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Chicago O'Hare International Airport , also known simply as O'Hare Airport or O'Hare Field or O'Hare, is a major airport located in the northwestern-most corner of Chicagomarker, Illinoismarker, United Statesmarker, northwest of the Chicago Loopmarker. It serves as the primary and largest hub for United Airlines and as a hub for American Airlines. It is operated by the City of Chicago Department of Aviation, associated with an umbrella regional authority.

In 2008, the airport had 881,566 aircraft operations, an average of 2,409 per day (64% scheduled commercial, 33% air taxi, 3% general aviation and <1% military).="" O'Hare="" International="" Airport="" is="" the="" second="" busiest="" airport="" in="" world,="" behind="" Atlanta Hartsfield Airport with 69,353,654 passengers passing through the airport in 2008; a -8.96% change from 2007. O'Hare also has a strong international presence, with flights to more than 60 foreign destinations. O'Hare was ranked fourth in 2005 of the United States' international gateways, with only John F. Kennedy International Airportmarker in New York Citymarker, Los Angeles International Airportmarker and Miami International Airportmarker, serving more foreign passengers.

O’Hare International Airport has been voted the "Best Airport in North America" for 10 years, by readers of the U.S. Edition of Business Traveler Magazine (1998–2003) and Global Traveler Magazine (2004–2007).

Most of O'Hare Airport is in Cook Countymarker, but a section in the southwest part of the airport is in DuPage Countymarker.

Although O'Hare is Chicago's primary airport, Chicago Midway International Airportmarker, the city's second airport, is about closer to the Loopmarker, the main business and financial district.

History

The airport was constructed between 1942 and 1943, as a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54 during World War II. The site was chosen for its proximity to the city and transportation. The two million square-foot (180,000 m²) factory needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's then-second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure. Orchard Placemarker was a small pre-existing community in the area and the airport was known during the war as Orchard Place Airport/Douglas Field (hence the location identifier ORD). The facility was also the site of the Army Air Force's 803 Special Depot, which stored many rare or experimental planes, including captured enemy aircraft. These historic aircraft would later be transferred to the National Air Museum, going on to form the core of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museummarker's collection.



Douglas Aircraft Company's contract ended in 1945 and though plans were proposed to build commercial aircraft, the company ultimately chose to concentrate production on the west coast. With the departure of Douglas, the airport took the name Orchard Field Airport. In 1945, the facility was chosen by the City of Chicago, as the site for a facility to meet future aviation demands.Matthew Laflin Rockwell, (1915–1988) was the director of planning for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and responsible for the site selection and design of O'Hare International Airport. He was the great grandson of Matthew Laflin, a founder and pioneer of Chicagomarker. Though its familiar three-letter IATA code ORD still reflects the early identity of the airport, it was renamed in 1949, after Lieutenant Commander Edward "Butch" O'Hare, USN, a World War II flying ace, who was awarded the Medal of Honor.

By the early 1950s, Chicago Midway International Airportmarker, which had been the primary Chicago airport since 1931, had become too small and crowded, despite multiple expansions and was unable to handle the planned first generation of jets. The City of Chicagomarker and the FAA began to develop O'Hare as the main airport for Chicago's future. The first commercial passenger flights were started there in 1955 and an international terminal was built in 1958, but the majority of domestic traffic did not move from Midway until completion of a 1962 expansion at O'Hare. The arrival of Midway's former traffic instantly made O'Hare the new World's Busiest Airport, serving 10 million passengers annually. Within two years, that number would double, with more people passing through O'Hare in 12 months than Ellis Islandmarker had processed in its entire existence. In 1997, annual passenger volume reached 70 million. At this time of writing, United serves its flagship hub with 150 daily departures, but the carrier's utilization of O'Hare peaked at over 1,000 daily flights in 1994.

O'Hare Airport is municipally connected to the city of Chicago via a narrow strip of land, approximately wide, running along Higgins Rd, from the Des Plaines river to the airport. This land was annexed into the city limits in the 1950s, to assure the airport was contiguous with the city to keep it under city control and for the massive tax revenue. The strip is bounded on the north by Rosemontmarker and the south by Schiller Parkmarker. The CTA Blue Line was extended to the airport in 1984.

Terminals

Terminal 1
Terminal 1, Concourse B
Terminal 2
Terminal 3
American Airlines Terminal 3 Main Hall
Terminal 5 - International
Terminal 5


O'Hare has four operational passenger terminals: 1, 2, 3 and 5. Two or more additional terminal buildings are envisioned. There is the possibility of a large terminal complex for the west side of the field, with access from I-90 and/or the Elgin-O'Hare Expressway, if the runway reconfiguration is completed.

United Airlines/United Express is the largest airline at O'Hare, carrying 48.79% of the passengers. American Airlines/American Eagle is the second largest carrying 39.89% of passengers.

O'Hare has 186 aircraft gates throughout four Terminals (1, 2, 3, 5) and nine concourses (B, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M).

Note: All international arrivals at O'Hare (excluding flights from destinations with border preclearance) are handled at Terminal 5.

Terminal 1
The original 1955 passenger terminal for international flights, was replaced with the modern Terminal 1, designed by Helmut Jahn, in 1987. It has

Terminal 1 has 53 Gates on two concourses:
*Concourse B, with 21 gates
*Concourse C, with 32 gates


United Airlines runs a shuttle service between Concourse C and Concourses E & F. The shuttles are accessed via stairways near Gate C-9 and Gate E-2A.

Terminal 2
Terminal 2 was built in a large airport expansion in 1962, along with the original portion of Terminal 3. It was United's sole terminal until the current Terminal 1 was built. In the 1960s/70s/80s it served United, Ozark, Braniff, Eastern, Northwest, Continental and Piedmont. In addition to Concourses E/F (which remain today), there was also an 11-gate Concourse D, which was demolished to make room for new Terminal 1.

In November 2009, Delta Air Lines moved to Terminal 2 from its previous home at Terminal 3 to align its operations with Northwest Airlines. Continental Airlines has moved from Terminal 2 to Terminal 1 as part of its move from SkyTeam to the Star Alliance and alliance with United Airlines.

Terminal 2 has 30 gates on two concourses:
*Concourse E, with 16 gates
*Concourse F, with 14 gates


Gates with the alpha designation in parentheses are those that board/disembark passengers through a single doorway. Passengers board/disembark aircraft using airstairs, walking along designated pathways, utilizing stairs/elevators to access the gate area. United Airlines is in the process of converting these "outside operations" gates used by United Express into jet bridge operations to increase passenger comfort and ultimately enhance safety and security.

Terminal 3
Terminal 3 was also built in the 1962 capital program. During the 1960s, and pre-airline deregulation, Concourse G served TWA, with a few gates reserved for Air Canada. Concourse H & K served American and Delta while Concourse K also served the large "regional" carrier North Central (later known as Republic Airlines). Terminal 3 was significantly expanded in 1983, with the construction of Concourse L for Delta Air Lines, which was initially known as the "Delta Flight Center". Concourse L also handled some international departures until the completion of Terminal 5 in 1993. On November 17, 2009, Delta moved to Terminal 2 to consolidate with merger partner Northwest Airlines.

Terminal 3 has 77 Gates on four concourses:
*Concourse G, with 26 gates
*Concourse H, with 21 gates
*Concourse K, with 22 gates
*Concourse L, with 11 gates


Concourse L is the smallest concourse in Terminal 3. With Delta Air Lines' move to Terminal 2 to consolidate with Northwest, the Delta SkyClub near gate L2B closed on November 16, 2009.

Terminal 4 (defunct)
Terminal 4 was O'Hare's interim international terminal from 1984 until 1993, located on the ground floor of the main parking garage. International passengers would check in at Terminal 4 and be taken directly to their aircraft by bus. Since the opening of Terminal 5, Terminal 4 has been changed into the airport's facility for CTA buses, hotel shuttles, and other ground transportation. The T4 designation will be used again in the future as new terminals are developed.

Terminal 5 (International Terminal)
All international arrivals at O'Hare (excluding flights from destinations with border preclearance), are at Terminal 5.

Terminal 5 has 21 Gates on one concourse:
*Concourse M, with 21 gates


Airlines and destinations

Cargo carriers

There are two main cargo areas at O'Hare that have warehouse, build-up/tear-down and aircraft parking facilities. The Southwest Cargo Area, adjacent to Irving Park Road, accommodates over 80% of the airport's all-cargo flights, divided among 9 buildings in two tiers. The North Cargo Area, which is a modest conversion of the former military base (the 1943 Douglas plant area), also receives air freighters. It is adjacent to the northern portion of Bessie Coleman Drive.

Two satellite cargo areas have warehouse and build-up/tear down facilities, but aircraft do not park at these. Freight is trucked to/from aircraft on other ramps. The South Cargo Area is along Mannheim Road. The East Cargo Area, adjacent to Terminal 5, was formerly the airport's only cargo section but has now mostly evolved into an airport support zone.

Facilities

Runways

With the opening of new runway 9L/27R in November 2008, there are now 7 primary air carrier runways, arranged tangentially in 3 parallel sets. The largest is Runway 14R-32L, 13,000' x 200'. Runway 10/28 is now also 13,000' long but is narrower with a width of 150'. Runways 9L, 10, 14L, 14R, 27L, 27R and 28 have Category III ILS (Instrument Landing System), allowing trained aircrews to conduct landings with as little as of horizontal visibility. All other runway approaches except 4L have full Category I ILS. Due to its location and prevailing winds, runway 4L is seldom used for landings. Therefore, it is equipped with a localizer, the horizontal guidance component of an ILS system, but does not have a glideslope, the vertical component.

All but two of O'Hare's runways intersect, which can create problems in times of inclement weather, congestion at the airport, or high winds. There have been several near-aircraft collisions at O'Hare in recent years. The proposed redevelopment, which essentially eliminates active runway intersections, is intended to alleviate collision hazards at O'Hare.

Three runways of the original 1943 airfield's four have been upgraded to modern standards. Additional runways were constructed in 1955, 1968, 1971 and 2008. In 2003, old Runway 18-36 was permanently closed—its short length and problematic placement no longer justified its continued certification. Runway 18-36 is now shown as taxiway WT on current airport charts.

The proposed redevelopment, now in progress, would entail removal of the 2 northwest–southeast runways, construction of 4 additional east–west runways, and extension of the 2 existing east–west runways. The two existing northeast–southwest runways would be retained. Currently, 1 of the 4 new runways has been constructed (9L/27R), and 1 of the 2 extensions (10/28) has been completed.

Runway 32L is sometimes used for departures in a shortened configuration. Planes access the runway from its intersection at taxiway T10 (common) or taxiway M (not common). This shortens the effective length of the runway but allows operations on runway 10-28 to continue without restriction.

O'Hare has a voluntary nighttime (2200–0700) noise abatement program in place.

The proposed runway re-configuration program at O'Hare would also improve the airport for the A380 Super-Jumbo aircraft. As part of the runway re-configuration program, on July 5, 2007, the runway previously designated 9R-27L became Runway 10-28, and on August 30, 2007, Runway 9L-27R became 9R-27L.

On September 25, 2008, a extension to 10-28 was opened.

Access to airport

CTA blue line station at O'Hare International Airport


Intra-airport transportation

Airport Transit System with Hilton Hotel in Background
Access within the airport complex can be accomplished using O'Hare's Airport Transit System (ATS), a long automated people mover system that operates 24 hours a day, connecting all four terminals and the remote parking lots. The system began its operation in 1993, and will be soon undergoing a US $90 million enhancement to add 24 new cars and to extend the line to a new remote parking garage.

Other facilities

A large air cargo complex on the southwest side of the field was opened in 1984, replacing most of the old cargo area, which stood where Terminal 5 now exists.

The hangar area has multiple buildings capable of fully enclosing aircraft up to the size of the Boeing 747.

The new North Terminal Air Traffic Control Tower (est. completion 2009) was designed by AECOM (design principal Jose Luis Palacios).

Modernization plan

O'Hare's high volume and crowded schedule can lead to long delays and cancellations that, due to the airport being a major hub, can affect air travel across North America. Official reports rank O'Hare as one of the least punctual airports in the United States based on percentage of delayed flights. In 2004, United Airlines and American Airlines agreed to modify their schedules to help reduce congestion caused by clustered arrivals and departures. Because of the air traffic departing, arriving, and near the airport, air traffic controllers at O'Hare and its nearby facilities are among the leaders in the world in terms of number of controlled flights per hour.

City management has committed to a $6 billion capital investment plan to increase the airport's capacity by 60% and decrease delays by an estimated 79 percent. This plan was approved by the FAA in October 2005 and will involve a reconfiguration of the airfield and addition of terminal space. The plan includes the addition of four runways and the decommissioning of two others in order to give the airfield six parallel runways in a configuration similar to that in Dallasmarker. This plan was very controversial as the added improvements, at the time they were proposed, were expected to increase the airport's air traffic capacity only slightly, given existing FAA rules.

The Modernization Plan is now being implemented; an additional runway and Air Traffic Control Tower were commissioned on November 20, 2008. The new north runway, designated 9L/27R, initially served as a foul weather arrival runway, addressing one of O'Hare's primary causes of delay, but now serves as one of three runways that can be used simultaneously for landings. An extension of Runway 10/28 (formerly 9R/27L) to was opened in September, 2008, facilitating the shortening and eventual closure of the equally long Runway 14R/32L. At the same time, the FAA redesigned departure routes for both O'Hare and Chicago Midway International Airportmarker, increasing the number from three shared by both airports to five from each airport. With the new runway's opening, O'Hare's maximum aircraft arrival capacity increased from 96 planes per hour to 112 planes per hour; United Airlines's senior vice president of operations, Joseph Kolshak, told The Wall Street Journal that within a month of the runway's opening, "they were consistently hitting that."

Design efforts are underway for the remainder of the program, which includes three runway projects, a new western terminal complex and an automated people mover system. The O'Hare Modernization Program has submitted an application to the Federal Aviation Administration to use approximately $180 million in Passenger Facility Charges to fund design work, which will begin in early 2009.

The modernization plan has required the acquisition of 126 acres of land in Des Plainesmarker, Illinoismarker; construction of runway 27R and the control tower cost $457 million and involved the rerouting of a creek and 14 million cubic yards of fill to build up an embankment.." 2,800 residents had to be relocated. The program ultimately is expected to expand the airport's capacity to over 3,800 operations per day, up from the present capacity of 2,700 and will vastly increase passenger throughput. It will also improve the ability of very large aircraft such as the A380 to operate.

Flight caps in place since 2004 expired on October 31, 2008. Ironically, American Airlines eliminated over 60 daily flights at O'Hare because of soaring fuel prices. United announced similar cutbacks. Recent worldwide economic difficulties further complicate the forecasts for airport demand.

After initially opposing the Modernization plan, DuPage County has endorsed the plan citing the creation of jobs, commercial development, and the ability of O'Hare to regain the status as busiest airport.

Image:O'Hare International Airport (USGS) Phase1-corrected.png|Phase 1 (Complete)Image:O'Hare International Airport (USGS) Phase2-corrected.png|Phase 2 (Extension complete, future runway 28C-10C under construction)Image:O'Hare International Airport (USGS) Phase3.png|Phase 3 (Beginning stages)Image:O'Hare International Airport (USGS) Final.png|Final runway configuration


Sustainable initiatives

The OMP had developed a nationally-recognized program that incorporates “green” principles into virtually every facet of design and construction. This program, detailed in the OMP Sustainable Design Manual (SDM), tracks sustainable design initiatives for occupied buildings and civil construction projects.

Notable sustainable design initiatives include:

  • "Clean" Construction Vehicles: Requiring all construction vehicles greater than to use Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel
  • Incorporating green roofs on new structures
  • Storing as much dirt on site as possible to reduce truck traffic and emissions on area roadways
  • Replacing of low quality, inaccessible wetlands on airport property with nearly of higher quality, passive recreation space throughout the region
  • Recycling approximately 90% of materials from building demolitions and keeping those materials out of local landfills


Resistance and alternatives

The neighboring communities of Bensenvillemarker and Elk Grove Villagemarker have been centers of resistance to the expansion plan, in which some residents and businesses will be required to relocate. Bensenville and Elk Grove Village formed the Suburban O'Hare Commission to fight the expansion. So far, they have not had much success. The commission did receive a temporary injunction against portions of the city's expansion project; however, it was soon overturned. The Suburban O'Hare Commission has also been instrumental in pushing for a third regional airport in south suburbanmarker Peotonemarker, which it claims would alleviate congestion at O'Hare. However, no airline has committed to the proposed airport, and planning efforts moved very slowly during 2007–08. In November 2009, Bensenville officially ended all resistance to the expansion, ceasing all legal challenges against the City of Chicago .

In 1995, the Chicago/Gary Airport Compact was signed by the cities of Chicago and Gary, Indianamarker, creating a new administration for the Gary/Chicago International Airportmarker just across the state line. While markedly smaller than the proposed Peotone site, this airport already has more land and a longer main runway than Midway Airport. Gary is also many miles closer than Peotone to downtown Chicago. In addition public transportation is already in place to the Loop via the South Shore Line. Indiana and the FAA have provided significant funding for a Gary runway expansion, currently under construction.

Chicago Rockford International Airportmarker (RFD) in Rockford, Illinoismarker has also marketed itself as an alternative for congestion at O'Hare. However, it is at least a 1-1/2 hour trip to Rockford from the Chicago Loop. Currently there is no direct transportation service from downtown Chicago or O'Hare to the Chicago Rockford International Airport, but airline service at the airport continues to grow. Larry Morrissey, the current mayor of Rockford, has pushed for a high-speed rail connection between the two airports to make the Rockford airport a more convenient alternative to O'Hare.

General Mitchell International Airportmarker (MKE) in Milwaukeemarker has consistently attempted to increase its usage by Chicago and Northern Illinois customers. There is a direct Amtrak rail service connecting Chicago with Mitchell Airport. The trains operate 7 round trips each day, taking under 75 min. from the Chicago loop.

Accidents and incidents

Accidents

1057 fatalities have occurred as a result of accidents en route to or from Chicago O'Hare.



Incidents

  • On October 8, 2001, on American Airlines Flight 1238, en route from Los Angelesmarker to Chicagomarker, a psychotic passenger stormed the cockpit 40 minutes before landing in Chicago, causing the plane to drop sharply and spark panic. In light of the fear ignited by 9/11, flight crew and passengers were quickly able to wrestle the man to the ground and subdue him. Additionally, a distress signal was sent by the pilots, causing two F-16 to race at supersonic speeds to intercept and escort the aircraft to O'Hare International Airport. This caused a sonic boom in Chicagomarker's northwest suburbs, startling millions of residents.
  • On the afternoon of November 7, 2006, a group of United Airlines workers reported seeing an unidentified flying object near gate C-17.


USAF use

The original Douglas plant on the northeast side evolved into a United States Air Force Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve facility after World War II.

Beginning in 1947, the airfield was assigned to Continental Air Command (ConAC). The 338th Bombardment Group flew B-29 Superfortresses from the airfield between June 12 and June 27, 1949. The B-29s were replaced by the 437th Troop Carrier Group, flying Curtiss C-46 Commandoes until being activated for the Korean War on March 14, 1951. Its aircraft and personnel were deployed to various units in South Koreamarker and Japanmarker, with the group being inactivated immediately afterwards.

During the Korean War, the ConAC reserve units were withdrawn and O'Hare was reassigned to Air Defense Command's Central Air Defense Force. The 62d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron was transferred to the station flying F-86 Sabres. The 62d FIS remained at O'Hare until October 1, 1959, becoming part of the ADC 56th Fighter Group, and later being upgraded to the F-86D interceptor version of the Sabre. In addition, the federalized Oregonmarker Air National Guard 142d Fighter-Interceptor Wing was stationed at O'Hare from March 1, 1951 to February 6, 1952.

Other Air Defense Command (ADC) squadrons assigned to the 56th FIW at O'Hare Airport were the 42d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (1953-1955) (F-86D) and the 63d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (1955-1958) (F-86D/L) In 1960, the need for active duty ADC bases was diminishing and the Air Force inactivated its active-duty ADC units at O'Hare and returned the station back to Continental Air Command (later resesignated Air Force Reserve) to base reserve units under the 2840th Air Reserve Training Wing.

In 1961, the Illinois Air National Guard's fighter unit at O'Hare transitioned to an air refueling mission and was redesignated as the 126th Air Refueling Group, flying the KC-97 Stratotanker. In 1976, the 126th transitioned to the KC-135 Stratotanker, was redesignated as the 126th Air Refueling Wing (126 ARW) and was placed under the operational claimancy of the Strategic Air Command (SAC). Following the deactivation of SAC in 1992, the 126 ARW came under the claimancy of the newly-established Air Mobility Command (AMC).

O'Hare Air Reserve Station was also home to the 928th Tactical Airlft Wing (928 TAW), later the 928th Airlift Wing (928 AW), of the Air Force Reserve Command, flying the C-130 Hercules. The 928th was operationally gained by the Tactical Air Command (TAC) until 1975, the Military Airlift Command (MAC) until 1992, and following the deactivation of SAC, TAC and MAC, by the newly-established Air Mobility Command (AMC) from 1992 forward.

The 1993 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommended the closure of O'Hare Air Reserve Station as proposed by the municipal government of the City of Chicago and the transfer of both the 126 ARW and 928 AW to new facilities to be constructed at Scott AFBmarker, Illinois, with much of the associated costs to be borne by the City of Chicago. The 1995 BRAC Commission modified the closure of O'Hare Air Reserve Station as recommended by the 1993 BRAC by deactivating the 928th Airlift Wing, rather than relocating the unit, and distributing its C-130 aircraft to Air Force Reserve C-130 units at Dobbins ARBmarker, Georgia and Peterson AFBmarker, Colorado.

The 126 ARW moved from the former O'Hare Air Reserve Station at O'Hare International Airport to Scott AFBmarker, Illinois in 1999 as recommended by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission's Report to Congress in conjunction with the closure of the Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard facilities at O'Hare.

Following the closure of the O'Hare Air Reserve Station, the former USAF facilities were redeveloped for air cargo and general aviation. Signature Flight Support services private aircraft in this area.

In pop culture

O'Hare is shown in the first three Home Alone movies with American Airlines as their carrier.

In the American Dad episode "Oedipal Panties", Francine tells Roger "See, I told you it was complicated", and Roger replies "no, no changing planes at O'Hare is complicated"

See also



References

  1. http://www.flychicago.com/Statistics/stats/1208SUMMARY.pdf
  2. YouTube – 1994 United Airlines Commercial
  3. RITA | BTS | Transtats
  4. http://www.ohare.com/cnrc/ohare/o_noise_flyquiet.shtm
  5. RITA | BTS | Transtats
  6. http://www.flychicago.com/ohare/runways/
  7. "How a New Runway at O'Hare Makes Travel Easier for All," Wall Street Journal, Personal Journal section, July 23, 2009, pages 1 and 3
  8. Economic boom will come from Elgin-O'Hare extension
  9. Bensenville, IL – Official Website – Suburban O'Hare Commission
  10. http://www.wbbm780.com/Bensenville-ends-opposition-to-O-Hare-expansion/5687989
  11. Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Airports > Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL profile
  12. ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 727-223 N845AA Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  13. ASN Aircraft accident Aérospatiale/Aeritalia ATR-72-212 N401AM Roselawn, IN
  14. ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-3B7 N513AU Aliquippa, PA
  15. ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 N1819U Sioux Gateway Airport, IA (SUX)
  16. ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-40 N184AT Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  17. ASN Aircraft accident Boeing KC-135A-BN Stratotanker 58-0031 Greenwood, IL
  18. ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 N110AA Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  19. ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31 N954N Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  20. ASN Aircraft accident Convair CV-580 N2045 Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  21. ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 727-22 N7036U Lake Michigan, MI
  22. ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-188C Electra N137US Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, IL (ORD)
  23. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=83625993&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=8829&RQT=309&VName=PQD
  24. Maurer Maurer, Air Force Combat Units Of World War II, Office of Air Force History, 1983
  25. USAFHRA Document 00451100
  26. USAFHRA Document 00441742
  27. USAFHRA Organizational Records page, 62d Fighter Squadron
  28. USAF Aerospace Defense Command publication, The Interceptor, January 1979 (Volume 21, Number 1).
  29. USAFHRA Document 00462865
  30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/126th_Air_Refueling_Wing
  31. O'Hare IAP Air Reserve Station


External links




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