very nearly gone into receivership in late 2008, 2009 is going to prove a tricky season for them. Nottingham R.F.C. managed to exceed expectations finishing fourth in National League One '08-'09 season despite these financial difficulties and their being docked 2 points for fielding an unregistered player.

Rugby League

Nottingham is home to the Nottingham Outlaws RLFC who were recently added to the National conference league which is the fourth tier of English rugby league. They train regularly throughout the summer at Lady Bay (also known as 'the Bay') and have a number of junior teams.

Tennis

There is a large tennis centremarker, where the annual Nottingham Open is held in the weeks immediately prior to Wimbledonmarker and has been used as warm-up practice by various tennis stars.

National Watersports Centre

The National Water Sports Centremarker is based at Holme Pierrepontmarker, with a 2000 metre regatta lake for rowing, canoeing and sailing, and a white water slalom canoe course fed from the river. A number of other sailing, rowing and canoeing clubs are also based along the River Trent, as is the boatbuilder Raymond Sims. The centre hosted the 1981 ICF Canoe Sprint and 1995 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships.

Robin Hood Marathon

Every year since 1981 Nottingham has played host to the 'Robin Hood Marathon' taking in many of the city's historic and scenic sights. The race is run alongside a half marathon and a fun run among other events. The 2009 event took place on Sunday 13 September.

Other

  • Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in Nottingham before the Second World War. The original venue known as Olympic Speedway was redeveloped by the building of the White City stadium which also featured speedway. A book by Philip Dalling, published by Tempus Publishing, chronicles speedway events in Nottingham. For a short spell in the 1980s the promotion based at Long Eatonmarker raced under the Nottingham Speedway banner and the team was known as Nottingham Outlaws.


  • Nottingham is the home town of current WBC Supermiddleweight Champion Carl "the Cobra" Froch. Carl Froch won the title at the city's Ice Arena in December 2008. Carl is a proud Nottingham man, and supports many local charities.


  • Nottingham is also home to, American football team, Nottingham Caesars who have recently been promoted to British American Football League (BAFL) First Division. In 2009 they started a youth kitted team which is currently an associate member of the BAFL Youth League.


  • Nottingham Trent University is also home to the regionally famous American football team, The NTU Renegades, who have recently formed after the BUAFL regulations changed and forced them into operating a single-institution team.


Transport

Road

Nottingham is close to the M1 motorway and major roads the A52 and the A46. To the west of Nottingham through to Derby, the A52 is known as Brian Clough Way.

Air

East Midlands Airportmarker in Leicestershire, served by low-cost international airlines, makes the city easily accessible from other parts of the world providing daily services to many principal European destinations such as Paris, Berlin, Dublin and Amsterdam, internal flights to Edinburgh and Belfast and limited services to trans-continental destinations such as Barbadosmarker, Mexico, and Sanford, Floridamarker. Nearby Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffieldmarker also provides domestic European and Trans-Atlantic services. Birmingham International airportmarker is about one hour's drive away and 2 hours 15 minutes on the train, providing flights to most principal European cities, New York, Bostonmarker, Toronto, Montrealmarker, Dubaimarker and the Indian sub-continent.

Rail

Nottingham is served by rail services operated by East Midlands Mainline from Nottingham railway stationmarker to London, CrossCountry and local services by East Midlands Connect.

The re-opening of the Robin Hood Line to passengers rather than just freight, between 1993 and 1998 linked Nottingham with its close neighbours Hucknallmarker, Mansfieldmarker, Kirkby-in-Ashfieldmarker and Sutton-in-Ashfieldmarker. Other lines connect the city to Beestonmarker, Burton Joycemarker, Netherfieldmarker and Carltonmarker. Nottingham has direct services to London, Leedsmarker, Birminghammarker, Leicestermarker, Lincolnmarker, Manchestermarker, Sheffieldmarker, Liverpoolmarker and Norwichmarker as well as many other conurbations.

From 11 November 2007 Midland Mainline and Central Trains services in Nottingham were combined into a new franchise, East Midlands Trains, with the exception of the Nottingham to Cardiffmarker services which are now operated by CrossCountry.

Nottingham railway stationmarker is the last survivor of a once much larger rail network around Nottingham. At one time Nottingham was served by four other railway stations,

Tram

Nottingham Express Transit a light rail system opened in 2004, running from Hucknallmarker in the north to the city's railway station. An additional spur to/from Phoenix Park serves as a Park and Ride Station close to the M1 motorway (Junction 26). See National Park and Ride Directory for details. Phase 2 development of the system will add two new lines to the southern suburbs of Wilford and Clifton and western suburbs of Beeston and Chilwell to create a three-line network.

Buses

Nottingham's Broadmarsh Bus Station
In 2005 Nottingham was bucking the national trend, as bus use in the city was growing and employment rates were rising. The Barton bus company was at one stage one of the largest private bus companies in the UK, with its smart and distinctive red, cream and maroon livery. Immediately postwar, the company had several special bodied Leyland double deckers, with closed doors at the front, at a time when most double deckers had totally open rear platforms. There are several company buses immortalised as diecast models to a very high standard. There are also several NCT buses in miniature, including a very accurate 'number 43 trolley bus'. Trolley buses last ran in the city in 1966.

NCT was also the first transport operator in the UK to use RFID technology for its EasyRider bus passes, introduced in 2000. The two operators are also frequent winners of the National Bus Operator of the Year award. Also new Shoplink services operated by Premiere Travel. Veolia operate in Nottingham as well.

Crime

Nottingham is served by Nottinghamshire Police and has a Crown Court and Magistrates' Court.

In 2000-2003 the press and other media claimed Nottingham was the 'gun-crime capital of the UK', and been dubbed "Shottingham" in some quarters. In 2005, it has one of the worst criminal records in the country, with 115.5 crimes per 1000 people, although by 2007 the BBC reported that the number of shootings in the City had fallen from 51 (in 2003) to 13 (in 2006). In January 2008, however, it was reported that gun crime in the city had risen for a second consecutive year with a 50% increase in gun crime during 2007. The incidence of many crimes in Nottingham is several times higher than the English average. A crime survey stated that Nottingham topped the crime rankings for police statistics on murders, burglaries, and vehicle crime, and "had almost five times the level of crime as thesafest town in the rankings". The survey was condemned as inaccurate by Nottingham City Council and Nottinghamshire Police due largely to the use of out of date (2001) population figures, and The University of Nottingham argued that the way in which statistics such as these are calculated is severely flawed, and if the population of the entire conurbation were taken into account instead of just the centre of the city then a more accurate picture would be revealed. A revised survey based on 2004 population estimates, however, appears to back up the original rankings. In 2007 a property focused TV programme named Nottingham as the 4th worst city to live in, stating the city has "loads of good aspects but crime lets it down". Interestingly the same programme also ranked the neighbouring Nottinghamshire borough of Rushcliffemarker, which contains suburbs of Greater Nottinghammarker, among the best 20 places to live in the UK.

While the crime figures in the city are high, initiatives introduced to tackle the levels of crime appear to be having an effect, with a 2006 Home Office survey showing that the overall level of crime in the city is down by 12% since 2003.Initiatives include the Community and Neighbourhood Protection Service developed by Nottingham City Council, Nottinghamshire Police and Nottingham City Homes to take an uncompromising stance to anti-social behaviour. It comprises Community Protection Officers (CPOs), Police Officers, Police Community Support Officers (PCSOs) and Anti-Social Behaviour Officers who work with internal and external agencies to reduce anti-social behaviour and the fear of crime.

Community Protection Officers (also known as City Wardens) highly visible in their bright yellow stab vests, are accredited by the Chief Constable of Nottinghamshire Police to issue Fixed Penalty Notices (FPNs) for littering and are employed to tackle other anti-social behaviour.

Religion



In Nottingham one can find places of worship for all the major world religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Taoism and the smaller, but prominent Judaism. The Nottingham Inter-faith Council works to make connections between faith groups and show the wider public the importance of spiritual aspects of life and the contribution faith groups make to the community.

The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Barnabasmarker on Derby Road was designed by the architect Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, it was consecrated in 1844 and is the cathedral church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottinghammarker established in 1850 which covers Nottinghamshiremarker (except Bassetlaw District), Leicestershiremarker, Derbyshiremarker (except Chesterfieldmarker and parts of the High Peak), Rutlandmarker and Lincolnshiremarker (pre-1974 boundaries).



Nottingham has three notable historic Anglican parish churches all of which date back to mediæval times. St. Mary the Virginmarker, in the Lace Marketmarker, a member of the Greater Churches Group is the oldest foundation (dating from the eighth or ninth centuries) but the building is at least the third on the site dating from 1377 to 1485. St. Mary's is considered the mother church of the city and civic services are held here, including the welcome to the new Lord Mayor of Nottingham each year. St.Peter'smarker in the heart of the city is the oldest building in continuous use in Nottingham, with traces of building starting in 1180. St. Nicholas'marker was rebuilt after destruction in the Civil War.

Unitarian Chapel on High Pavement, now the Pitcher and Piano public house


Non-conformism was strong from the 17th century onwards and a variety of chapels and meeting rooms proliferated throughout the town. Many of these grand buildings have been demolished, including Halifax Place Chapel, but some have been re-used, notably High Pavement Chapelmarker which is now a public house. The offices of the Congregational Federation are in Nottingham. William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army, was born in Nottingham in 1829.

Today there are a number of large Christian congregations in Nottingham. These include:The Christian Centremarker which is a Pentecostal church meeting in the centre of Nottingham;Trent Vineyard who meet in Lenton and is part of the Vineyard churches movement;Cornerstone churchmarker who meet in Wollaton; Grace Church Nottingham who meet at Notts County Football Ground, and is part of the Newfrontiers family of churches.

Media

Television

The BBC has its East Midlands headquarters in Nottingham on London Road. BBC East Midlands Today is broadcast from the city every weeknight at 6:30. Central Television the ITV region for the East Midlands until recently broadcast regional news from the city, but has now been moved to Birminghammarker. This decision was controversial and although a petition was set up to try to stop it, the TV studios were shut down in early 2005. Central News still keep a news bureau outside of the city at Chilwellmarker, though. The former studios were purchased by the University of Nottinghammarker to accommodate their administrative departments.

Radio

The Nottingham area is served by four licenced commercial radio stations (though all broadcast to a wider area than the city), three community radio stations, one student station broadcasting on a Low powered AM Restricted Service Licence and a BBC local radio station.

Nottingham is the home of Trent FM, a commercial radio station in Nottinghamshire, which is licensed to broadcast to Nottingham and Mansfield. The old building that housed Trent FM until 2007 was a converted Victorian hospital which connects to the underground network of caves. Many famous presenters have been employed at Trent FM (formerly Radio Trent), including Dale Winton, Kid Jensen, John Peters and Penny Smith. The station was also the home of the award-winning Jo and Twiggy, but Jo left for Absolute Radio, and the breakfast show became "Twiggy and Emma at Breakfast" on 20th October 2008. Twiggy and Emma at Breakfast has been broadcasted for one year.

The other professional radio stations broadcast from the city are BBC Radio Nottingham (BBC Radio Five Live's Simon Mayo appeared on this station and was the rival to Trent's Dale Winton), Gold (formerlyClassic Gold GEM), and the East Midlands' regional stations Heart 106 (formerly Century FM) and 106.6 Smooth Radio (formerly Saga 106.6 fm). Heart 106 has its headquarters in the same business park as the BBC, while Trent FM's (and Classic Gold GEM's) building is on the other side of the Nottingham City Centre near Nottingham castle.

Student Radio is broadcast in the city permanently by URN (University Radio Nottingham). URN has won many awards for quality and which is broadcast on medium wave (AM) around the main campus (University Park) at 1350 kHz and from Sutton Bonnigton campus on 1602 kHz. It is also streamed over the Internet.

There are also three community radio stations serving the city; Faza FM on 97.1FM is aimed at Asian women and their families. Faza has been broadcasting since 2002; Dawn FM on 107.6FM used to share its broadcast hours with Faza, but in 2006 became a separate service in its own right - broadcasting news, current affairs and music of relevance to the Asian (specifically Islamic) community within the city; Kemet Radio on 97.5 broadcasts urban music while also serving the Afro-Caribbean community. Prior to its launch in 2007 such programming had only been available on pirate radio stations Unique 106.3 (later 107.3) and 107.9 Switch FM (later Freeze FM, networked with the London pirate of the same name), both of which appear to have ceased broadcasts as of late 2006.

Newspapers and magazines

Nottingham has two daily newspapers, the Evening Post and the Metro. There are also a number of weekly/monthly publications available which focus on individual areas around the city, for instance the Hucknall and Bulwell Dispatch.

There is also a local culture and listings magazine available free from many sites around the city called LeftLion.The Big Issue is also available from people who sell the magazine around busy public areas of Nottingham and surrounding towns.

A complimentary, bi-monthly glossy magazine is also available from a number of outlets across the city called Life&Style Magazine, with features typically focussed on the area's interest in fashion, entertainment and politics.

Impact is a monthly magazine written for, and written by students at the University of Nottingham. It has won many national awards for student journalism, and is entirely run by, compiled, and edited by students at the University.

Alternative media

Community news project Nottinghamshire Indymedia, which was set up in April 2005, works within a variety of groups to create community media and collaboration between communities throughout the county. At the centre of the project is an online news site, which is run on the principles of open publishing.

Online entertainment guide NG Magazine covers music, events and entertainment in the city, while This City exclusively covers local music.

Film

Nottingham has been used as a location in many films, locally, nationally and internationally.A sample of films that are filmed in Nottingham include;





Geography

Nottingham is located at (52.9667,-1.1667).

The City of Nottingham boundaries are tightly drawn and exclude several suburbs and satellite towns that are usually considered part of Greater Nottinghammarker, including Arnoldmarker, Carltonmarker, West Bridgfordmarker, Beestonmarker and Staplefordmarker. Outlying towns and villages include Hucknallmarker, Eastwoodmarker, Tollertonmarker, Binghammarker, Ruddingtonmarker, Ilkestonmarker and Long Eatonmarker of which the last two are in Derbyshiremarker. The geographical area of Greater Nottingham includes several local authorities: Gedlingmarker, Broxtowemarker, Rushcliffemarker, Ashfieldmarker, Erewashmarker and Amber Valleymarker.

Districts within Nottinghamshiremarker
1 Rushcliffemarker
2 Broxtowemarker
3 Ashfieldmarker
4 Gedlingmarker
5 Newark and Sherwoodmarker
6 Mansfieldmarker
7 Bassetlaw
8 Nottingham


Within the City of Nottingham



Around the City of Nottingham



Twin cities

Nottingham is twinned with the following cities:

The county of Nottinghamshire is twinned with Poznańmarker, Poland.

Notable people

List of Mayors and Lord Mayors

The Sheriff of Nottingham

See also



References

External links




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