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The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany started with the German invasion of Norwaymarker on April 9, 1940 and ended on May 8, 1945, after the capitulation of German forces in Europe. Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by German military forces. Civil rule was effectively assumed by a Reich Commission, which acted in collaboration with a pro-German puppet government, while the legitimate Norwegian king and government continued to operate in exile from Londonmarker. This period of occupation — usually referred to as the "war years" or "occupation period" in Norway — had defining significance for Norwegian society, and it is only recently that Norway considers itself as having passed out of the "post-war era."


Having maintained its neutrality during World War I, Norwegian foreign and military policy since 1933 was largely influenced by three factors:

These three factors met resistance as tensions grew in Europe in the 1930s, initially from Norwegian military staff and right-wing political groups, but increasingly also from individuals within the mainstream political establishment and, it has since come to light, by the king, behind the scenes. By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliamentmarker had accepted the need for a strengthened military and expanded the budget accordingly, even by assuming national debt. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the budgetary expansion were not completed in time.

Although the respect of neutrality remained the highest priority until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was known throughout the government that Norway, above all, did not want to be at war with the United Kingdommarker. By the autumn of 1939, there was an increasing sense of urgency that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality, but indeed to fight for its "freedom and independence." Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, and to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940. Several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incidentmarker in Jøssingfjordmarker, put great strains on Norway's ability to assert its neutrality. Norway managed to negotiate favorable trade treaties both with the United Kingdom and Germany under these conditions, but it became increasingly clear that both countries had a strategic interest in denying the other access to Norway.

The government was also increasingly pressured by Britain to direct increasingly large parts of its massive merchant fleet to transport British goods at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared, mainly in order to reach and destroy the Swedish iron ore mines in Gällivaremarker. It was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, and open a war front in south Swedenmarker.

It was also agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters and that the mining should be followed by the landing of troops at four Norwegian ports, Narvikmarker, Trondheimmarker, Bergenmarker, and Stavangermarker. Because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from April 5 to April 8. The postponement was catastrophic. Hitler had on April 1 ordered the German invasion of Norway to begin on April 9; so, when on April 8 the Norwegian government was preoccupied with earnest protest about the British mine laying, the German expeditions were well on their way.

German invasion

German infantry attacking through a burning Norwegian village, April 1940.

On the pretext that Norway needed protection from Britishmarker and Frenchmarker interference, Germany invaded Norway for several reasons: strategically, to secure ice-free harbours from which naval forces could seek to control the North Atlantic; to secure the availability of iron ore from mines in Sweden, going through Narvikmarker; to pre-empt a British and French invasion with the same purpose; and to reinforce the propaganda of a "Germanic empire".

Through neglect both on the part of the Norwegian foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defense Birger Ljungberg, Norway was largely unprepared for the German military invasion when it came on the night between April 8 and April 9, 1940. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea and air as Operation Weserübung was put into action. The first wave of German attackers counted only about ten thousand men, but Germany's luck in achieving complete surprise, and the unpreparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success.

The major Norwegian ports from Oslomarker northward to Narvikmarker (more than 1,200 miles away from Germany's naval bases) were occupied by advance detachments of German troops. At the same time, a single parachute battalion (the first ever employed in warfare) took the Oslo and Stavanger airfields, and 800 operational aircraft overawed the Norwegian population. Norwegian resistance at Narvik, at Trondheimmarker (the strategic key to Norway), at Bergenmarker, at Stavangermarker, and at Kristiansandmarker were overcome very quickly; and Oslo's effective resistance to the seaborne forces was nullified when German troops from the airfield entered the city.

On establishing a foothold in Oslo and Trondheim, they launched a ground offensive against scattered resistance inland in Norway. Allied forces attempted several counterattacks, but all failed. While military resistance in Norway had little military success, it had the significant political effect of allowing the Norwegian government, including the Royal family, to escape. Most notably, the German cruiser Blüchermarker, which carried the main forces to occupy the capital, was sunk in the Oslofjordmarker on the first day of the invasion. A pitched battle at Midtskogen also hindered a German raid from capturing the king and government.

Norwegian mobilisation was hampered by the fact that much of the best equipment was lost to the Germans in the first 24 hours of the invasion, the unclear mobilisation order by the government and the general confusion caused by the tremendous psychological shock of the German surprise attack. The Norwegian Army rallied after the initial confusion and on several occasions managed to put up a stiff fight, delaying the German advance. However, the Germans proved unstoppable due to their superior numbers, training and equipment. The Norwegian army therefore planned its campaign as a tactical retreat while awaiting reinforcements from Britain.

Allied troops began to land at Narvikmarker on April 14. Shortly afterward, British troops were landed also at Namsosmarker and at Åndalsnesmarker, to attack Trondheim from the north and from the south, respectively. The Germans, however, landed fresh troops in the rear of the British at Namsos and advanced up the Gudbrandsdal from Oslo against the force at Åndalsnes. By this time the Germans had about 25,000 troops in Norway. By May 2, both Namsos and Åndalsnes were evacuated by the British.

In the north, German troops engaged in a bitter fight at the Battle of Narvik, holding out against five times as many British and French troops until finally withdrawing on May 28. By that time the German offensive in France had progressed to such an extent that the British could no longer afford any commitment in Norway, and the 25,000 Allied troops were evacuated from Narvik 10 days after their victory. The Norwegian king Haakon VII and part his government left for England on a British cruiser (HMS Glasgow) to establish a government-in-exile.

Fighting continued in Northern Norway until June 10, when the Norwegian 6th Division surrendered shortly after Allied forces had been evacuated against the background of looming defeat in France. Among German-occupied territories, this made Norway the country to withstand the German invasion for the longest period of time – approximately two months.

Hitler garrisoned Norway with about 300,000 troops for the rest of the war. By occupying Norway, Hitler had ensured the protection of Germany's supply of iron ore from Sweden and had obtained naval and air bases with which to strike at Britain if necessary.

Occupation period

Changes in society

German political and military powers

Prior to the invasion, Vidkun Quisling, the leader of the Norwegian Nazi party known as Nasjonal Samling ("National Gathering") had tried to persuade Adolf Hitler that he would form a government in support of occupying Germans. Although Hitler was unreceptive to the idea, and Quisling's attempt to announce his ascension to power failed, the Nazis allowed him to early assume nominal leadership of the Nazi government in Norway.

Military forces such as the Heer and Luftwaffe remained under direct command from Germany during war years, but all other authority was vested in Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. He attempted to negotiate an arrangement with the remaining members of the Norwegian parliament that would give a Nazi cabinet the semblance of legitimacy, but these talks failed. After this, Quisling was instituted as head of state, though Terboven held the sole means to use violence as a political tool, which he did on several occasions, inter alia by imposing martial law in Trondheim, destroying the village of Telavågmarker, etc.

Quisling believed that by ensuring economic stability and mediating between the Norwegian civilian society and the German occupiers, his party would gradually win the trust and confidence of the Norwegian population. Membership in Nasjonal Samling did increase slightly in the first few years of the occupation, but never reached significant levels, and eroded towards the end of the war.

The Nazi authorities made attempts to enact legislation that supported its actions and policies, banned all political parties except NS, appointed local leaders top down, and forced labour unions and other organizations to accept NS leaders. Although there was much resistance against most of the Nazi government's policies, there was considerable cooperation in ensuring economic activity and social welfare programs.

Norway was the most heavily fortified country during the war: several hundred thousand German soldiers were stationed in Norway, in a ratio of one German soldier for every eight Norwegians. Most German soldiers considered themselves fortunate to be in Norway, particularly in comparison with those experiencing savage combat duty on the Eastern Front. Approximately 6,000 SSmarker troops were also garrisoned in Norway during World War II, under the command of Obergruppenführer Wilhelm Rediess.

The powerful battleship Tirpitzmarker was stationed in Norway for most of the war, acting as a fleet in being in her own right and tying up huge Allied resources until she was eventually sunk in the last of many attacks.

Material scarcity and ingenuity

The occupation saw a great rise in food shortages throughout Norway.
Here people wait in line for food rations, Oslo, 1942.
Norway lost all its major trading partners the moment it was occupied. Germany became the main trading partner, but could not make up for the lost import and export business. Combined with a general drop in productivity, Norwegians were quickly confronted with scarcity of basic commodities, including food. There was a real risk of famine.

Many if not most Norwegians started growing their own crops and keeping their own livestock. City parks were divided among inhabitants, who grew potatoes, cabbage, and other hardy vegetables. People kept pigs, rabbits, chicken and other poultry in their houses and outhouses. Fishing and hunting became more widespread. Gray and black markets provided for flow of goods. Norwegians also learned to use ersatz products for a wide variety of purposes, ranging from fuel to coffee, tea, and tobacco.

Resistance, acceptance and collaboration

It has been estimated that as many as 10% of Norwegians were supportive of the Nazi occupation, though this estimate is uncertain and the support varied throughout the occupation. It is clear that the vast majority of Norwegians were opposed to the occupation, and many resisted it in various ways. This was in large part reinforced by the activism of the government in exile in Londonmarker, which made regular Norwegian language broadcasts and published news via the underground press.

Some Norwegians took part in armed resistance; others provided support for such activities; many Norwegians engaged in various forms of civil disobedience; and many took part in passive resistance efforts. Over time, an organized armed resistance movement, known as Milorg and numbering some 40,000 armed men at the end of the war, was formed under a largely unified command, something which greatly facilitated the transfer of power in May 1945.

A distinction was made between the home front (Hjemmefronten) and the external front (Utefronten). The home front consisted of sabotage, raids and clandestine operations (as was often performed by members of Milorg), as well as intelligence gathering (for which XU was founded). Meanwhile the external front included Norway's merchant fleet, the Royal Norwegian Navy (which had evacuated many of its ships to Britain), Norwegian squadrons under the British Royal Air Force command and several commando groups operating out of Great Britainmarker and Shetlandmarker.

Of the Norwegians who supported the Nasjonal Samling party, relatively few were active collaborators. Most notorious among these was Henry Oliver Rinnan, who infiltrated the Norwegian resistance, and tortured and murdered many members. About 15,000 Norwegians volunteered for combat duty on the Nazi side; of the 6,000 sent into action most were sent to the Eastern front.


The arrest, detention, and rendition of Jews in Norway was carried out entirely by Norwegian police.


Lapland War, Soviet advance and retreat of the German army

Soviet soldiers meet local Norwegian inhabitants.

At the outbreak of the Lapland War, the initial German plan was to retain the essential nickel mines around Petsamo in the far North held by the 19th Mountain Corps under General Ferdinand Jodl, but events led to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ordering the entire 20th Mountain Army out of Finlandmarker to take up new defensive positions around Lyngenmarker and Skibotnmarker just to the north of Tromsømarker – a new operation which came to be called "Operation Northern Light". This proved to be a huge logistical undertaking. General Lothar Rendulic, replacing General Eduard Dietl who had been killed in an air crash, set about evacuating supplies by sea through Petsamo and the Norwegian town of Kirkenesmarker.

In early October 1944, some 53,000 men of the German 19th Mountain corps were still some 45 miles inside Russiamarker along the Litsa River and the neck of the Rybachy Peninsula. The plan was for them to reach Lakselv in Norway, some 160 miles west, by November 15. By October 7, however, the combined Soviet 14th Army and Northern fleetmarker, consisting of some 133,500 men under Field Marshall Kirill Meretskov, attacked the weakest point of the German line, the junction between the 2nd and 6th Mountain Divisions.

A Soviet Naval Brigade also made an amphibious landing to the west of Rybachy, thereby outflanking the Germans. Rendulic, fearing an encirclement of his forces, ordered the 19th Mountain Corps to fall back into Norway. With the Soviets hard on their heels the Corps reached Kirkenes by October 20. The German High Command ordered Rendulic to hold the Soviets at bay whilst vital supplies amounting to some 135,000 tons could be shipped to safety. Five days later, when the German army prepared to withdraw, only around 45,000 tons had been saved.

As a result of the German scorched earth policy, Kirkenes was virtually destroyed by the Germans before pulling out: the town was set on fire, port installations and offices were blown up and only a few small houses were left standing. This scene was to be repeated throughout Finnmarkmarker, an area larger than Denmarkmarker. The Germans were determined to leave nothing of value to the Soviets, as Hitler had ordered Rendulic to leave the area devoid of people, shelter and supplies. Some 43,000 people complied with the order to evacuate the region immediately; those who refused were forced to leave their homes. Some nonetheless stayed behind to await the departure of the Germans: it was estimated that between 23,000 to 25,000 people remained in East-Finnmark by the end of November.

The Soviets pursued the Germans over the following days, and fighting occurred around the small settlements of Munkelv and Neidenmarker to the west of Kirkenesmarker around October 27. The German 6th Mountain Division, acting as rear-guard, slowly withdrew up the main road along the coast (known as Riksvei 50, now called the E6) until reaching Tanafjordmarker, some 70 miles north-west of Kirkenes, which they reached on November 6. It was to be their last contact with Soviet troops.

Allied Norwegian troops liberate Finnmark

On October 25, 1944, the order was given for a Norwegian force in Britainmarker to set sail for Murmanskmarker to join the Soviet forces now entering Northern Norway. The envoy was named Force 138 and the operation was called "Operation Crofter".

The Norwegian commander, Oberst Arne D. Dahl, had under his command:
  • A military mission responsible for creating a liaison with the soviets and setting up a civil administration,
  • Bergkompani 2 under Major S. Rongstad with 233 men,
  • A naval area command with 11 men,
  • "Area command Finnmark" consisting of 12 men.

The small force arrived in Murmansk on November 6 and re-embarked onboard a Soviet ship to Liinakhamarimarker in Finland, where they thereafter boarded trucks for the final leg of their journey, arriving back on Norwegian soil after having spent over 4 years in exile on November 10. The Soviet commander, Lieutenant General Sherbakov, made it clear that he wanted the Norwegian Bergkompani to take over the forward positions as soon as possible. Volunteers from the local population were hastily formed into "guard companies" armed with Soviet weapons pending the arrival of more troops from either Sweden or Britain. The first convoy arrived from Britain on December 7 and included two Norwegian corvettes (one of which was later damaged by a mine) and 3 minesweepers.

It soon became obvious that reconnaissance patrols needed to be sent out to discover what the Germans were up to and to find out if the local population to the West had been evacuated or were still there. The reports came back stating that the Germans were in the process of pulling back from Porsangermarker but were laying mines and booby-traps along the way, a few people were left here and there and many of the buildings were burnt down.

This remained the situation as 1944 slipped into 1945. The new year would see the Norwegian forces slowly taking back a battered Finnmark, helping the local population in the bitter arctic winter and dealing with occasional German raids from the air, sea and land as well as the ever present danger from mines. Reinforcements arrived from the Norwegian Rikspoliti based in Sweden as well as convoys from Britain. A total of 1,442 people and 1,225 tons of material were flown in by Dakota from Kallaxmarker in Sweden to Finnmark and by April the Norwegian forces stood at over 3,000 men. On April 26 the Norwegian command sent out a message that Finnmark was free. When the Germans finally capitulated on May 8, 1945 the 1st company of the Varanger battalion was positioned along the Finnmarkmarker-Troms border to the west of Altamarker.

German capitulation and end of occupation

Towards the end of the war, in March 1945, Norwegian Reichskommissar Josef Terboven had considered plans to make Norway the last bastion of the Third Reich and a last sanctum for German leaders. However, following Adolf Hitler's suicide on April 30, Hitler's successor Admiral Karl Dönitz summoned Terboven and General Franz Böhme, Commander-in-Chief of German forces in Norway, to a meeting in Flensburgmarker, where they were ordered to follow the General headquarters' instructions. On his return to Norway, General Böhme issued a secret directive to his commanders in which he ordered "unconditional military obedience" and "iron discipline".

On May 5, the day that German forces in Denmark surrendered, General Eisenhower dispatched a telegram to resistance headquarters in Norway, which was passed on to General Böhme; it contained information on how to make contact with Allied General Headquarters.

Dönitz dismissed Terboven from his post as Reichskommissar on May 7, transferring his powers to General Böhme. At 21:10 on the same day, the German High Command ordered Böhme to follow the capitulation plans, and he made a radio broadcast at 22:00 in which he declared that German forces in Norway would obey orders. This led to an immediate and full mobilisation of the underground resistance movement known as Milorg – more than 40,000 armed Norwegians were summoned to occupy the Royal Palacemarker, Oslo's main police station, as well as other public buildings. A preplanned Norwegian administration was set up overnight.

Norwegian Royal family waving at the crowds in Oslo upon returning from exile.
The following afternoon, on May 8, an Allied military mission arrived in Oslo which delivered the conditions for capitulation to the Germans, and arranged the surrender, which took effect at midnight. The conditions included the German High Command agreeing to arrest and intern all German and Norwegian Nazi party members listed by the Allies, disarm and intern all SS troops, and send all German forces to designated areas. At this time there were no fewer than 400,000 German troops in Norway, which had a population of barely three million.

Following the surrender, detachments of regular Norwegian and Allied troops were sent to Norway, which included 13,000 Norwegian troops trained in Sweden and 30,000 British and American troops. Official representatives of the Norwegian civil authorities followed soon after these military forces, with Crown Prince Olav arriving in Oslo on a British cruiser on May 14, with a 21-man delegation of Norwegian government officials headed up by Sverre Støstad and Paul Hartmann, with the remainder of the Norwegian government and the London-based administration following on the troopship Andes. Finally, on June 7, which also happened to be the 40th anniversary of the dissolution of Norway's union with Sweden, king Haakon VII and the remaining members of the royal family arrived in Oslo. General Sir Andrew Thorne, Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces in Norway, transferred power to King Haakon that same day.

Following the liberation, the Norwegian government-in-exile was replaced by a coalition led by Einar Gerhardsen which governed until the autumn of 1945 when the first postwar general election was held, returning Gerhardsen as prime minister, at the head of a Labour Party government.

Norwegian survivors began to emerge from the German concentration camps. By the end of the war 92,000 Norwegians were abroad, 46,000 of whom were in Sweden. In addition to the German occupiers, there were 141,000 foreign nationals in Norway, most of them prisoners of war. Of these, 84,000 were Russians.

During the course of the war the Germans had commandeered 40% of Norway's GDP. In addition to this came the ravages of the war itself. In Finnmark these were considerably important, as large areas were destroyed as a result of the "scorched earth" policy the Germans pursued during their retreat. Other towns and settlements were destroyed by bombing or deliberate burning.

A total of 10,262 Norwegians lost their lives either during the war or while they were imprisoned. Approximately 50,000 Norwegians were arrested by the Germans during the occupation. Of these, 9,000 were consigned to prison camps outside Norway including Stutthof concentration campmarker.


Lebensborn and war children

During the five-year occupation several thousand Norwegian women had children fathered by German soldiers in the Lebensborn program. The mothers were ostracized and humiliated after the war both by Norwegian officialdom and the civilian population, and were called names such as tyskertøser (literally "whores of [the] Germans"). The children of these unions received names like tyskerunger (children of Germans) or worse yet naziyngel (Nazi spawn). The debate on the past treatment of these krigsbarn (war children) started with a television series in 1981, but only recently have the offspring of these unions begun to identify themselves.


Throughout the war years a number of Norwegians fled the Nazi regime, mostly across the border to Swedenmarker. These included Norwegian Jews, political activists, and others who had reason to fear for their lives. The Nazis set up border patrols to stop these flights across the very long border, but locals who knew the woods found ways to bypass them. These "border pilots", and people who hid refugees in their homes, were among those in the resistance movement who took the greatest risks.

Swedish authorities accepted the refugees and ensured their safety once they had crossed the border, but did little to facilitate their escape. Refugees were often confined to camps where only their basic needs were met. About 50,000 Norwegians fled to Sweden during the war.

In addition to the Jews, members of the resistance movement and other people who had more acute reason to fear for their lives, a great many refugees were men of military age wishing to join the Norwegian armed forces abroad. Before the German invasion of Russia a number of them managed to make their way out of Sweden and travel over Russian territory to England, often via India, South Africa or Canada. After Operation Barbarossa the overland route over Russian soil was closed.

The rest of the refugees were effectively locked up in Sweden for the duration, except for a small number of officers, pilots or other specialists managing to obtain priority on the occasional plane leaving Sweden for England.

In the last two years of the war the Norwegian government in exile in London obtained permission and cooperation from the Swedish authorities to raise military formations on Swedish territory in the form of the so called "Police troops" recruited from Norwegian refugees. The term "Police" being a cover-up for what in reality was pure military training. These formations, numbering 12,000 men organised into battalions and with their own pioneers, signals and artillery by VE-day, were equipped with Swedish weapons and equipment and trained by Norwegian and Swedish officers.

A number of the "Police troops" were employed in the liberation of Finnmarkmarker in the winter of 1944/45 after the area had been evacuated by the Germans. The rest participated in liberation of the rest of Norway after the German surrender in May 1945.

Treason trials

Even before the war ended there was debate among Norwegians about the fate of traitors and collaborators. A few favoured a "night of long knives" with extrajudicial killings of known offenders. However, cooler minds prevailed, and much effort was put into assuring due process trials of accused traitors. In the end, 37 people were executed by Norwegian authorities, 25 Norwegians on the grounds of treason, and 12 Germans on the grounds of crimes against humanity. 28,750 were arrested, though most were released for lack of probable cause. In the end, 20,000 Norwegians and a smaller number of Germans were given prison sentences. Seventy-seven Norwegians and 18 Germans received life sentences. A number of people were sentenced to pay heavy fines.

The trials have been subject to some criticism in later years. It has been pointed out that sentences became more lenient with the passage of time, and that many of the charges were based on the unconstitutional and illegal retroactive application of laws.

German prisoners of war

After the war the Norwegian government forced German prisoners of war to clear minefields. When the clearing ended in September 1946, 392 of them had been injured and 275 had been killed, meanwhile only two Norwegians and four British mine-clearers had sustained any injuries. Many of the Germans were killed through their Britishmarker guards' habit of chasing them criss-cross over a cleared field to ensure that no mines remained. The Norwegians' claim that the German prisoners were Disarmed Enemy Forces circumvented the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, which forbids the use of prisoners of war for harmful or dangerous labour.

Legacy of the occupation

The occupation had a profound effect on the population's collective psyche. It instilled in many Norwegians an enduring fear of scarcity, which led to a widespread habit of frugality, especially with food. It also educated a generation of Norwegians on proper nutrition.

The adversity strengthened and further defined the Norwegian national identity. The history of the resistance movement may have been glorified excessively, but it has also provided Norwegian military and political leaders with durable role models. The shared hardship of the war years also set the stage for social welfare policies of the post-war Norwegian Labour Party governments. It also led to the abandonment of Norway's neutrality policy, formalized when Norway became a founding member of NATOmarker. Finally, it led to a broad political and popular commitment to maintain armed forces large enough to realistically defend the country against any likely threat, as well as to keep those armed forces under firm civilian control.

One can also see some psychological impact on the political decisions made by the Labour government in the following years. Almost the entire cabinet had been prisoners of war, or had been fighting in the resistance. This experience may have been formative for the actual policy.

See also


  1. See books by E.A. Steen, Gudrun Ræder, Johan O. Egeland
  2. Cf. French Prime Minister Paul Reynaud's memoirs In the Thick of the Fight (1955) and The Secret Papers of the French General Staff (1940)
  3. World War II. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 18, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  4. Prete, Roy Arnold and A. Hamish Ion. (1984). Armies of Occupation. Wilfred Laurier University Press, Google Print, p. 145
  5. Karl M. Haugan Politimannen som ble "buret inn bak piggtråd
  6. 14.000 «tyskertøser» internert etter krigen (14 000 "Whores of Germans" held in custody after the war) Dagbladet (but NTB story), October 18, 1998
  7. LOV 1814-05-17 nr 00: Kongeriget Norges Grundlov, given i Rigsforsamlingen paa Eidsvold den 17de Mai 1814
  8. VG 08.04.2006 Tyske soldater brukt som mineryddere.
  9. Tvang tyskere til å løpe over minefelt VG video sequence from documentary. VG 08.04.2006

Further reading

  • Tamelander, Michael and Zetterling, Niklas. (2004) "Den nionde April: Nazitysklands invasion av Norge 1940". Historiska Media. ISBN 91-85057-95-9
  • Stortinget. (1946) Instilling av Undersøkelseskommisjonen av 1945
  • Södermann, Harry. (1946) "Polititroppene i Sverige". Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo 1946.
  • Hobson,Rolf & Kristiansen, Tom. (2001) Norsk forsvarshistorie, bind 3 (1905–1940), Bergen 2001.

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