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The Objectivist movement is a movement to study and advance the philosophy of Objectivism. It was founded by novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand. The movement began informally in the 1950s and consisted of students who were brought together by their mutual interest in Rand’s novel, The Fountainhead. The group, ironically named the Collective (due to their actual advocacy of individualism) consisted, in part, of Nathaniel Branden and Barbara Branden, Alan Greenspan, and Leonard Peikoff. Nathaniel Branden, a young Canadian student who had been greatly inspired by Rand's work, became a close confidant and encouraged Rand to expand her philosophy into a formal movement. From this informal beginning in Rand's living room, the movement expanded into a collection of think tanks, academic organizations, magazines, and journals.

History

The Collective

"The Collective" was Rand's private name for a group of close confidants, students, and proponents of Rand and Objectivism during the 1950s and '60s. The founding members of the group were Nathaniel Branden, Barbara Branden, Leonard Peikoff, Alan Greenspan, Allan Blumenthal, Harry Kalberman, Elayne Kalberman, Joan Mitchell, and Mary Ann Sures (formerly Rukavina). This group was the nucleus of a growing movement of Rand admirers whose name was chosen as a joke based on Objectivism's staunch commitment to individualism. It had originally started out as informal gathering of friends (many of them related to one another) who met with Rand on weekends at her apartment on East 36th Street in New York Citymarker to discuss philosophy. Barbara Branden said the group met "because of a common interest in ideas." Greenspan recalled being drawn to Rand because of a shared belief in "the importance of mathematics and intellectual rigor." The group met at Rand's apartment at least once a week, and would often discuss and debate into the early morning hours. About these discussions, Greenspan said, "Talking to Ayn Rand was like starting a game of chess thinking I was good, and suddenly finding myself in checkmate." Eventually Rand also allowed them to begin reading the manuscript of Atlas Shrugged as she completed it. As the years went on, the Collective would proceed to play a larger, more formal role, promoting Rand's philosophy through the Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI). Some Collective members gave lectures at the NBI in cities across the United States and wrote articles for its newsletters, The Objectivist Newsletter (1962-65) and The Objectivist (1966-71).

In 1968 after a complex series of events, Rand expelled Nathaniel and Barbara Branden from the Collective. In the subsequent years, the Collective slowly broke apart for numerous reasons. Leonard Peikoff eventually became Rand's legal heir and the person she described as the best teacher of her ideas, and has been called Rand's "intellectual heir." Following Rand's death in 1982 Peikoff founded the Ayn Rand Institute to promote Objectivist philosophy.

Early development

The first formal presentation of Objectivism began with the Nathaniel Branden Lectures (NBL), shortly after the publication of Rand’s final novel, Atlas Shrugged. Nathaniel Branden was the first member of The Collective, and later, Rand’s "intellectual heir." In time, Branden and Rand became romantically involved. After the publication of Atlas Shrugged, Rand was inundated with requests for more information about her philosophy. Not wanting to be a teacher or leader of an organized movement, she allowed Branden to lecture on her behalf.
Timeline of the Objectivist movement
Year Event
1943

1950

1957

1958

1961

1968

1971

1980

1982

1985

1987

1989

1990

1999

2000

2001

The Fountainhead published

Branden meets Rand

Atlas Shrugged published

NBI created

Objectivist Newsletter starts

Branden-Rand split

Ayn Rand Letter starts

Objectivist Forum starts

Rand's death

ARI starts

Ayn Rand Society forms

Peikoff-Kelley split

IOS starts

JARS founded

Objectivist Academic Center

First Anthem Foundation fellowship



The success of NBL prompted Branden to expand his lecture organization into the Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI). Rand and Branden also co-founded the first publication devoted to the study and application of Objectivism. The Objectivist Newsletter began publication in 1962 and was later expanded into The Objectivist.

The Nathaniel Branden Institute

The 1960s saw a rapid expansion of the Objectivist movement. Rand was a frequent lecturer at universities across the country. Rand hosted a radio program on Objectivism on the Columbia University station, WKCR. NBI hosted lectures on Objectivism, the history of philosophy, art, and psychology in cities across the country (see the Nathaniel Branden Institute). Campus clubs devoted to studying Rand’s philosophy formed throughout the country, though operated independently of NBI. Rand was a frequent guest on radio and television, as well as an annual lecturer at the Ford Hall Forum. At the peak of its popularity, NBI was delivering taped lectures in over 80 cities. By 1968 NBI had arranged for the lease of an entire floor in the Empire State Building (which would have been shared with Barbara Branden's book club and The Objectivist).

In 1968, Rand publicly broke with Nathaniel and Barbara Branden. She accused Nathaniel Branden of a "gradual departure from the principles of Objectivism," financial exploitation of her related to business loans, and "deliberate deception of several persons." In a response sent to the mailing list of The Objectivist in 1968, the Brandens denied many of Rand's charges against them. The result of their conflicting claims was a "schism," as some participants in the Objectivist movement supported the Brandens, while others supported Rand's repudiation of them. Robert L. Bradley, Jr. has called the dissolution of NBI an "organizational failure" in the Objectivist movement "as stunning as the collapse of Enron in a different context"; he charges Rand with "resorting to half-truths" and concludes that she "would never own up to the circumstances leading to the split, personally or publicly"

NBI was closed and its offices vacated, in an environment that Barbara Branden described as "total hysteria" as its former students learned about the matter. The Brandens continued for a time to sell some of NBI's recorded lectures through a new company, but otherwise had little involvement with the Objectivist movement until their biographical books about Rand were released. The Objectivist continued publishing with Rand as editor and Leonard Peikoff as associate editor. Peikoff also took over Nathaniel Branden's role as the primary lecturer on Objectivism. Peikoff later described the Brandens' expulsion as the first "of the many schisms that have plagued the Objectivist movement."

The 1970s

In the 1970s, Rand gave fewer public speeches, concentrating on nonfiction writing and helping the work of her students and associates. In the period from 1969 through 1971, Rand gave four workshops for a dozen professionals in philosophy and a few in math and physics on her book, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. The Objectivist was replaced by The Ayn Rand Letter in 1971. While The Objectivist had published articles by many authors, The Ayn Rand Letter, marketed as a personal newsletter from Ayn Rand, published only her work (plus occasionally Leonard Peikoff's).

Throughout the decade, Peikoff continued to offer a number of lecture series on various topics related to Objectivism to large audiences, often incorporating new philosophic material. Rand worked closely with Peikoff, helping edit his book, The Ominous Parallels, for which she wrote the introduction. In mid-1979, Rand's associate Peter Schwartz began editing and publishing The Intellectual Activist, a publication which Rand recommended to her audience. Another associate of hers during this period was Harry Binswanger, whom she advised on his mini-encyclopedia of Objectivism, The Ayn Rand Lexicon: Objectivism from A to Z. After the close of The Objectivist Calendar, a short publication listing upcoming events within the Objectivist movement, Binswanger began editing and publishing The Objectivist Forum, a bimonthly journal on Objectivism which had Rand's support and for which she served as "philosophic consultant."

Upon Rand's death, on March 6, 1982, Peikoff inherited her estate, and he controls the copyrights to her books and writing (barring the public domain Anthem). Shortly after Rand’s death, Peikoff’s first book, The Ominous Parallels, was published. In 1983 Peikoff gave a series of lectures titled Understanding Objectivism,, for the purpose of improving the methodology used in studying Objectivism, as a corrective to what he describes as the "Rationalist" and the "Empiricist" methods of thought.

The Ayn Rand Institute

In 1985, Leonard Peikoff and Ed Snider founded the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI), the first organization devoted to the study and advocacy of Objectivism since the closure of NBI in 1968. The institute began by sponsoring essay contests on Rand’s novels and distributing op-eds analyzing world events from an Objectivist perspective. In 1987 the institute began teaching aspiring Objectivist academics.

The Peikoff-Kelley split

In 1989 there was another major split within the Objectivist movement. As Brian Doherty describes it, David Kelley, a philosopher and lecturer then affiliated with ARI, was "booted from the official Objectivist world" for disagreeing "about the inherent evils of Barbara Branden's Rand biography" of Rand and "publicly defend[ing] on principle the notion of Objectivists talking to libertarians."

Kelly was criticized by Peter Schwartz for giving a single speech under the auspices of Laissez-Faire Books (LFB), a libertarian book store. Schwartz argued that this activity violated the Objectivist moral principle of sanction. In other words, Kelley was implicitly conferring moral approval on the organization by appearing at an event that it sponsored. LFB, in turn, was morally objectionable because it promoted books, such as The Passion of Ayn Rand, that Schwartz maintained were hostile and defamatory towards Ayn Rand and Objectivism. (Although Schwartz made no mention of it, Leonard Peikoff had signed copies of his book The Ominous Parallels at three LFB events in 1982. Peikoff subsequently broke all relations with LFB after being told that LFB offered anarchist literature.)

Kelley responded, in a paper titled "A Question of Sanction", by disputing Schwartz’s interpretation of the sanction principle in particular and moral principles in general. Subsequently, Peikoff endorsed Schwartz’s view and claimed that Kelley's arguments contradicted fundamental principles of Objectivism. Peikoff maintained that many non-Objectivist systems of thought, such as Marxism, are based on "inherently dishonest ideas" whose advocacy must never be sanctioned. The fall of NBI and subsequent schisms were not caused by "differences in regard to love affairs or political strategy or proselytizing techniques or anybody’s personality. The cause is fundamental and philosophical: if you grasp and accept the concept of 'objectivity,' in all its implications, then you accept Objectivism, you live by it and you revere Ayn Rand for defining it. If you fail fully to grasp and accept the concept, whether your failure is deliberate or otherwise, you eventually drift away from Ayn Rand’s orbit, or rewrite her viewpoint or turn openly into her enemy." Those who criticized his position were to make their exit: "if you agree with the Branden or Kelley viewpoint or anything resembling it—please drop out of our movement: drop Ayn Rand, leave Objectivism alone. We do not want you and Ayn Rand would not have wanted you..."

Kelley responded to the Peikoff-Schwartz critique in his monograph, Truth and Toleration, later updated as The Contested Legacy of Ayn Rand. He responded to his ostracism by founding the Institute for Objectivist Studies (later called The Objectivist Center, then The Atlas Society) with the help of Ed Snider. Kelley was joined by Objectivist scholars George Walsh and Jim Lennox, as well as former Collective members Joan and Allan Blumenthal.

The Atlas Society and the Ayn Rand Institute

Kelley’s Institute for Objectivist Studies (IOS) began to publish material on Objectivism and host conferences for Rand scholars in 1990. IOS held a symposium on Chris Sciabarra's book, Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical. IOS invited Nathaniel and Barbara Branden to participate in the institute’s activities, effectively bringing them back into the Objectivist movement. Each has continued to appear at TAS events.

In 1994, the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) expanded its educational programs into the Objectivist Graduate Center (OGC), which held classes led by Leonard Peikoff and Harry Binswanger. The OGC expanded into the Objectivist Academic Center (OAC) in 2000, offering undergraduate and graduate courses on Objectivism, writing, history, the history of philosophy, and the history of science. Several OAC classes are now accredited. In 1991, Peikoff's book Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand was published. It was the first systematic presentation of Rand's philosophy to appear in print. 1996 saw a series of lectures on Objectivism by ARI intellectuals at Harvardmarker. ARI increased its notoriety by staging a protest against President Clinton’s volunteerism initiative in 1997. ARI gathered more attention for its activism on behalf of the family of Elian Gonzalez. 1998 saw the release of Academy Award nominated documentary, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life. In 1999 the United States Postal Service released an Ayn Rand stamp.

In 2000, Yaron Brook succeeded Michael Berliner as head of the ARI. The 2000s have seen the most rapid growth of the Objectivist movement since its birth in the late 1950s. Op-eds put out by ARI are published by hundreds of newspapers annually, and ARI intellectuals are frequent guests on radio networks such as Air America and TV networks such as Fox News and CNBCmarker. ARI speakers give scores of lectures on college campuses each year, which are sponsored by the hundreds of Objectivist campus clubs around the country. There are many community groups dedicated to the study of Objectivism, as well as several on-line forums and social networks for fans of Rand's novels and philosophy (see links).

As of 2007, ARI has distributed over 700,000 free copies of Ayn Rand’s novels to high schools around the country. In 2005 ARI opened a branch in Canada, which distributes free books to Canadian schools. Independently of ARI's free books program, Rand's books sell over 500,000 copies per year. Total sales of her books since publication is over 24 million copies.

ARI intellectuals are frequently interviewed for their controversial positions, particularly on Islam and the war on terror. In 2006, ARI sponsored a conference on the war on terror. In addition to Objectivist speakers, mid-east scholars Daniel Pipes and Robert Spencer and Danish newspaper editor Flemming Rose gave lectures.

The 2000s also saw a change for the Atlas Society (TAS). David Kelley stepped down as executive director and was replaced by ex-Cato scholar Ed Hudgins. The institute relocated to Washington D.C. and launched a new magazine, The New Individualist. TAS has recently attracted media attention following its participation in the 2007 Conservative Political Action Conference - CPAC.

Student activism

Objectivism has remained popular on college campuses, with dozens of student groups dedicated to promoting and studying the philosophy of Objectivism spread across the U.S., Australia, Canada, Guatemala, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and Norway. These clubs often present speakers on controversial topics such as abortion, religion, and foreign policy, often allying with conservative (and sometimes liberal) organizations to organize their events. For example, the New York Universitymarker Objectivism Club hosted a joint panel on the Muhammad cartoons that received nationwide coverage for NYU's censorship of the cartoons. There are several dozen speakers sponsored by the Ayn Rand Institute and other organizations who give nationwide tours each year speaking about Objectivism.

The Ayn Rand Institute has spent more than $5M on educational programs advancing Objectivism, including scholarships and clubs. These clubs often obtain educational materials and speakers from the ARI. There are also several conferences organized by various organizations, which draw several hundred attendees each summer and feature philosophy courses and presentations of new publications and research. A student-run magazine, The Undercurrent, is published for colleges around the United States.

Objectivism in academia

Despite the fact that several members of the Collective were philosophy graduate students at NYUmarker, Objectivism did not begin to make serious inroads into academic philosophy until the 1980s. Rand herself had much disdain for modern academia, citing the poor state of American universities, particularly the humanities, as the source of much of the country's problems, and Peikoff expressed similar sentiments in the early 1990s, declaring that his book on Objectivism was "written not for academics, but for human beings (including any academics who qualify)." "opar"> Peikoff, Leonard (1993). Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand New York: Meridian, p. xiv ISBN 978-0452011014 The Ayn Rand Institute initially concentrated on promoting Objectivism independently of academia, supplying free books to high schools and universities, sponsoring essay contests for students and support programs for teachers and professors interested in studying and teaching Rand's ideas.

Some limited academic attention was given to Objectivism in the 1970s. In 1971, William F. O'Neill published With Charity toward None: An Analysis of Ayn Rand's Philosophy, in which he provides an academic discussion of Objectivism. Although he finds many flaws in Rand's thinking, he expresses admiration for her efforts, and particularly her ability to motivate readers to think about philosophical issues. There was occasional discussion of Rand in scholarly journals throughout the rest of the decade.

Thirteen years later, the second book-length academic study of Objectivism appeared. It was a collection of essays called The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand, edited by Douglas Den Uyl and Douglas Rasmussen. It was also the first book about Rand's thought to be published after her death. Den Uyl and Rasmussen made a specific effort to bring more serious scholarly attention to Objectivism by maintaining high scholarly standards for the essays in their book.

In 1987, noted Aristotle scholar and Rand student Allan Gotthelf founded the Ayn Rand Society, which is affiliated with the American Philosophical Association. Non-Objectivist participants have included Jaegwon Kim and Susan Haack.

In 1995, Chris Matthew Sciabarra published Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical, an academic study of Rand's ideas and intellectual history. Rand bibliographer Mimi Reisel Gladstein called Sciabarra's work "a significant milestone in Rand studies." Three years later, Sciabarra declared a "renaissance" in the scholarship about Rand, noting that his book was only "one of fifteen book titles dealing with Rand that have been published since 1995, along with countless articles and other references to her work." However, he also noted that not all of the material carried "deep scholarly interest."

In 2001, John McCaskey founded the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, which sponsors the work of professors affiliated with the Ayn Rand Institute. As of 2007 there were 13 such fellowships for the study of Objectivism in universities in the U.S., including at the University of Pittsburghmarker and the University of Texas, Austinmarker. In 2006, the Anthem Foundation in conjunction with the University of Pittsburghmarker hosted a conference on the philosophy of science called "Concepts and Objectivity: Knowledge, Science, and Values." Participants included Objectivists Onkar Ghate, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Harry Binswanger, and Tara Smith, as well as noted analytic philosophers David Sosa, A.P. Martinich, and Peter Railton. Over the past several years, other Objectivists, not all of whom are affiliated with ARI, have received support from the BB&T Charitable Foundation's program to support the study of capitalism.

In 2006, Cambridge University Press published Tara Smith’s book, Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist. This book, along with the previously mentioned "Concepts and Objectivity" conference, has been cited by some Objectivists as the biggest inroad into mainstream academic philosophy to date .

Since 1999 The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, edited by Stephen D. Cox, Chris Matthew Sciabarra, and R.W. Bradford (until his death in 2005), has been published semi-annually as a "nonpartisan," scholarly forum for the discussion of Rand's work and its application to many fields. None of its editors has been aligned with the Ayn Rand Institute, and no one affiliated with ARI has participated in its exchanges since 2002.

Accusations of cultism

Charges

Over the years, some critics have accused Rand of being a cult figure and the Objectivist movement of being a cult. The term 'Randroid' (a portmanteau of 'Rand' and 'android') has been used to evoke the image of "the Galt-imitating robots produced by the cult."

Suggestions of cult-like behavior by Objectivists began during the NBI days. With growing media coverage, articles began appearing that referred to the "Cult of Ayn Rand" and compared her to various religious leaders. Terry Teachout described NBI as "a quasi-cult which revolved around the adoration of Ayn Rand and her fictional heroes," one that "disintegrated" when Rand split with Nathaniel Branden. In 1968, psychologist Albert Ellis, in the wake of a public debate with Nathaniel Branden, published a book arguing that Objectivism was a religion, whose practices included "sexual Puritanism," "absolutism," "damning and condemning," and "deification" of Ayn Rand and her fictional heroes. In his memoirs, Nathaniel Branden said of the Collective and NBI that "there was a cultish aspect to our world […] We were a group organized around a charismatic leader, whose members judged one another's character chiefly by loyalty to that leader and her ideas."

In 1972, libertarian author Murray Rothbard began privately circulating an essay on "The Sociology of the Ayn Rand Cult," in which he wrote:

Rothbard also wrote that "the guiding spirit of the Randian movement was not individual liberty ... but rather personal power for Ayn Rand and her leading disciples."

In the 1990s, Michael Shermer argued that the Objectivist movement displayed characteristics of religious cults such as the veneration and inerrancy of the leader; hidden agendas; financial and/or sexual exploitation; and the beliefs that the movement provides absolute truth and absolute morality. Shermer maintained that certain aspects of Objectivist epistemology and ethics promoted cult-like behavior:

In 1999, Jeff Walker published The Ayn Rand Cult. In one passage, Walker compared Objectivism to the Dianetics practices of Scientology, which is considered by many to be a cult. Both, argues Walker, are totalist sets of beliefs that advocate "an ethics for the masses based on survival as a rational being." Walker continues, "Dianetics used reasoning somewhat similar to Rand's about the brain as a machine. ... Both have a higher mind reprogramming the rest of the mind." Walker further notes that both philosophies claim to be based on science and logic. Walker's book has drawn criticism from Rand scholars. Chris Matthew Sciabarra criticized Walker’s objectivity and scholarship. Mimi Reisel Gladstein wrote that Walker's thesis is "questionable and often depends on innuendo, rather than logic." R. W. Bradford called it "merely annoying" for scholars.

The claims of cultism have continued in more recent years. In 2004, Thomas Szasz wrote in support of Rothbard's 1972 essay, and in 2006, Albert Ellis published an updated edition of his 1968 book that included favorable references to Walker's.

Responses

Rand never directly rebutted charges of cultism, but said in 1961 that she did not want "blind followers." In the wake of NBI's collapse, she declared that she did not even want an organized movement.

Jim Peron responded to Shermer, Rothbard and others with an argument that similarities to cults are superficial at best and charges of cultism directed at Objectivists are ad hominem attacks. Objectivism, he said, lacks layers of initiation, a hierarchy, obligation, cost or physical coercion:

In 2001, Rand's long-time associate Mary Ann Sures remarked:

Meanwhile, Shermer, who considers himself an admirer of Ayn Rand, has tempered his judgment. Contrasting Leonard Peikoff's "heavy-hammer approach" with the "big-tent approach" of The Atlas Society, Shermer told Ed Hudgins: "If we’re close enough on the same page about many things, I think it’s more useful to cut people some slack, rather than going after them on some smaller points. I don’t see the advantage of saying, 'You shouldn’t have liked that movie because ultimately, if you were an Objectivist, you wouldn’t have.' I guess it was those sorts of judgments made by some Objectiv[ists] that I objected to."

Wider influence

There are a number of writers who cannot be classified as "Objectivist," but who still exhibit a significant influence of Objectivism in their own work. Prominent among these is John Hospers, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Southern Californiamarker, who credited Rand's political ideas as helping to shape his own, while in other areas sharp differences remained. Another is Murray Rothbard, who, like Rand, advocated volition, Aristotle and natural rights, but who also advocated anarchism, which was anathema to Rand. Also in this category are: journalist Edith Efron, The Apocalyptics: Cancer and the Big Lie (Simon and Schuster, 1984), The News Twisters (Manor Books, 1973); scientist Petr Beckmann, The Health Hazards of Not Going Nuclear (Golem Press, 1976); and, Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950-1980 (Basic Books, 1984) and What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation (Broadway Books, 1996). All of these writers, except Charles Murray, had been personally acquainted with Rand at one time.

See also



Notes

  1. . In public she referred to them as "the class of '43" after the year The Fountainhead was published. cf. and .
  2. ; .
  3. ;
  4. .
  5. ; .
  6. .
  7. ; .
  8. ; ; ; .
  9. ; ; .
  10. Inner circle members Peikoff, Greenspan and Sures remained associated with Rand until her death. Kay Nolte Smith was expelled by Rand, while Allan and Joan Mitchell Blumenthal and Robert Hessen left on their own. See , esp. "Denouement" and "Epilogue," and .
  11. Peikoff, Leonard, Objectivism: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand, Dutton, 1991, "Preface"; Peikoff, The Ominous Parallels, Stein & Day, 1982, "Introduction," by Ayn Rand
  12. .
  13. Rand, Ayn. "Ayn Rand's The Ford Hall Lectures - Complete Set
  14. The Objectivist Newsletter vol. 4 no. 12
  15. Announcement in The Objectivist vol. 6 no. 6
  16. .
  17. ; cf. .
  18. ; .
  19. ; ; ; ; . Baker and Walker both use the term "schism," as does .
  20. Bradley devotes Appendix A in his book (pp. 320-331) to "The Ayn Rand Problem."
  21. ; cf. .
  22. and , which was originally released in 1989 under the title Judgment Day: My Years with Ayn Rand.
  23. .
  24. .
  25. Rand, Ayn (1990). Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. Plume. ISBN 0-4520-1030-6
  26. "Founders of Western Philosophy" (1972) and "The Philosophy of Objectivism" (1976)
  27. New American Library, 1986; online at www.aynrandlexicon.com
  28. "To the Readers of the Objectivist Forum," The Objectivist Forum, vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1980)
  29. Impact (newsletter of the Ayn Rand Institute), June 2003
  30. ; the italics are Doherty's.
  31. .
  32. Kelley's paper was at first circulated privately, but is reproduced as an appendix in .
  33. .
  34. Revised as .
  35. IOS Summer Seminar (1995). Faculty Biographies. http://www.objectivistcenter.org/events/oldsems/seminars-sem95.asp#fac Accessed July 28, 2009.
  36. IOS Summer Seminar (1996). http://www.objectivistcenter.org/events/oldsems/seminars-sem96.asp#pers Accessed July 28, 2009.
  37. IOS Summer Seminar (1999). http://www.objectivistcenter.org/events/sem99/seminars-sem99.asp Accessed July 28, 2009.
  38. Impact September 2000
  39. OAC website
  40. Impact December 2006
  41. ARI website
  42. Impact April 1999
  43. Impact March 2000
  44. Impact February 2007
  45. About ARI From the Ayn Rand's Institute's website
  46. The Jihad Against the West
  47. Lists of such groups can be found at: ; ;
  48. ; cf. discussion of O'Neill's book in .
  49. For example: ; ; ; and
  50. .
  51. .
  52. Impact July 2003
  53. BB&T Programs. http://business.clemson.edu/BBTCENTER/cci/capres/bbtp/bbtp.html Accessed July 25, 2009.
  54. . Gladstein cites articles titled "The Curious Cult of Ayn Rand," "The Cult of Ayn Rand," and "The Cult of Angry Ayn Rand," and comparisons of Rand to Joan of Arc and Aimee McPherson.
  55. Teachout, Terry (July 1986). The Goddess That Failed. Commentary. https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/the-passion-of-ayn-rand--by-barbara-branden-7163
  56. * Ellis did not employ the word "cult."
  57. Branden, Nathaniel (1989). Judgment Day: My Years with Ayn Rand. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 256. ISBN 0-395-46107-3
  58. .
  59. In a letter to Ida Macken (December 10, 1961), Rand wrote, "A blind follower is precisely what my philosophy condemns and what I reject. Objectivism is not a mystic cult." (emphasis in original)
  60. "I want, therefore, to make it emphatically clear that Objectivism is not an organized movement and is not to be regarded as such by anyone."
  61. Interview with Michael Shermer (January-February 2007). The New Individualist. http://www.objectivistcenter.org/ct-1852-M_Shermer.aspx
  62. Hospers, John (1971). Libertarianism. Los Angeles: Nash.
  63. Individualism and the Methodology of the Social Sciences, Cato Paper no. 4, Cato Institute, 1979, and The Ethics of Liberty, Humanities Press, 1982


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