Nowa Sól ( ) is a town on the Oder River in
Voivodeship, western Poland.
It is the
capital of Nowa Sól
County and had a population of 40,351 as of
The first settlement in the region of modern Nowa Sól dates to the
14th century, when the territory was under Bohemian
sovereignty. In order to break
's dependency on salt
from Poland, Emperor Ferdinand I
demesne land Zum Neuen Saltze
in 1563. The sea salt, originally from La Rochelle and the Iberia coast, was
transported from Hamburg and Stettin along the
A flood in 1573 led to the relocation of the
salt refinery to the nearby village of Modritz (Modrzyca); the
office of the administrator is now the town hall. The settlement was
documented as Neusalzburg ("New Salzburg") in 1585
and later as Neusalz ("New Salt").
A trading harbor
was built on the Oder in 1592. The Protestant
Church of St. Michael, built from
1591–97, was converted to Roman
entrance of Dutch and English merchants in the Baltic Sea at the end of the 16th century led to difficulties
in the supply of unrefined salt.
Neusalz in the 18th century
The unprofitable enterprise
was also hampered by tolls on the Oder imposed by the Margraviate of Brandenburg
refining in Neusalz nearly collapsed during the Thirty Years' War
recovery was hampered by the salt trade of Brandenburg and Poland
afterwards. As the rulers of Swedish Pomerania, Sweden prevented
salt from reaching the town from Stettin in 1710.
years later Neusalz became an outpost for salt from Magdeburg and Halle.
Salt warehouse from the 18th
Neusalz developed into one of the largest ports on the Silesian
Oder and handled the majority of salt traffic on the river.
annexed by the Kingdom of
Prussia in 1742 according to the Treaty of Breslau.
Frederick II of Prussia
granted Neusalz town rights on 9 October
and initiated plans to expand the town, it
had 97 houses. A colony of the Moravian
was also founded in the same year. After the Battle of Kunersdorf
, Neusalz was
plundered on 24 September 1759
. Forty houses were burnt down, as was the Moravian
community, which was restored in 1763.
Neusalz was administered within Landkreis Freystadt i.
Silesia after the Napoleonic
The modern industrial development began in the
19th century when new factories, especially linen factories and
steelworks, were opened. Neusalz was first connected to the Silesian
railway in 1871, the same year the town became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany.
Expansion and modernization of the harbor began on 11 October 1897
became part of the Prussian Province of Lower Silesia
A wooden bridge across the Oder, originally built in 1870, was
rebuilt using reinforced concrete in 1932.
World War II Neusalz was the site of a
labor camp belonging to the Gross-Rosen
concentration camp. German troops destroyed the concrete bridge
on 9 February 1945,
but the Soviet Red Army entered Neusalz on 13/14 February
A number of buildings burnt down, including the
Catholic church. The town was placed under Polish administration
according to the post-war Potsdam
and renamed Nowa Sól
remaining in the town were expelled
replaced with Poles
was rebuilt as an industrial and administrative center, superseding
nearby Kożuchów. From 1975–98 it was in the Zielona Gora Voivodeship,
after which it became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship. The town is featured in the documentary
5000 Miles, about a family from
Wisconsin in the United States wishing to adopt a Polish child.
Panoramic view of Nowa Sól from the
Museum in Nowa Sól
- 1743: 800
- 1787: 1,503
- 1825: 2,211
- 1868: 5,109
- 1890: 9,075
- 1905: 13,002
- 1929: 14,300 to 16,300 (agglomeration)
- 1939: 17,326
- 1961: 27,425
- 1970: 33,386
- Weczerka, p. 351
- Weczerka, p. 352
- Population figures taken from Weczerka, pp. 352-53